Skip to main content

Full text of "Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book lhal w;ls preserved for general ions on library shelves before il was carefully scanned by Google as pari of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

Il has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one thai was never subject 

to copy right or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often dillicull lo discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher lo a library and linally lo you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud lo partner with libraries lo digili/e public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order lo keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial panics, including placing Icchnical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make n on -commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request thai you use these files for 
personal, non -commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort lo Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each lile is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use. remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 

countries. Whether a book is slill in copyright varies from country lo country, and we can'l offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through I lie lull lexl of 1 1 us book on I lie web 
al |_-.:. :.-.-:: / / books . qooqle . com/| 


- IkJ . jjsj . 


*^'h . 






PART I. (History, Antiquities, &c.) 

(Nog. I to IV.— 1882 : with 16 Plates.) 







The Philological jSecretar^ ix * j 

** It will flourish, if naturalists, chemists, antiquaries, philologers, and men of science 
in different parts of Asia, will commit their observations to writing, and send them to 
the Asiatic Society at Calcutta. It will languish, if such communications shall be long 
intermitted ; and it will die away, if they shall entirely cease." Sie Wm. Jones. 




tor 1882. 

No. I. Page 

Contributions on the Religion, History, Ac., of Tibet. — By Babu 
Sarat Chandra Dis, Deputy Inspector of Schools, Darjiling, — 

IV. — Rise and Progress of Buddhism in Tibet 1 

V. — The Lives of the Panchhen — RinPochhes, or Taii 

Lamas, (with 14 Plates) 15 

Parti. The Indian Incarnations, 15 

Part II. The six Tibetian Incarnations, 18 

VI. — Life and Legend of Tson Ehapa (Lo-ssan-Tagpa), 

the great Buddhist Reformer of Tibet, 53 

VII. — Rise and Progress of Buddhism in Mongolia (Hor). 58 
Memoir of the author of Tabaqat-i-Nagiri. — By Major G. H. 

Ratertt, Bombay Army (retired), # 76 

No. II. 

Contributions on the Religion, History, Ac., of Tibet. — By Babtt 
Sabat Chandra Dls, Deputy Inspector of Schools, Darjiling — 

VIII. — Rise and Progress of Jin or Buddhism in China, ... 87 
IX. — Ancient China, its Sacred Literature, Philosophy and 

Religion as known to the Tibetans, 99 

X. — Life and Legend of Nagarjuna, 115 

XI. — Detached Notices of the different Buddhist Schools 

of Tibet 121 

Manbodh's Haribans. — By G. A. Gbierson, C. S. Part I. Text. 129 

Nos. Ill & IV. 
Some Hindu Folksongs from the Panjab. — By Lieut. R. C. Tem- 

PIiE, 13. O. O., J? • Jew* \7. o., JM.. X*. A. o., .• ....••..•••••.. 151 

Notes on some earthen Pots found in the alluvium at Mahesvara 
(Mahesar).— By P. N. Bose, B. S. C, F. G. S., Geological 
Survey of India. (With two Plates), 226 



fob 1882. 

PI. I — XI I la, (pp. 15^!). Pictures of Ta& Lamas. 

PL XIV, XV, (pp. 22^\). Earthen Pots found at Muhesar. 




Past I, fob 1882. 


Saint, p. 16. 


_UHARf Language, p. 129. 

Bon or Pon Religion, of China, p. 112. 

Bose, P. N., Note on some earthen pots 

found in the alluvium at Mahesar, 

p. '226. 
Buddhism compared with Confucianism, 

p. 109. 

Rise and Progress of, in Ti- 

bet, p. 1. 

ditto, in Mongolia, pp. 68, 66. 
ditto, in China, p. 87. 


HINA, Bon or Pon Religion of, p. 112. 
— — Muhammadanism in, p 114. 

Ho-n-se or Hoi Hoi Religion 

in, p. 114. 

Rise and Progress of Buddhism 

in, p. 87. 

religions sects, prior to Bud- 
dhism, pp. 87, 88. 

— — Hinayina School in, p. 92. 
* Tantrikism in, p. 98. 

■ Yaipulya Darsana in, p. 94. 
■ Mahayana School in, p. 94. 
— — — 8*unyat6 Philosophy in, p. 96. 

Sarirtha Vadi 8chool in, p. 99. 

- Literature, Philosophy, Reli- 
gion of ancient, p. 99. 

■ Medical works of, p. 105. 
Music of, p. 105. 

Confucian philosophy, pp. 100, 105, 109. 


_ 'ALAX LAMA, p. 81. 

Das. Babu 8. C, Contribution to the Reli- 
gion, History, &c. of Tibet, pp. 1, 16, 
63, 87, 99, 115, 121 

OLKSONGS from the Panjab, p. 151. 

Dub-thab S'elkyi Melon, a Tibetan work, 
text and translation of, pp. 68, 66. 


(j EDTTNDTJB, a Grand Lama of Tibet, 

p. 24. 
Gelug-pa or Reformed Buddhism in Tibet 

pp. 5, 125, 127. 

ditto, in Mongolia, p. 69. 

Genealogy of the Mongolian Monarch*, 

p. 73. 
Grierson, G. A., Manbodh's Haribans, 

Text, p. 129. 
Gyalwa Ton-Dub, a Tasi Lama, p. 23. 


. ARIB ANS, a poem of Manbodh, Text, 
p. 129. * 

Hinayana School in China, p. 92, in India, 

p. 115. 
Hoi Hoi, see Ho-u-ae. 
Hor, see Mongolia. 
Ho-u-se or Hoi Hoi Religion in China. 

p. 114. ^^ 


NDIAN Buddhists in Tibet, p. 2, 8> 4, 
7, 9, 29, 53. ■»*.«*. 

IN, see Buddhism. 


IVANGRA, folksongs from, p. 151. 
Kha-dub-Geleg-pal-ssan, a Tasi Lama, 
p. 21. 

Khug-pa-Lhas-tei, a Tasi Lama, p. 18. 


AM A, classes o£ in Tibet, pp. n 14 
— — lives of the Tasi Lamas, p. 15.' 
— Dalai Lama, p. 31. 



Legdan Jyad, a Buddhist Saint, p. 16. 
Life, of Tas*i Lamas, p. 15. 

of Tson Khapa, p. 63. 

of Nagarjuna, p. 115. 

Literature, of ancient China, p. 99. 
Lochavas or Tibetan Pandits, pp. 1, 6, 6, 

12, 18, 65. 
Lossan-Chho-kyi Gyal-Tshan, a Tafi 

Lama, p. 25. 
Lossafi Ye-ie-pal-ssaft-po, a TaSi Lama, 

p. 27. 
Lossan Paldan-Ye-fe, a Taii Lama, p 29. 

— — — — — — — his journey to Pekin, 

p. 48. 
Lo-ssan-Tagpa, see Tson Khapa. 

Ma HAY AN A 8chool in China, p. 94, 
in India, p 118. 

Maheaar, note on some earthen pots found 
at, p. 226. 

MahesVara, see Mahesar. 

Maithili dialect, p. 129. 

Manbodh, Text of Harihans of, p. 129. 

Manjusri Kirti, a Buddhist saint, pp. 15, 

Monastery, of Tafi Lhunpo, pp 24, 43. 

— of Nalendra, in Magadha, 

p. 115. 

Mongolia, Rise and Progress of Buddhism 
in, pp. 58, 66. 

-, genealogy of Monarchs of, p.73. 

Muhammadanism, in China, Tibetan ac- 
count of, p. 114. 


AG ARJUNA, aBuddhist Saint, pp. 64, 


Nalendra, Monastery of, p. 115. 
fiinmapa or ancient Buddhist School of 

Tibet, p. 6. 

PaNDITS, Indian, in Tibet pp. 2, 8, 4, 

7, 9, 63. 
Panchhen-Rinpochhe, see Taii Lama. 
Panjab, Hindu Folksongs from, p. 151. 
Philosophy, Confucian of China, pp. 100, 

i Sfanyati, in China, p. 96. 

, of ancient China, p. 99. 
-, ethical of China, p. 100. 


A VERT Y, Major G. H , memoir of the 
author of the Tabaqit-i-Nisirf, p. 76. 
Religion, of Tibet, pp. 1, 15, 53, 87. 
', of ancient China, p. 99. 
-, Bon or Pon, of China, p. 112. 

p. 114. 

-, Ho-u-se or Hoi Hoi, in China, 


AKYA PAN PIT A, a Taii Lama, pp. 

19, 66, 67. 
Sarartha Vadi School in China, p. 99. 
School, Sarartha Vadi, in China, p. 99. 

, Gelug-pa, p. 127. 

, Buddhist Dogmatic of Tibet pp. 5, 

fiinmapa or ancient, of Tibet, p.6. 
Hinayana, in China, p. 92, in In- 
dia, 118. 

, Mahayana, in China, p. 94, in In- 


dia, 118. 
Shehu, see Confucian philosophy. 
Sonam-chho Kyi-Lanpo, a Taii Lama, 

p. 22. 
Subhuti, the Buddhist Sthavira, p. 15. 
S'unyata Philosophy, spread of, in China, 

p. 96. 


ABAQ£T-I-NA§IRr, memoir of au- 
" thor of; p. 76. 
Tantrikism in China, p. 93. 
Tafi Lamas, Lives of, in Tibet, pp. 16, 1 8. 
TaSi- Lhunpo, Monastery, in Tibet, pp. 24, 

Temple, Lt. R. C, some Hindu Folksongs 

from the Panjab, p. 151. 
Tibet, classes of Lamas of, pp. 11, 14. 
, lives of Taii Lamas of, p. 15. 
, monastery of Taii Lhunpo, p. 24. 
, Tson Khapa, Reformer of. p. 53. 
^— Rise and Progress of Buddhism in, 

p. 1. 
■ Buddhist Dogmatic Schools o£ 

p. 5, 121. 

fii&mapa, or Ancient Buddhist 

School of, p. 6. 

Terma works of, pp. 18, 124. 

Pon, see Bon. 

Pots, earthen, found at Mahesar, p. 226. 

Tson Khapa, life and legendof, pp. 63, 124. 
V A1PULYA DARS'ANA,in China,p.94. 
I UN.TON-DORJE, a Tali Lama, p. 20. 




^ Xi/seo^ 


Part I.— HISTORY, LITERAT$$t£, Ac/-}^ 

/ REP82 
No. I.— 1882. ^ \<,, 

Contributions on the Religion, History Sfc. of Tibet — - 

Chandra Dis, Deputy Inspector of Schools, Darjiling. 

(Continued from Vol. L, p. 251.) 



Hail to that all-yielding gem, the prince of power, the holy religion of 
Buddha that came from the precious country of Xry4varta ! By the kind- 
ness and generous acts of pious princes, learned Pandits and Lochavas, 8 
it was brought to this snow-girt country .of Tibet. Let its brightness 
enlighten all hearts and the copious shower of its blessings and usefulness 
ever excite wonder ! Be it adored, being placed on the top of the banner of 

faith ! 

The Buddhism of Tibet is divided into two main periods : 

1. fta-dar or Earlier Buddhism. 

2. Chhyi-dar or Later Buddhism. 

1. Eaelieb Buddhism. 

During the reigns of twenty six generations of kings, counted from S*afc- 

thi-tsanpo the first of the Tibetan kings to Namri-sron-tsan, Buddhism 

was unknown in Tibet. During the reign of Lha-tho-thori-nan-shal, who 

was well known as an incarnation of Samanta Bhadra, there fell on the top of 

1 A literal translation of the 1st part of the 2nd book of Dub-thafr felkyi 

Metofi. See Vol. L, p. 187, note 1. 

» Tibetan scholars who were versed in the Sanskrit language were called 

Loehhaya or Lochava. 

2 Sarat Chandra Das — Contributions on Tibet. [No. 1, 

the king's palace, from heaven, several volumes called Pan-Kon- 
Chhyag-gya. 8 The meanings of their contents heing unknown, they were 
adored under the name of " Nan-po-eafi-wa." This was the nucleus 
of Buddhism in Tibet. The king learned in a vision that their contents 
should be known in the fifth generation. Accordingly, during the reigu 
of Sron-tsan-gampo 4 the reputed incarnation of Chenressig, 6 the minister 
Thon-mi-Sambhota visited India to study the various sciences and Bud- 
dhism. He became well versed in the classical sciences of the Indians. After 
his return to Tibet, he framed the Wuchan, 6 or "characters provided with 
heads," of the Tibetans after the model of the Nagari, and the Wume 7 
characters after the WurtuP letters, and thereby founded the alphabetic system 
of the Tibetans. Sron-tsan-gampo brought the image of Akshobbya 9 from 
Nepal and that of S'akya Muni from China, which were the first Buddhist 
images in Tibet. In order to accommodate these upholders of Tibet, he 
erected the great Temple called Rasa-thul-nan-kitsug-lakhan. 10 He engaged 
Thon-mi Sambho^a and his colleagues to translate Sanskrit Buddhist 
works into Tibetan, writing them in the newly formed alphabet. Sangye- 
phalpo-chhe 11 and other books were the first translations which formed 
the germ of Tibetan Buddhism. 

During the reign of Thi-srofi-de-tsan 1 * who was celebrated as an 
emanation of Manju-Ghosha, 13 the great sage S'anta Rakshita and Pandit 
Padma Sambhava and several other Indian Buddhists and philosophers were 
invited to Tibet. 1 * Among the first seven monks, Vairochana 15 was the chief. 
Originating from them, the ancient Tibetan Clergy of the "orange raiment" 
began to multiply. Then, there sprung up a host of Lochavas — those versed in 
two or more languages — among whom were Lui-wanpo, 16 Sagor Vairochana, 17 

* <7Pan-«k6n-phyag ftrgya. 
4 Sron-ttsan-tGam'po. 

* That is, the Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara. 

6 Also called Go-chan (dTVu-chan) or characters provided with mdtras or heads. 

7 Written dYu-mkd and pronounced as Wume, a kind of letters which have no 
mdtras or heads. 

8 Wartu is probably the Janguage of the people of Kafirifitan and Bactria, 

9 One of the Panchajati Buddhaa. 

10 Rasa-Aphrul-man-gv^tsug-lag-khaft. From that date his capital was founded 
by the name Lhasa or the " land of God." Sanskrit Kutigara is the same as Tibetan 
Tsug-la-khan. See Vol. L, p. 221, note 33. 

11 Sans-rgya«-phalpo-chhe. 

12 Khri-sron-/de-6tsan. 

M The God of Learning and Wisdom. 

14 Under them the first Tibetan Clergy was formed* 

u Also written Vairotsana. 

18 6Khon-£lu l?i-<fVan-po. 

17 Sa-gor-Vairo-tsana. 

1882.] Sarat Chandra Tib*— Contributions on Tibet. 3 

Rinchhen-chhog, 18 Yeie Wanpo, 19 Eachog • shaft, 80 Ac., who translated the 
Sutras, Tantras and meditative sciences from Sanskrit into the Tibetan 
language. S'anta Raksbita undertook the charge of explaining to his 
pupils the sacred literature, from the Dulva ( Vinaya) to the Madhyamika 
philosophy. Padma Sambhava and his colleagues taught the Tantras to a few 
intelligent pupils, which enabled a few pious persons to obtain sainthood* 
Then a Chinese sage named Hwashan-Mahayana came to Tibet to 
preach a strange form of sophistry. He held that the pursuit of evil 
as well as of good binds men equally to a course of recurring existence, 
and therefore affords no means of emancipation. In illustration of this 
theory he observed — " your condition remains all the same whether you are 
bound by an iron or a golden chain ; you are not liberated*': Wherefore if 
the mind can be purged of all thoughts, deliverance from recurring existence 
is secured. The doctrine which he thus promulgated was accepted by all 
Tibet ; and for a time the Da r San a and doctrines of the former Indian 
Pandits such as S'&nta Rakshita were displaced. For he vanquished all in 
disputation by his powerful logic. The followers of S'&nta Rakshita and 
other Indian philosophers diminished in number. In order to refute the 
philosophy of HwashaA, king Thi-srofi-de-tsan invited Kamalasila, one 
of the most learned Indian sages of that age. H wash an was defeated in 
disputation, and his fallacies were exposed by Kamalasila who wrote three 
series of books on meditative science and thus re-established the Indian 
school, its ritual and philosophy. 

During the reign of Ralpachan, Pandit Jina ^Mitra and many other 
learned sages were invited, who, having translated many Buddhist works 
into the vernacular language, arranged them so as to be accessible to the 
general reader. Both S'anta Rakshita, and Kamala S'fla belonged to the 
Svatantra-m&dhyamika school. Thi-sron-de-tsan who was a devout 
follower of S'anta Rakshita, prohibited his subjects by royal proclamation 
from following Hwashan's theories under penalty of death. He command- 
ed all to follow the Madhyamika school. Although certain Indian Pandits 
of the Yogacharya school had visited Tibet, yet they failed to displace the 
anciently propagated Svatantra school, which prevailed in Tibet till the 
accession of Landarma to the monarchy of Tibet, when the last vestige of 
Buddhism disappeared from Tibet. The Buddhists of the earlier period 
or fta-dar followed S'anta Rakshita and Kamala S'ila, i. e. 9 the Madhya- 
mika Svatantra. 

2. Lateb Buddhism. 

At the time when Landarma was actively prosecuting the destruction 
of Buddhism in Tibet, three saintly recluses from Pal-chhen-chhu-vo-ri 

w Xcharya Rin-chhen-mChhog. 19 Yefo-rfVafi-po. M Ka-Chog-shaft. 

4 Sarat Chandra Das — Contributions on Tibet. [No. 1, 


fled towards the Amdo country, where they became pupils of the abbot 
Lama Gon-pa-rab-sal. 21 They were followed by ten other Tibetans headed 
by Lume-tshul-tbim who took the vows of monkhood and were admitted 
as pupils of the same High priest. After the death of Landarma, they all 
returned to Tibet to their respective monasteries and estates, and increased • 
the number of monks. Thus from the country of Amdo the dying flame 
of Buddhism was rekindled. Henceforth, Buddhism commenced to spread 
again, and all quarters of U' and Tsan were refilled with many classes of 
congregated Lamas, who actively engaged in the teaching of Buddhism. For 
this result the inhabitants of the snowy country (Himavat) are indebted 
to the two Amdo Lamas G6n-pa-rab-sal and Lume-tshul-thim. During 
the reign of Lha-Lama, YesVhod the celebrated Lochava- Kinehhen-Ssaiipo 
visited India to study the sacred literature and philosophy of the Indian 
Buddhists. After acquiring great proficiency in those subjects he returned 
to Tibet and translated many Sutra and Tantra works. He thus established 
himself as a great teacher of Buddhism. 

(Revival of Buddhism by the Lamas of upper Tibet and Ladak called 


A goatherd named Kargyal, under inspiration from a certain Naga 
of the same name, preached a strange religion (a form of Bonism) which 
was inimical to Buddhism. Rinchhen Ssanpo overcame him, and also 
suppressed some of the Tantriks who were in the habit of abusing the 
T&ntrik ritual by committing obscenities under the garb of religion. 
Thus by purifying the sacred religion, he gained the sincere love and 
confidence of the dwellers on the snowy mountains. Lochava Shon-nu-pal 
of Go* remarked that it was owing to the exertions of this great scholar 
that pure Tantrikism became more diffused in the later than in the earlier 
period. Towards the end of his life he betook himself to asceticism and, 
having attained to saintliness, he entered the abodes of the gods. This 
great Lochava belonged to the Prasanga Madhyamika school. 

The same prince Lha-Lama invited Pandit Dharma Pala with three 
of his principal disciples named Siddhapala, Gunapala, and Prajna Pala, 
from the eastern quarter of India. From these, Gyal-wai«8*erab of Shan 
Shun took the vows of monkhood and afterwards went to Palpa in Nepal 
to learn Vinaya and philosophy from the Hinayana sage named Pretaka. 
His spiritual descendants, named Paljor-£erab Chyan-chhub-senge Ac., were 
known by the name of ToJ-dulva or the up-country followers of the Vinaya. 

During the reign of king Lbade the illustrious Kashmirian Pandit 
S'akya S'ri was invited, who by translating many of the Sutras and 
S'astras greatly promoted the diffusion of Buddhism. The ritual vow intro- 


1882.] Sarat Chandra T>is— Contributions on Tibet. 5 

duced by him was called Panchhen Domgyun. In the same manner 
that introduced by Lachhen of Amdo was called Lachhen Domgyun. 
By persecution the enemies of Buddhism had only succeeded in putting 
down the external observances and ritual of the clergy, while the real 
Dharma and moral discipline continued to be secretly practised under adverse 
circumstances. The basis of Buddha Dharma being Vinaya or moral dis- 
cipline, the system of Dom-gyun is only necessary as an external observance. 

3. Growth of yabiotts dogmatic Schools. 

Thus by the mercy of the victor (Jina) and his spiritual sons (Bodhi- 
satvas), by the kindness of Dharma Rajas and PancYitas and Lochavas, and by 
the moral merits of the people in the Himavat country, the Buddhist religion 
progressed more and more, so as to branch out into numerous different sects as 
the result of its extraordinary growth. These, like the eighteen divisions of the 
Vaibhashika school of ancient India, were designated after the names of their 
respective teachers and places* of origin. Some of the Tibetan Lamas 
who had derived their religious knowledge from Indian Pandits, feeling great 
veneration for the theories themselves, named their respective sects after them. 
They did not follow the Indian patriarchs in their nomenclature, for all 
the Indian Buddhist schools were designated after the general sense 
of their philosophies. For instance: the Sakya-pa, Jon an- pa, Shan-pa 
and Digun-pa sects of Tibet were designated after the names of the localities 
where they were taught and originated : the Karmapa and Bulug-pa 
sects, after the names of their respective teachcfrs : the Kahdampa, Ds<5g<- 
chhen-pa, Chhyag-chhen-pa, and Shi-chye-pa sects after their respective 
rituals or external Kriyd, 

All the various Buddhist sects of Tibet are classed under two 

(1) The Ancient school. 

(2) The Gelug-pa or Reformed school. 

The ancient school includes seven sects, viz., Sin -ma- pa, Kah- 
dampa, Kah-gyu-pa, Shi-chye-pa, Sakyapa, Jonanpa and Ni-tshe-pa. 22 

In the ancient school there are two general divisions. The earlier 
Sinma-pa and the later ffinmapa called Sarmapa. It has been 
asserted by Tibetan historians and philosophers that the difference between 
the earlier Sin-mapa and the Sarmapa exists in the Tantras. In the 
Sutras there is no doctrinal difference. In the earlier and later periods 
of Buddhism there were certain dogmatic differences in the Sutras, which 
justified the distinction. All the Tantras that were translated into 
Tibetan prior to Pandit Smriti'e advent, are designated by the name of 

B (1) rflin-ma-pa, (2) bKafc-^danM-pa, (3) $Kab-$rGyud-pa, (4) Shi-byerf-pa, 
(6) 8a-#kya-pa, (6) JonaA-pa, (7) fti-tshe-pa. 

6 Sarat Chandra Das — Contributions on Tibet. [No. 1, 

San-nag Sfinma, 88 and those that were translated by Rinchhen-Ssan-po 
and other later writers are known by the name of San-nag-Sarma. 34 
But although this distinction of ftinma and Sarma Tantras is recog- 
nized by many authors, yet there exist some irregularities in the appli- 
cation of the terms. For instance the Manjusri-mtila Tantras which 
were translated during the reign of king Thi-sron are also accepted aa 
Sarma Tantras. In the face of such irregularities Rinchhen Ssanpo has 
been universally admitted as the founder of the Sarma Tantras. Dogmi 
Go* and Marpa Lochava are credited as Sarma teachers. The first revival 
of Buddhism after the death of Landarma, known as the Later period, 
commenced with Loton-dorje Wafi chhyug when Thi-Tashi-tseg-pa, son 
of Pal-khor-tsan, ruled the kingdom of Rulag. His three sons Pal-de, 
Hod-de, and Kyi-de requested Loton to send two learned Lamas who 
could revive the Buddhist religion in Tibet. Accordingly S'akya Shon-nu 
and Yese-t6ondu were sent, who re-established the clerical congregation 
in Tibet. Again that great sage, in consultation with those princes, sent 
Dogmi and Tag- Lochava to India to study Dulva, S'er-cbbyin 25 and 
Tantras which are respectively the basis, essence and pith of Buddhism. 
Tag Lochava, having devoted his time chiefly to pilgrimage, failed to be- 
come a learned teacher, but Dogmi succeeded in his mission and became 
a great scholar of Buddhism. He introduced the system of Tantras called 
Matri Tantras and thereby diffused the teaching of Buddhism. Lochava 
llinchhen-Ssanpo elucidated Prajna, Parana ita, Matri and Pitri Tantras 
and above all made the Yoga Tantras accessible to the Tibetans. 
Go* had introduced the Sam a j a Guhya and spread the system of Nagarjuna. 
The great Tantrik sage Marpa taught the Guhya Samaja according to 
Pitri Tantras, the ritual of M ah am a j a according to Matri Tantras, 
the ritual of Yajraharsha and Sambhara. By imparting instructions 
in several kinds of mysticism, he filled Tibet with learned men. These 
great Lochavas having charged themselves with these works, Tantrik 
Buddhism opened a new era in the religious history of Tibet, known as 
the Sarma system of the later period or Sarmatanpa or Gyu, the same as 
Navya Tantra. 


Rise and Progress of $i£mapa School. 

In the beginning king Sron-tsan-gampo, himself a professor of Bud- 
dhism, taught his people the series of scriptures known as " Kyerim" 
and " Dsog-rim" delivered by Chenressig. All Tibet paid homage and 
prayed to that merciful Bodhisatva for protection. Sron-tsan, in whom 
was an emanation of Chenressig's spirit, first taught the six mystic sylla- 

n ^San-*Sag-rNin-ma. u ^Safi-t&ag-iSarma. ** Prajf&paramiti. 

1882.] Sarat Chandra Dae — Contributions on Tibet. 7 

bles, " Oin-manf-padme-hum,," and their significations and recital. He in- 
vited the Indian teacher Kusara, S'ankara Brahmana, the Nepalese Pandit 
S'ilamanju and others who, having translated many Tantras, first taught 
the Tibetans the first principles of Buddhism. The accounts of the first 
introduction of Buddhism and a few Tan trie works were discovered within 
a stone" pillar called Ka-khol-ma, in which Sron-tsan-gampo had hid them 
for the use and benefit of posterity. 

In the fifth generation from Sron-tsan the illustrious king Thi-sron 
invited the great Indian Pandit S'anta Bakshita who introduced the 
observance of the " ten virtues" 28 and Dharma which teaches the real state of 
the eighteen physical and corporal regions with the eight prohibitions* 7 such 
at killing, the taking of what is not given, the commission of foul actions, 
lying, drinking, dancing and singing, and sitting on lofty seats. When 
the mighty local gods and genii 38 who delight in sin found that men 
nere prone to virtue, they became enraged, and one of the most wrathful 
among them named Sen 29 - ch hen- than hurled a thunderbolt on the 
Marpori 80 hill. Another frightful demi-god named Yar-lha-shanpo cast 
down the palace of Phan-than of Yarlun. The twelve female spirits called 
* Tanma" spread plagues and murrain all over the country. Under such 
circumstances thinking it urgently necessary, first of all to overcome 
these evil spirits and goblins, to ensure the safety of Buddhism, S'&nta 
Bakshita requested the king to invite Padma Sambhava the great T&ntrik 

* (1.) Not to commit murder. 
(2.) „ theft. 

(3.) „ adultery. 

(4.) Not to utter lies. 

(5.) Not to speak evil nor utter abusive language. 

(6. ) Not to talk nonsense. 

(7.) Not to slander. 

(8.) Not to be covetous. 

(9.) Not to think on injury. 

(10.) Not to be averse to truth. 

77 (1.) Dorje-Khadoma. v 

(2.) Dorje-Yama-chon. j Demons. 

(3.) Dorje-Kuntu-Ssan-mo. I 

(4.) Dorje-Kik-je-tsomo. 

(5.) Dorje-Aka netra. * 

(6.) Dorje.Pal.yum. { Yakahinis. 

(7.) Dorje.Luma (Naginf.) I 

(8.) Dorje Dagyalma. ' 

The first four are demons and the last four are Yakshinis. Doije-means Vajra. 
** These were probably the Bon-gods. 
" Bon-Demigod. 
" The Hill on which Potatt now standi. 

8 Sarat Chandra Das— Contributions on Tibet. [No. 1, 

of Uddayana. Accordingly the king sent messengers to India to invite 
that illustrious sage. By his gift of foreknowledge knowing what was requir- 
ed of him, Padma Sambhava had already started for Tibet. The messengers 
met him on the way. He obliged all the evil and wicked genii and 
demons to bind themselves under solemn oaths not to work evil nor stand 
in the way of the pious. Sitting on a cross made of two Dorje, 81 
placed on a clear space, he purified a spot on which he built the great Vihara 
of Ssan-yad Migyur-Lhun-gyi-duhpai-tsugla-khaA or the shrine of the 
unchanging, self -grown working. The king together with twenty six of his 
saintly subjects, by sitting in three kinds of yoga, became possessed of wonder* 
f ul learning and obtained saintly power, perfection, and, finally, emancipation. 

The names and the exploits of: the twenty six Tibetan Buddhists who 
obtained sainthood and worked with the king are the following : 

(1.) Nam-kha-nin-po could mount the rays of the sun. 

(2.) Saiigye-yese could drive iron bolts into hard rooks. 

(3) Gyalwa-chhog-yan, by transforming his head into that of a 
horse, neighed three times. 

(4.) Kharchhen Chhogyal brought the slain to life. 

(5.) Pal-ki-yese turned three sylvan goddesses into his slaves. 

(6 ) Pal-ki-Senge made slaves of demons, nymphs, and genii. 

(7.) Vairochana obtained the five divine eyes of knowledge. 

(8.) ftab-dag-gyalpo obtained Samadhi. 

(9 ) Yu-drun-ffin-po acquired divine discrimination. 
(10.) Jnana-kumara performed miracles. 
(11 ) Dorje-Dun Jem travelled invisibly like the wind. 
(12.) Yese-Sfan went over to the fairy world travelling through the 

void space* 

(13.) Sogpu-Lhapal (a Mongol) could catch ferocious wild beasts. 

(14.) Na-nam-yese could soar in the sky like a bird. 

(15.) Pal-ki-Wan-chhyug could kill his enemies by the flourish of 
bis fists. 

(16.) Den-ma-tse-Wan obtained unfailing memory. 

(17.) Ka-Wa-pal-tseg could tell the hearts of other men. 

(18.) Shu-bu-pal-sefi could make water run upwards. 

(19.) Khe-bu-chhug-lo could catch a flying bird. 

(20.) Gyal-Wai-Lodbi raised the ghost of the dead and turned the 
corpse into solid gold. 

(21.) Tenpai-namkha tamed wild yaks of the northern desert. 

(22.) Hodan-Wan-Chhyug dived in water like fish. 

(23.) Ma-thog rin Chhen could crush adamant into powder and eat 
it as meal. 

« Vajra. 

1882.] Sarat Chandra Das — Contributions on Tibet. S 

(24.) Pal-ki Dorje passed through mountains and rocks. 

(25.) Landod Kon-Chhog could handle thunderbolts and drive them 

(26.) Gyal-Wai-chhan-chhub could sit cross-legged on empty space. 
There also arrived many Indian Pandits among whom Dharma Kirti, 
Vimala-mitra, Buddha Guhya, S'anti Garbha and others were eminent, 
Dharma Kirti introduced the tfantrik ritual of Vajra-dhatu-yoga. Vimala- 
mitra and others taught mysticism based on Buddhist Tantrikism to their 
trusted pupils. They did not teach the principal works on differential 
and atomic philosophy, and metaphysics generally, to any but one or two 
of their favourite pupils. Tantrik principles being very subtle, intricate 
and holy, their diffusion was very limited. 

The translation of some scriptural treatises such as Kun-chye Gyalpo 
Do-goii-du, eight series of Gyu-thul, and Dupaido, Vyakarana and Upadesa 
were executed by Vairochana, Ma-SJan-Nub and other translators 
after Tantrik interpretation. Padma Sambhava concealed many profound 
religious treatises underneath rocks, mountains and beds of lakes, for the 
use of future generations, and afterwards retired towards the south- 
western quarter called $a-yab-lin or the land of genii. - From this it will 
appear that during the reign of Srofi-tsan-gampo the Tantrik Ninmapa made 
only a beginning, but in Thi-sron's time spread widely over the country. 
Padma Sambhava was its greatest teacher, and other teachers were his 
pupils and followers. Numerous biographies of him are extant, all of which 
give different accounts of his life. Though the biography of this great 
teacher is worthy of being treated at large, yet, as numerous historians give 
different accounts of his life, I refrain from writing about him. Some 
of the ancient writers state that he resided but for a few months in 
Tibet, during which time, by the power of his divine knowledge and purity, 
he subdued the demons and evil spirits of Tibet and founded the monas- 
tery of Samye* (Ssan-yaJ 32 ). After the departure of Padma Sambhava 
a certain Brahmana impostor having dressed himself in TTrgyan-Sahormcft 
fashion, came to Tibet to pass for that great teacher and spread the dif- 
ferent divergent fim-mapa theories. This assertion has been rejected 
by many of the best writers of Tibet who suppose it to be simply a fabrica- 
tion to scandalise the Sift-mapa sect. There are others who believe that 

82 This is derived from the Chinese word San-yau meaning the three bodies. 
The top of the monastic temple was constructed in Chinese style, the middle part in 
Indian style, and the lowest part in Tibetan style. This temple, in Tibetan, is 
called Samye* from San-yarf, and is second in Banctity to that of Potala but first in 

33 The fashion of dress anciently in vogue in TJddayana, the tract of country from 
Gazni to Bactria including a portion of Persia. 


10 Sarat Chandra Dss — Contributions on Tibet. [No. 1, 

the ftinma doctrine had its origin in Guru-chho Wan. The kind of 
costume, now known by the name of Urgyan-Sahorma, is said to have been 
introduced by Chho Wan, who discovered some of Pad ma's works and 
flourished at a subsequent date and was a Terton (discoverer of sacred 

There are nine principal divisions of the 5nfi-ma doctrine : — 

(1) Kan-tho (4) Kriya (7) Kyepa Maha-yoga 

(2) Ban-gyal (5) Upa (8) Lun Anu-yoga 

(3) Chyan-sem (6) Yoga (9) Dsog-chhenpo Atiyoga. 
The first three divisions were delivered by the Nirmanakaya-S'akya 

Muni (Buddha S'akya Simha) and are called the general or common ydnas. 
The second three were delivered by Sambhogakaya-Vajra Sattva. 
They are called the external Tan tra-y anas or Bahya tan tra-y anas. 

The last three are attributed to Dharmakaya-samanta Bhadra or 
Kuntu Ssanpo. They are called the " Anuttura" antara-yana-traya (ac- 
cording to the 5Jinmapa school). Kuntu Ssahpo is the great and supreme 
Buddha, while Vajradhara is the Chief Buddha in the Qelugpa school. 
Again Yajra Sattva is second in the Ninma school, and S'akya Siinha, being 
an incarnate Buddha, holds the third place. 

Of the Bahya (external) Tantra S'reni and Antara (internal) Tantra 
S'reni, the external ritual or Kriya tantras were delivered by Buddha S'akya 
Simha himself. The "Upa" or Karma tantra and Yoga tantras were 
delivered by Buddha Vairochana, one of the five Pancha Jati Buddhas. 
The Antara (internal) or Anuttara tantras were delivered by Vajra Dhara 
(Dorje-chhan) from his celestial mansion of " Chho-Jun-Yanpa," the 
spacious mansion of Dharma-dhatu. 

The Anuttara yana was taught by Dharmakaya Samanta Bhadra, 
(Kuntu Ssanpo) in his self -created form of Sambhoga Kay a. When 
seated in one of the purest of Bodhisattva Bhumis at great ease, by his 
omniscience, he taught incessantly in four times, 34 without error and falling 
into fallacy. 

34 Day, month, year and Kalpa. 

(1.) Every Buddha must possess the five Jnanas or divine wisdom called 
(1.) Chhoki-vyiri-ki-yese. 
(2.) Meloft-ta-bui-yese. 
(3.) ftambar-fted-ki-yese. 
(4.) Sosor-togpai-yeSe. 
(6.) Gya-wa-dupai-yele. 
These five Jfianas being in themselves abstractions or vacuity cannot be active 
unless they are impersonated. They are therefore represented by 

(2.) the five Pancha Jati Buddhas or Dhyani Buddhas, named respectively : 
(1.) Akshobhya; (3.) Ratna Sambhava ; (5.) Amogha Siddha. 

(2.) Vairochana; (4.) Amitabha; 


1882.] Sarat Chandra Das— Contributions on Tibet 11 

(" &La-na med-pa-hi theg-pa-ni, ^Dofi-ma-hi-mgonpo chho*-*ku Kun-tu- 
&S§an-po lhun-grub lofis-tfpyad rdjog*-pahi-*kur bs'uaii* pa-sa-dag-sa-la-gnas- 
pa-hi ydul-pya-la rtsol-med lhun-grub tu rgya-chhan-Phyag«-lhun-daii-bral- 
var-dus-bshir-dus-med-du-ston par-byed-chifi.") 

Numberless precepts and instructions, wide enough to bear comparison 
with the sky, were delivered, out of which a few were brought to Jarabu 
dvipa by Gah-rab Dorje, S'ri-Siddha Mana-pura, Vimala, and Padma Sam- 
bhava. These Vidyadharas who had obtained perfection clearly elucidated 
the different theories of Sinma religion. There are nine classes of 
Rin ma Lama s :— 

Gyal-wa-gon 35 are the Buddhas, such as S'akya Simha, Kuntu- 
Ssan-po, Dorje Seinba, Amitabha. 

Rig-dsin 86 are the learned saints that from their infancy cultivated 
their faculties, and grew learned by their own industry and assiduity. 
Afterwards they were inspired by Yese Khahdoma or the fairies of 
learning, 87 Padma Sambhava, S'ri Simha, Manapura, &c. and other Bodhi- 

Gan- sag-nan 88 or the uninspired saints who carefully preserved the 
secrecy of their mysticism. 

Kah-bab-lun-tan 39 are the Lamas who obtained divine inspiration 
according to former predictions in dreams, and therefore did not consult 
any teacher as usual. 

Le-tho-ter 40 are the Lamas who, accidentally discovering some hidden 
scriptural treasures, became learned without any help from teachers or 
anybody else. 

Monlam-tan-gya 4B are the Lamas who by dint of their prayers obtained 
sacred light. 

(3.) The five Dhyani Buddhas being the personifications of the five Manas or 
divine perfections of Buddhahood are ideal personages. They were never born like 
S'akya Muni, as understood by many scholars of Buddhism. 

When it is said that such and such a Lama or Sramana was the incarnation of such 
and such a Buddha, it is meant that he acquired an emanation of a portion of divine 
perfection so personified. Therefore every Buddha is a combination of five Divine per- 
fections or five Dhyani Buddhas ; for instance, the Ta& Lama is an incarnation of 
Amitabha, or the 4th Dhyani Buddha. 

u rGyal-va-rfGon*. 

38 R]g-hdsin-&rdah. 

** These are like the nine Muses of the ancients. 

" Gan-Ssag *$an. 

* AKal?-baba. 

* Las-Akhro-^ter. 

41 iMonlam-^tan rgya. 

12 Sarat Chandra Das — Contributions on Thibet. [No. 1, 

These six are the higher order of Lamas ; besides these, there are three 
which are of a practical nature. They are called Kin or distant order, 
Ke or nearer order, and Ssabmo or deeper order : — 

1. Bin Kahma. 2. Ne-terma. 3. Ssab- mo-dag -nan. 

The Kahma are subdivided into three classes : 

1. Gyu-thul. 2. Dupai-do. 3. Sem chhog. 

Kahma- OyuthuL 

This class spread all over U'-Tsan and Kham, being first founded 
by the Indian Pandit Vimala Mitra, who handed it down to his pupil 
Rin-chhen Chhog. Dophun Lama was one of the chief leaders of this 
sect. One of his pupils carried it to Kham, and another towards Dan-bag 
north of Lhasa and upper Tsan, called Manar, and upper Laddak. Again a 
third pupil of Dophun Lama, named Kah-dampa, erected a monastery on 
a place which was of the shape of the letter *] ka at the foot of the Bom- 
bar mountains on the Di-chhu, the great river of Kham Dirgi, in conse- 
quence of which his followers were called Ka-thogpa Lamas. 


This dogmatic sect has only two true scriptural volumes, Mtila Tan- 
tra or Kundu-rigpai-do, and Vy&khy£-Tantra or Dogonpa Dupa. The 
Indian Pandit Dana-rakshita first taught them to the two Nep&li Pan- 
dits named Dharma Bodhi and Basu-dhara, King Ru-chhe tsan of Brusha 
(Dusha) country translated them into the Dusha vernacular and spread them 
to the country of Thogar, upper Bactria and the Pamir. 

Sem- chhog. 

This sect was taught by Ron-sem-Lochava who was believed to have 
been an incarnation of Pandit Kalacharya of India. He was a profound 
scholar of Buddhism; being eminently versed in all the branches of 
sacred literature, he was unrivalled for learning in his age. There 
are eight ceremonies prescribed to this sect: — Jam pal -ku, Padma-srun, 
Thugma-du-tsi, Yontan, and Phur-pa-thin-le, the five series of cere- 
monies, by which birth in this world can be avoided ; and Mamo-bo- 
tan, Mod-pa-dag-nag and Jig-tan chhod-ten for worldly good, consisting 
purely in propitiating demons. Of the first five ceremonies, those of 
Tam-den and Phurpa were instituted hy Padma Sambhava who induced 
king Thi-sron to invoke the former and his Queen to propitiate the latter. 
Tamden (in Sanskrit Hayagriva) is a Tantrik god of wrathful temper, who 
vanquishes the demons. Phurpa is another deity who has a human head, 
and a body which is of the shape of a pin, standing on its apex. They are 
generally selected by Ninma Lamas as their tutelary deities. 

1882.] Sarat Chandra Das— Contributions on Tibet 13 

The Tantrik ceremony of the worship of Jampal-ku and his attendants 
was instituted by Pandit S'anti-garbha. This is the mystic representa- 
tion of Manju-sri, who here loses all his amiable, benign and wise character, 
and is made to assume a very terrible and hideous shape, with several heads, 
and clasping a woman obscenely in his arms. 

The Tantrik ceremony of Yan-dag was introduced by a Tantrik 
sage named Hunkara, and that of Du-tsi by Vimala Mitra. The propitiat- 
ing of Mamo, Modpa-dag, Jigta-chhonten and other local demons was 
intended by Pad ma Sambhava for the protection of the country, as they 
were bound by a solemn promise to contribute to the service of the world. 42 

The origin op Terma-wobks. 

With a view to preserve the sacred writs that they might not 
be spoiled by water or other agencies, Padma Sambhava and other illus- 
trious sages, for the use and disciplining of future generations, con- 
cealed them under rocks. By their divine power they commended those 
hidden treasures to the care of the vanquished demons who were now made 
guardians of the land and of Dharma, and prayed that they should be dis- 
covered only by the pious and fortunate. They specified the time, name, 
race and signs of the discoverers in the preface of the books concealed, also, 
in mystic characters and language, where and when they might be known, 
on rocks and in other books. Such treasures as were brought to light by 
men thus specified, were called Ter-chho or hidden treasures. There 
are accounts of the discovery of such sacred treasures taking place in 
ancient India. The uninformed only may hold that with the exception 
of the Smma schools no other religious sects possess " hidden treasures ;" 
for many illustrious Lamas of other sects, actuated by the same motives as 
Padma Sambhava, had also hid volumes of their respective creeds. There 
were also instances of many impostors, who composed works with foul 
doctrines, and, to attach importance to them, hid them under hollows of 
rocks and old trees, and after the lapse of a few years, themselves brought 
them out to deceive the unwary and credulous. 

The legendary biography of Padma Sambhava called Than-yig 
is the chief work from which many hints about the hidden religious works 
were drawn out by Safigye-Lama, Da-chan and others which led to many 
valuable discoveries. Similar discoveries were made by other writers, about 

** Formerly in Tibet, as now in Sikkim, people used to kill animals to appease the 
wrath of evil spirits who were supposed to spread plagues and ride men or women. 
They were a terror to the people. Padma Sambhava abolished the system of animal 
sacrifice for which he substituted meal rice and cake sacrifices called Tortna. This is 
the origin of Buddhist worship with flour cakes now so common in the Himalayan 
countries and Tibet. 

14t Sarat Chandra Ihis — Contributions on Tibet. [No. 1, 

whom no mention was made in any of the ancient predictions. The 
greatest number of discoveries were made during the reign of King 
Wande who at one time invited many of the discoverers to one place 
and examined their respective pretensions. The discoverers of hidden 
scriptures were not required to take lessons in theology from any superior 
or spiritual guide. The mere discovery of the books obtained for them immu- 
nity from pupilage. Among those who acquired celebrity by such means, Ni- 
mai-hodsser of Gyal-tse and Guru Chhoikyi-Wan-chhyug were the most 
eminent. They were the arbitrators of the claims of the discoverers, fton- 
£ebar was a zealous Lama who discovered many volumes of hidden 
scriptures and established one hundred and eight religious institutions for 
the discoverers, of which the one at Ta-thah was well known. Among 
his discoveries were four medical works which were a great boon to 
the country, by reason of their diminishing human misery through their 
healing efficacy. 


There were some Lamas who rose high in clerical dignity in this 
order. Some of them are said to have seen the face of the Supreme god 
who taught them religion. This class is common to other Buddhist 
schools of Tibet, but it obtained great celebrity in the ffinmapa school. 

Of the Anuttara system of the fsinmapa, the Dsog-chhenpa sect 
is by far the most important and philosophical. In fact it is the chief of 
the surviving sects of the once most flourishing school of Tibet and Nepal. 
It is well known by the name of Dsog-chhenpa Lana-me-pai gyu. 
Atiyoga is its distinctive dogma. It has three divisions, Semde, Ldnde 
and Manfiag. 

There are eighteen volumes of Semde scriptures out of which five are 
attributed to Vairochana and thirteen to Vimala Mitra. The Lo'Ade 
scriptures, altogether nine in number, were by Vairochana and Pan- 
miphain-gonpo. The Tibetan Lamas Dharma-boti of Je and Dharma 
Sehha were the most distinguished among the teachers of this theory. 
KiA-thig or MAN-^AQ-de is the most metaphysical of the three. 
It was first taught by Vimala Mitra to king Thi-sron and to Ten- 
dsin-ssaii-po of Myan. The latter founded the monastery of Ui-ru- 
shva where he concealed many of his works. At his death he left 
hints respecting his works to Brom-rinchhen-ba». Buddha Vajra Dhara 
first delivered this theory to the Indian Pandit Ga^irab dorje (Ananda 
Vajra) who left it to his pupil S'ri Simha from whom Padma Sambhava 
obtained it. 

1882.] Sarat Chandra Das— Contributions on Tibet 15 



(With 13 Plates.) 

Pabt I. The Indian Incaenations. 1 


Stjbhu'ti, the Sthayiba. 

Subhuti was born in the city of STr&vasti of a wealthy and accom- 
plished Br&hmana father, named Bhuti. In his former birth, he is said 
to have been a Niga from which he transmigrated to man. In his youth 
he acquired great proficiency in the six Br&hmanical Acts (Charya) and 
the several sciences. Following the inclinations of his former life, he 
resided in sandel-wood forests which were filled with innumerable serpents, 
whence he was conducted before Buddha 9 by a truth-observing god. 8 He 
was ordained a priest by Buddha's spiritual power. 4 By his knowledge 
of the Dharma S'astras, he suppressed sins and thereby obtained the rank of 
an Arhat. When, by his fore-knowledge, he saw that in his former life he 
had been a Naga, his heart became greatly grieved. He, therefore, taught 
morality to 500 Nagas and 500 eagles 6 who fed on the former, by converting 
them to the Bauddha faith. Buddha also had remarked that " among the 
galaxy of the learned, Subhuti shines like Venus (the Morning Star)." 
When Buddha delivered the Prajna-Paramita on the top of Gridhrakuta 
Parvata, Subhuti served him as chief catechist (the inquirer as well as the 
solver of doubts by reference to Buddha). 

Although, outwardly a man, yet by these means he obtained the 
Bodhisattva perfection of the Mahayana and became one of the principal 
disciples of Buddha Sakya Simha. 



Manju&ri Kirti was born in the opulent city of Sfambhala in the north, 
of royal parents. His father, king Deva-Indra, was said to have been the 
incarnation of the Bodhisattva Sttnyagarbha. His mother's name was 
Kaoiiki. Six hundred and seventy-four years after the death of Buddha, 

1 Obtained from the works of the Indian Pandits who laboured in Tibet. 
* yakya Simha. 

3 A Buddhist god/s a Bodhisattva or Buddha, Such a god is not an ordinary god. 

4 Buddha said, " let him become priest'* and he became a priest. His hair and 
beard were shaven miraculously, and a consecrated mendicant raiment was thrown 
over his person. 

4 He reconciled these two hostile races to each other. 

16 Sarat Chandra D£s— Contributions on Tibet [No. 1, 

according to Buton, 6 in the year 159 B. C, Manjuirf Kirti ascended the 
throne of Sambhala. His sovereignty extended over hundreds of petty 
princes and a hundred thousand cities. During his youth he acquired great 
proficiency in arts, sciences and magic. It is recorded that within his 
kingdom there lived 300,510 followers of the heretical doctrine of the 
M lech has. 7 Among these, there were many sages whose religion consisted 
in the worship of the vehicle of the sun (Sunai S'inta). Manjusri Kirti 
banished the whole infidel population from his dominions, but afterwards, 
on their embracing the sacred pifakas, he listened to their humble prayer 
to be permitted to return to their former homes. For the welfare of all 
living beings and especially of the people of S'ambhala, he explained the 
KaUachakra system. At last in the year 59 B. C, bequeathing his throne to 
his son, Pun^arika, he passed away from the world of sufferings, and entered 
the Sambhoga-k&ya of Buddhahood. 

Leg-dan Jyad. 
This great teacher was born of a Kshatriya family in Eastern India to 
the east of Magadha. Being possessed of great natural talents, he very 
early learnt the principal systems of the Buddhist schools, promulgated by 
Nagarjuna and other Indian saints, and by his great knowledge of sacred 
literature became prominent among the learned. He was ordained a 
priest by Nagarjuna and wrote a commentary on the Mula Prajna of. 
N&g&rjuna and named it Prajna dipa. He reduced Nag&rjuna's reflections 
into Svatantra and thereby founded the second schismatical sect of the 
M&dhyamika school, called M&dhyamika Svatantra. He also found fault 
with Buddha P&la's commentary or fikd on the Mula Prajna. There 
arose many followers of this great teacher, who greatly extended the Sva- 
tantra school. 


Abhayakaba Gupta. 
Abhayakara Gupta was born in the middle of the 9th century after 
Christ in Eastern India near the city of Gaur. 8 When he grew up to 

• Buddha died 2713 years ago or 833 B. C. according to the Gelugpa Chronology, 
colled the Ka-tan system. According to the Vaidurya karpo of Desi sangye Gya-mtaho, 
followed by A. Csoma de-Korosi, the date differs by forty years. I have followed the 
more correct system of the Amdoan Chronologists and, in some places, Baton. 

7 These were distinct from the Brihmans, for a Brahmana is invariably called a 
Mutegpa which is the same as Tfrthika. He is here called a Lalo Mutegpa. Lalo 
means a Mlechha or Yavana. 

8 Probably the eastern districts of Magadha. 

1882.] Sarat Cbaudra Das— Contributions on Tibet. 17 

youth, he went to the central country of Magadha, where he learned the 
five sciences and became well known as a pandit. It was here that he 
entered the priesthood. During his time there reigned in Magadha king 
Kama P&la, in whose palace he was appointed to conduct the religious 
ceremonies. By his modesty and liberal accomplishments he greatly 
pleased the monarch. During the first two watches of the day he used 
to write S astras. In the third watch he used to explain Dharma. Up to 
midnight, sitting in the Himavana cemetery, he used to propitiate his 
gods, and, during the latter part of the night, to take rest and sleep. 
One morning a Pakini disguised in a girl's habit, approached him with 
presents of meat and wine. Abhayakara, a man of stern morality, did 
not pay any attention to her, and the woman soon disappeared, and no one 
knew where she had gone. Afterwards he became anxious in his mind as 
to who and what she might have been, and searched for her in every direction, 
but without success. Penitent, he now confessed his mistake, when the 
self same girl once more made her appearance. He asked forgiveness and 
prayed to be endowed with foreknowledge, whereupon the divine girl, now 
resplendent in angelic beauty, thus addressed him : " Abhayakara ! as in 
your former birth you were wanting in the faculty of discrimination, so 
will you continue to be during this life also ; but as you have confessed 
your error, you will obtain foreknowledge during the interval between your 
death and re-birth. As a step towards its acquirement you must write 
many works on the Dharma S'astras." After drawing his attention to the 
practice of constructing Manilas (in Tibet Kyilkhor) or the ritualistic 
circular figures of the Tantriks, she disappeared. Following the advice of 
this Khahdoma, 9 he composed several commentaries, 10 besides criticisms on 
other commentators. Once he visited the city of Chara Simha, ruled by a 
Chandala king, who, a believer in the foulest sort of heresy, was preparing 
to make one hundred human sacrifices to his horrid god. Moved with 
compassion for the sufferings of these unfortunate men who were bound 
to the sacrificial pole, he prayed to god for 11 their deliverance. All on a 
sudden a hideous Koluber Naga coiling round his body, extended its hood 
over his head. This dreadful sight so terrified the Chandala king that, 

• Fairy or in Sanskrit pakini. 

* (1) Then-wa-korsum. 

(2) Commentary on Khajor. 

(3) „ Man-flag. 

(4) » ftema. 

(5) Saftye-thod-pai-iiam-she-mi-jigpa. 

11 The Buddhist triad or Batna Traya. Before the Tibetans accepted Buddhism, 
they seem to have believed in the existence of God whom they called Eon-Ohhog or 
the chief of the rarities or rare Being. 

18 Sarat Chandra Das — Contributions on Tibet. [No. 1, 

at the request of Abhayakara, he at once set the victims free. During the 
reign of Kama Pala, under the leadership of Abhayakara, the sacred religion 
of Buddha received a fresh impulse. There were three thousand monks 
at the Vikrama£ila Vihara, and one thousand at Vajrasana (Buddha Gaya). 
At great religious festivals and sacrificial occasions more than 5,000 monks 
generally assembled. Out of the one thousand monks of Vajrasana, 40 of the 
Mahayana and 200 Sravakas who were resident members of the monastery, 
received their food from the king's store.* The S'ravakas were so numerous 
in every place, that at times of religious prayer- gatherings their number 
generally exceeded 10,000. At the monastery of Otanta Puri there were 
1,000 monks, includiug the members of the Mahayana and the S'ravaka 
sects. Over the former Abhayakara presided. The S'ravakas also venerated 
him for his great knowledge and practice of discipline (vinaya). He 
wrote numerous works on Buddhism, several of which are said to be extant 
even to the present day. He was suoceeded in the High-priest ship by 
Ratnakara S'anti. King Rama Pala after a successful reign of 40 years 
abdicated the throne in favour of his son Aksha Pala. Abhayakara died 
before the abdication and Kama Pala departed this life three years after it. 
In the city of Sukhavati there were many hunger-stricken beggars 
whose sufferings Abhayakara allayed by giving them food and drink from his 
mendicant platter, which was miraculously supplied from heaven. During his 
residence in the Vihara of Vikrama&la, under the protection of the son of 
king S'ubha£ri of Eastern India, 13 the Turushka war 13 took place. In this 
war Abhayakara played an important part. 14 Afterwards he cured many 
poisonous snake-bites and arrested numerous bandits and robbers by the spell 
of his mantras. He achieved many wonders, the last of which was the 
bringing to life a dead child in the great cemetery of Himavana. 

Pam II. The bh Tibetan incarnations 16 

(obtained from biographies). 



This great Lochava 16 was born at Ta-nag-phu a town of Tsan. 
Following the inclinations of his former life which he retained in this 

u Eastern districts of Magadha. 

u Ho invoked the Dharmupalas (the spiritual protectors of the world) by making 
offerings and oblations. By their aid he converted his cornflour sacrifices into eagles 
which turned out the Mlechha intruders from India. 

_ * 

14 Tho invasion of the earlier Mohammadans under the Kaliphs probably. 

14 Those Lamas did not possess any royal dignities. They may, therefore, be 
called simply Panchhen, while the title Fanchhen RuLpoohhe* may be reserved for the 
later princely Lamas. 

10 Tho Tibetan translators of Sanskrit Buddhist scriptures were called Lochavas or 
Lo-tsa-va. The title Pandit is applied to an Indian translator or learned man or sage. 

1882.] Sarat Chandra Das— Contributions on Tibet 19 

life also, he learned the sacred scriptures from Thog-mi Lochava and others. 
He went to India where he served 72 religious teachers some of whom 
were most noted. He also learnt the sutras and the mantras, more 
particularly the system of Tantrik ritualism called Guhya Samaja (San-* 
wa-du-pa). By these means he earned for himself the name of an eminent 
scholar. After his return to Tibet he became a saint. As he had the 
power of seeing the celestial mansion of the thirty-two mystical gods, he 
was called Shal-ssig-pa or the "god-seeing recluse." He promulgated 
the Guhya Samaja system of Tantrikism in Tibet. He had a great many 
pupils of whom four were well versed in the Matri-Tantra and Upadesa. 
Having done his utmost to further the cause of holy religion and the good of 
living beings, he passed away from the world in righteousness and piety. 


Sakya Pandita Kungah-qyal-tshan. 17 

This eminent scholar was born at Sakya in the year 1182 A. D. of the 
noble family of Sakya Jam-yafi-gon. His father's name was Pal-ch hen- 
bod-pa and that of his mother Ri-thi-tsam, and they gave him the name of 
Paldan-Ton-dub. During his boyhood he learnt the Sanskrit, Lanja, Wartu 
(the language of Bactria and Katirstan probably) and Du-sha languages. He 
was admitted into the holy order by the venerable Tag-pa-gyal-tshan who 
gave him the religious name of Kungah-gyal-tshan. From him he obtained 
instructions in the Sutras and Tantras. Other Pandits taught him other 
branches of science and sacred literature. By his great pro6ciency in the five 
great sciences, namely the mechanical arts, medicine, grammar, dialectics and 
sacred literature, as well as in the minor sciences of rhetoric, synonimics, 
poetry, dancing and astrology, in short, almost all the sciences, and chiefly 
bj his studying and translating the theological works of the orthodox and 
the heterodox schools, he acquired the name of Sakya Pandita. He obtained 
a world-wide celebrity in India, China, Mongolia and Tibet. At the age of 
twenty-seven he went to the great Kashmiri an Pandit S'akya Sri, by whom 
he was ordained a priest and instructed in the sutras and mantras. On the 
return journey he visited Kyi-rofi 18 where he entered into disputation with a 
Brahmanical S'astri, called Samkara dhvaja(P), and defeated him by his logio 
and quoting of authorities. The S'astri who had staked his life, now fled 
by means of his magical powers towards the sky, but Sakya Pandita by the 
charms of his Mantra Vidya brought him down tied, and subsequently con- 
verted him to the orthodox faith and obliged him to promise to take the 
sacred vows of priesthood. Desiring to shew the Tibetans the curious and 
peculiar religious dress of the Brahmanical priests of India he brought the 
17 In Sanskrit Ananda Dhvaja. 18 Kiron in Nepal. 

20 Sarat Chandra D&s— Contributions on Tibet. [No. 1, 

S'astri to Tibet in bis Brahmanical dress and signs, — an act which gave great 
umbrage to the twelve demigods and demons who are the sworn guardians 
of Tibet. They killed 19 the S'astri by making him vomit blood and tied 
his head to the pillar of the great temple of the Sakya monastery, which 
still exists. After this, Sakya Pandita received an invitation from 
the Emperor of Hor (Mongolia) whose dominion extends to the north. 
He was told by his former teacher Tag-pa-gyal-tshan 20 that there lived in 
Hor 21 a race of men who differed greatly in language from the Tibetans, 
and who wore hawk -like hats, and shoes resembling the snout of pigs. This 
teacher advised him not to harbour any doubts or fears about the people 
in his mind, but to go straight to that country to further the cause of 
religion and the well-being of living beings, in accordance with the 
prophecies of old. At the age of thirty-three 32 he started from Sakya for 
Hor, and after a tedious and protracted journey of three years, reached 
the court of Qoyugan the Emperor of the Tartars. He instructed the 
Emperor in religion and frequently discoursed on religion with him. 
Thus the barbarians who disbelieved in the sacred tenets of Buddhism were 
converted by him. The Mahayana system was introduced there. 

The Naga 23 princes being pacified by the beneficial influence of the 
Buddhist religion, there was plenty of rain and water. Maladies of men 
and murrain were prevented from raging in the country. In Hor, the people 
lived in plenty and reared much cattle. Buddhism was made as powerful 
as the sun in dispelling darkness. In the city of Gyu-ma, at the age of 
seventy, in the year 1252 A. D., in the month of September, during the 
middle watch of the day, he quitted this mortal coil and entered the mansion 
of purity, solemnly escorted by a proceision of fairies ((Jakinis). 


Yuft-TON-DOBJE. / 

Yuii ton-dorje was born at Gonna, 24 a place of considerable trade near 
Sha-lu in the province of Tsan, in the year 1284 A. D.> in the family of a 

19 The S'astri died of vomiting blood, probably caused by the intensity of the cold 
and the dryness and rarity of the air. All sorts of diseases are attributed to the wrath 
of evil spirits in Tibet. 

M It is not clear whether Sonam-tse and Tagpa gyal-tshan were one and the same 

21 Tartary or Hor includes Turkistan, Mongolia, and Manchu. 

33 Illustrious Lamas cannot travel so fast as ordinary travellers do. At every stage 
Sakya Pandita received invitations from the neighbouring princes and chiefs, which 
caused much delay. 

33 The Naga princes are believed by all the Buddhists to have great power over 
the distribution of water and the occurrence of plagues and cattle diseases. 

54 I call this place Korma ; although the 3rd letter of the Tibetan alphabet is 
equivalent to Sanskrit g } yet it is pronounced as k by the Tibetans* 

1882.] Sarat Chandra Vis— Contribution* on Tibet. 21 

Tantrik priest 95 of the race of Lan. In his youth, he received instruction in 
the mystic fimma system from a learned Lama named Dub-ten-S'akya 
Phel. From his seventeenth year he received instruction from many other 
Lamas 26 of the Junma school. Becoming a powerful charmer, he subdued 
the eight demigods and genii of the spiritual world. At the request of the 
Emperor Goyugan he visited China. Here he was engaged in conducting the 
religious services and ceremonies, by which means and more particularly by 
his moral merits he showed the path of spiritual liberation to others. 
Afterwards he returned to Tibet where he performed many acts of virtue. 
Being earnestly pressed by his mother, he took a wife and at the age of twenty- 
eight got a son. At the age of twenty-nine, seeing that worldly existence 
was illusive, he broke off the bondage and went before the teacher Tag-pa- 
shon-nu by whom he was ordained a priest and given the name of Dorje-pal. 
He also heard sermons on Buddhism from Ranjun dorje, Wuton-shag 
Khanpo-Ye£e, and others. He established many religious institutions, such 
as Phenpo-ri-vo-chhe, Garmo-chhojun, Tasi-jon*kha, Chho-din, and Tag- 
gya-dorje-phodan,* 7 and wrote many books on the ancient and modern 
schools of Buddhism, called ftiiima and Sarma respectively. Yugde 
Panchhen and others were his pupils. At the palace of Tag-gya dorje, in 
the ninety -second year of his age, in the year 1376, he entered the mansion 
of rest and peace. 



This illustrious scholar was born in the year 1385 A. D. at Dag-shun* 
His father's name was Kungab Taii, and that of his mother Pudon- 

He took the sacred vows of priesthood from the learned sage Senge- 
gyal-tshan and received the religious name of Geleg-pal-ssan. He obtained 
the title of Master of Vidyd by studying logic and sacred literature at the 
monastic colleges of Sakya and ftamrin. In the 16th year of his age he 
commenced a controversy with the celebrated Pudon Panchhen which 
resulted in the defeat of the latter. From this time Geleg-pal-ssan became 
well known for his learning. He also learned many Sutras and Mantras 
from Je-tsun-Bendah and other learned Lamas. At the age of eighteen 
he visited the great Reformer Lo-ssan-Tag-pa,* 8 from whom he heard 
many discourses on the vast and profound teachings of Buddha. On one 

" Tantrik priests are generally married. 

* ftetan, 8'akya Seflge, Taton-dsijig, S'erab Bum and Chhokyon Bum. 

17 Phodafi means a palace. 

n Tson Khapa, the great reformer of Tibet. 

22 Sarat Chandra Da*— Contribution* on Tibet. [No. 1, 

occasion Tson khapa had remarked of Geleg-pal-ssan that he (the young 
and intelligent novice) would one day prove a great promoter or! Buddhism. 
From the twenty-second year of his age for a period of thirteen years he 
studied under the great Reformer and mastered the Sutras and the Mantras, 
He read the excellent and most learned aphorisms, and embraced the reformed 
doctrines of Tson khapa with unbounded faith. He was invited by Rabtan 
Kunssan, King of Gyal-tse, 89 to hold a disputation with the venerable 
Chho-je-Rin-Chhen. The controversy, however, did not take place on 
account of the latter withdrawing from the contest. Aided by the patronage 
of Kabtan he succeeded in founding the great monastery of Gyal-tse, which 
with its eighteen Tvasan (schools) still exists. At the age of forty-six he 
was exalted to the golden throne of Gahdan vacated by the death of the 
immediate successor of Tsonkhapa. He met with great success in ex- 
tending the Gelugpa system and thus promoting the work of reformation* 
In the fifty-fourth year of his age, in the year 143$ A. D.> he passed away 
from mortal existence, to rest in the inansion-of purity. 



This scholar was born in the year 1439 A D. of humble parentage on 
the boundary of Tsan-ron. His complexion during childhood being very 
pale, his parents used to call him Palju (calf). When he grew up he 
was taken to the presence of Gahdan Thipa (the great abbot of the 
Gahdan monastery) and other professors of religion. When the abbot demand- 
ed bis name, he said that it was Pahu. The abbot smilingly said, "from 
this day your name will be Sonam-chhyog-kyi-L&npo (the bull of Fortune) 
as one day you will grow to be a Lan or bull". He then admitted him into 
his monastery. At Gahdan, Sonam learnt the different branches of Buddhism, 
such as Abhisheka, Vy&karana, Sutra, Tantra, Meditation, Criticism and 
UpadeSa. He then returned to Tsan where he got many pupils. By ex- 
plaining to them the Dharma S'astras he obtained the title of " the Lamp of 
religion." Consulting his tutelary deities he oame to know that he would 
be required to construct a bell-metal image of Buddha full one cubit high. 
He constructed many images and also built the Udin Gonpa. Convinced 
that moral discipline and purity of conduct are the basis of all religion, 
he enforced the greatest strictness in the behaviour of his pupils. In 
the latter part of his life, he sent sixteen of his pupils to Tasl-lhunpo and 
Gephel monasteries. With a view to accomplish the object of his life 
he retired into solitude, where, free from the confusion and clamour 

19 Vulgarly called Gyafi-tae. At this time Tibet was ruled by many petty kings 
most of whom were called Dharma llajas. 

1882.] Sarat Chandra Via— Contributions on Tibet. 23 

of monasteries, from inattention and idleness, and all anxieties of life, he 
could concentrate his attention on meditation and study. By his great 
erudition, application, and reflection he composed many elegant aphorisms 
and S'astras. His tutelary deities granted him several interviews. Having 
obtained boundless Abhijndna he could find out supernatural secrets. At 
the age of sixty-six, in the year 1505 A. D., he quietly passed away from 
this world of pain and sorrow. 


Gtal-wa Ton-Ditb. 

This great scholar was born in the year 1505 A. D. at Lha-khu-phu- 
pen-sa situated on the north bank of the great river Tsanpo, near the 
famous monastery of Chamalin, in the district of Da-gya in west Tsan. 
His father Sonam Dorje, and mother Jomkyi belonged to the family in 
which some of his illustrious predecessors were born. No sooner was the 
child born than it manifested its compassion for the misery of all unborn 
and migrating living beings, by uttering the six mystic syllables " Om ma* 
ni-padme-hum," at which uncommon occurrence the inmates of the house, 
with wonder thinking that the infant must be some saint or divine per- 
sonage, gave it the name Gonpo-kyab. From his childhood, Gonpo-kyab 
had been fond of solitude. He is said to have seen the faces of Buddha 
and Tson khapa, from whose hands he received benediction. When only 
eight years old, he saw in a vision, that, dressed in a white satin tunic and 
adorned with precious gems, he sat with a bell and a dorje in his hand on 
the disc of the full moon which rose refulgent from the top of the Segri 
mountain, and that the sound of the ringing of the bell filled the world. 
At the age of eleven he became a pupil of Je Tag-pa Ton-dub, abbot of 
Lha-tse monastery, from whom he received the vows of priesthood and 
the religious name of Lo-ssin Ton-dub. He also heard sermons on 
Kalachakra, Bhairava, and the Bodhisattva Marga. He received instruc- 
tions in the S'utras, Mantras and the system of mysticism called Guhya- 
samaja. Thereafter coming to Taii-lhunpo he became a pupil of the 
abbot Lo-ssan she-Ken in logic, but soon becoming disgusted with his subtle 
but trifling and useless system he gave up his connection witti his teacher. 
At the age of seventeen he became a pupil of the sage Chhokyi Dorje and 
fully mastered the volume of precepts called Gahdau-ften-gyud. After- 
wards returning to Tsan he resided at the temple of Pamachen near the , 
Panam-Ohomolha-ri. 80 Here his teacher the sage shewed him the volume 

80 The Chomolhari mountain, from which the river Panam or Pena nyan chha 
takes it rise and, flowing by Gyan-tso and Panamjoft, empties itself in the Tsanpo near 

24 Sarat Chandra T) is— Contributions on Tibet. [No. 1, 

of illusive mysticism. Lo-ssan composed four volumes of ften-gyud, 
(pleasing Tantras). During his residence at the castle of Ta-gya-dorje be 
acquainted himself with the terminology and signification of the classical 
writings both in the melodious Sanskrit and the insipid Tibetan. In this 
manner when his life and sainthood were uniformly flowing onward, at the 
age of sixty-five in the year 1570 he passed away from mundane suffering. 


(One of the Qrand Lama* of Lhasa.) 
This great Lama was born in the year 1391 A. D., at a place called 
Gufi-ru in the Dok-pa 82 country between Sakya and Tasl-lhunpo. His 
mother's name was Jomo-namkye, and his father's Gonpo-dorje. They gave 
him the name of Pema Dorje. Unlike other children, he was very handsome 
and of an amiable and pleasing disposition. When a child he used to collect 
around him a number of children of his age, and talk to them gravely, 
as if he were their religious teacher. His sports consisted only in making 
images of Buddhas, erecting chhorten, shrines, altars and vihdras. By his 
command his playmates used to raise stone piles as if to repair the school 
walls. He seldom engaged in such sports as other children delighted in. At 
the age of seven he entered the Narthan monastery, where he prosecuted 
his studies up to the fifteenth year of his age. Within this period he learnt 
the Tibetan, Hor (Tartar), Chinese, Wartu and Lanja 83 (ancient Buddhist 
Sanskrit) languages. In his fifteenth year he was admitted into the holy 
order by Dubpa-S'erab, abbot of Narthan, and given the name of Gedun- 
dub-pal. He now acquired great proficiency in grammar, polite learning, 
poetry, arithmetic and other sciences, and also became well acquainted 
with the Sutras and Tantras. At the age of twenty he took the vows 
of priesthood at the hands of the same abbot, and became famed for 
his strict observance of vinaya or moral discipline. By his perseverance 
and assiduity he became an attentive irdvaka, a powerful thinker, and 
an excellent meditator. Unmindful of his personal convenience and 
temporal aggrandisement, and always thoughtful of furthering the cause 
of religion and the well-being of living beings, he went at the age of 
twenty-five to the province of U' to see the great reformer Tsong khapa, from 
whom he received much religious instruction, and who was greatly pleased 
with his conduct. Gedun-dub also received religious instruction from 
the two great Buddhist scholars Semba-chhenpo Kun-ssan and the venera- 

81 The title of Gyal-wa-Bin-po-chhe was then not applied to the grand Lamas 
of Lhasa. They held the position of high priests only. 

33 The mountainous portions of Tibet, are inhabited by the shepherds and 
yakherds who are called Dokpa. 

n Banja of the Nepalese. 

1882.] Sarat Chandra Das — Contributions on Tibet. 25 

ble S'erab-senge. Being well acquainted with theology and meditative 
science he performed many religious ceremonies and observances for the 
good of all living beings. At the age of thirty-six he returned to the Tsang 
province where his reputation as a great scholar in theology, disputa- 
tion and sacred literature was unrivalled. At the age of forty -three he 
constructed an exquisitely fine image of Buddha Maitreya in the vilrara of 
Khndensa. At the age of fifty-six he was directed in a vision, by Paldan- 
Lhamo (the goddess S'ri Devi), to establish a religious institution. Accord- 
ingly he founded the great monastery of Taii-lhunpo and furnished it richly 
with images and books, — an act which greatly extended the Buddhist faith. 
In the latter part of his life, while labouring under pressure of spiritual busi- 
ness, he succeeded in constructing several thousands of images of Buddha, 
Maitreya, T4r&, and the Bodhisattvas, besides working a gigantic piece of 
tapestry. His reverence for the congregation and devotion to the Triad was 
immense. He wrote five large volumes of commentaries on the Sutras and 
Mantras. He is said to have held communion with his tutelary deities, 
such as Bhairava, Tara, Saras vati, Manju-Ghosha and S'ri Devi, from whom 
he occasionally received prophecies. The purity of his morals made hira 
adored by gods and men. At the age of eighty-four, in the year 1478 A. D., 
on the morning of the 12th month he was delivered from mundane existence. 
Amidst showers of flowers and music of cymbals and drums he was 
conducted before Maitreya the regent of Sukhavati, the paradise of the 



The important town of Lhen, containing 600 families, is situated on 
• the confines of Tsan-ron. It was in the house of a wealthy noble of 
this town, where formerly many illustrious Lamas were born, that in the 
year 1569 A. D., Chho-kyi Qyal-tshan was born. His father's name was 
Pon-tshaA-tsherin Paljor and that of his mother Tso-chan. The 
Abhot Tshem-ta named him Chho-gyal paldan-ssanpo. Even in his 
childhood he is said to have given many proofs of his wonderful memory : 
while only three years old he was found able to recite the Manju-S'ri 
nama nidhi. At the age of thirteen he was initiated into the holy order by 
Kha-dub-yese and given the name of Chho-kyi Gyal-tshan. Under the 
tutorship of this Lama, he learnt the mystical worship called Guhya-samaja. 
At the age of fourteen he was placed at the head of Wen-gon monastery. 
He propitiated Yan-chen-ma, the goddess of learning, for seven days, at 

M First Pan-chhen Rin-po-chhe. 

26 Sarat Chandra Das— Contribution* on Tibet. [No. 1, 

tbe end of which he saw her face, and welcomed her by singing seventeen 
hymns. The goddess in return presented him with a cup of gem-like 
fruits, by virtue of which divine gift, within the course of a month, ho 
learnt by -heart five volumes of Tsonkhapa's precepts. During this period, 
one night, he saw in a vision the image of Buddha, as high as a mountain, 
shining with the brightness of myriads of suns, and approaching him to 
confer benediction. At the age of seventeen he entered the Thosamlin. 
college of Taii-lhunpo, where he studied psychology and logic, and ob- 
tained the high degree of Master of. learning. . At the age of twenty-two 
he was ordained priest by Pan-ohhen-Yar-phel. In the latter part of 
the same year, he went to U' to visit the sacred images. Here he saw 
several happy and auspicious omens. Going to Gahdan he disputed with 
the learned in argumentative science, and secured for himself a world-wide 
celebrity. At the age of thirty-one he was raised to the sacerdotal chair of 
Taii-lhunpo, during his tenure of which he ably turned the wheel of 
Dharma to promote the diffusion of the sacred religion. He was the first 
to introduce the annual prayer-fair at Taii-lhunpo, executed twenty-three 
satin embroidered pictures, numerous tapestries, paintings and copper and 
clay images. He richly furnished the recluses' monasteries with religious 
necessaries. He ordained afterwards the Dalai Lama Yon-ton Gya-tsho 
into the priesthood and taught him the Kalachakra ritualism. As a 
punishment for their internal dissensions, he employed the monks of 
Tasi-lhunpo in erecting three lofty chhorten within the monastery walls. 
He entertained the monks of Sera, Dapun and Gahdan several times, 
distributing gold pieces among them. At the invitation of the Raja of 
Guge he visited upper Tibet. At the age of forty -four he applied to the 
collected body of monks to be permitted to retire from the abbotship of 
Taii-lhunpo, but their earnest entreaties dissuaded him from the resolve. 
After the death of the Dalai Lama, the Gelugpa church having waned 
greatly, he was invited to Lhasa where the Synod of the Lamas under 
the presidentship of the abbots of Sera and Dapun. appointed him to the 
pontifical throne of Gahdan, which high office he meritoriously filled. 
During his incumbency there arose a quarrel between the southern Mongo- 
lians and the Tibetans, which ended in the invasion of Tibet by Thingir- 
tho, the nomad king of Khokhonur. 86 Thinger-tho's armies slew 500 
Tibetan soldiers. Tbe armies of Tsan and U' consisting of nearly 100,000 
soldiers assembled at the foot of Chagpori in the suburbs of Lhasa. Immense 
hordes of nomad warriors reinforced Thingir-tho's armies which were thus 
enabled to besiege the Tibetans and cut off their supplies. Unable to bear the 
sight of the distress of his countrymen, Chho-kyi Gyal-tshan sued for peace 
and delivered his country from the hands of the enemies by the payment of 

•* Kho-kho-nur. 

1882.] Sarat Chandra Das— Contribution* on Tibet. 27 

a large quantity of gold and silver. At the age of fifty-three he initiated and 
subsequently ordained to the priesthood the successor incarnate of Yonton- 
Gya-tsho. It was durjng this period that he deputed Se-chhen-chho-je 
to the court of Thai-tsun-bogto-khan, 86 the first of the Manchu Emper- 
ors of China, praying him to assume the protectorship of Tibet. The Em- 
peror gladly accepted the offer and sent him return presents of great value 
and rarity. Counting from the Emperor Shunchi, his son and successor, 
ail the Emperors adhered to the Gelugpa church. This wise step which 
was calculated to save Tibet from the hands of the fierce and bloodthirsty 
Mongols, proved a failure ; for, a few years after, the warlike Guiri*khan, 
the son and successor of Thingir-tho invaded Tibet, dethroned all the petty 
princes of Tibet, of Tsan and U', and brought all its eighteen provinces 
under his single sway. He greatly admired the vast learning and moral 
purity of Chho-kyi Gyal-tshan, whom he afterwards appointed his spiritual 
guide. Chho-kyi Gyal-tshan immediately before his death received an 
embassy from the Emperor of China which brought him a letter written 
in go|d and many precious and choice presents. It was the noble and 
generous conqueror GusYi-khan who made a present of the sovereignty of 
Tibet to the fifth Gyal-wa Lo-ssan Gya-tsho, thenceforth called Dalai Lama. 
Besides delivering Tibet from many political vicissitudes and clerical 
crises, he did a great many acts of social and religious utility. He wrote 
five volumes of sacred aphorisms, and introduced the Kham-tshan. 87 He 
classified the monks into orders. He received into monkhood more than 
50,000 novices, and performed the ceremony of final ordination over 
nearly 100,000 monks. His charities amounted to 8 lakhs of gold sdfo, 
or 18 millions of rupees. 88 Among his spiritual sons, the 1st and the 2nd 
Dalai Lamas were the most eminent ; and among his lay-pupils, mostly 
princes and nobles of the country, Gu£ri-khan was the most renowned. 
At the age of ninety-three, at 12 a. m., on the 10th of the 2nd lunar month, 
in the year 1662 A. D., he passed away from this world, after a glorious and 
most successful career, one of Tibet's most illustrious personages. The 
Chhyag-Jo 88 of Taii-lhunpo and the rich patrons of religion in Tibet 
conjointly subscribed 600,000 Bs. (10,000 sans) to erect a gilt copper- 
roofed tomb over his remains. 

Lo-bsaA Ye-Se-pal-ssaA-po. 

This Lama was born of a high and noble family of Thab-gyal in a village 
of some importance in the province of Tsan. His father's name was 

* The Emperor Shu-chi. " A gold aaA is equal to Bs. 60. 

* System of national Hostels. * Treasures. 

28 Sarat Chandra Das — Contributions on Tibet. [No. 1, 

De-chhen-gyalpo and his mother's S'erab-Dolma. Being at once recog- 
nized as the incarnation of the late Pan-chhen, he was conducted to Tasi- 
lhunpo in great pomp and procession, on the anniversary of the emancipation 
of Tsonkhapa, on the 25th of the 10th lunar month. He easily learnt to 
read and write, and soon became versed in rituals. At the age of eight, he 
visited Lhasa, when, from the Dalai Lama Lo-ssan Gya-tsho, he received 
the vows of monkhood and the name of Lo-ssan- Yese. After his 
return to Tasl-lhunpo, he was made the president of the grand prayer- 
meeting called Tsh<5-chhen. Even in his boyhood he won by his amiable 
and engaging behaviour the affection and reverence of all men. He heard 
many of the Dalai Lama's sermons. At the age of twenty he was ordained 
by Kon-chbog Gyal-tshan. At the age of thirty-two he sent a congra- 
tulatory deputation to Pekin. The Emperor in reply addressed a letter to 
him inviting him to Pekin, but he begged to be excused for fear of small- 
pox. At the age of thirty-five he gave the vows of priesthood to the 
incarnation of the Dalai Lama and named him Lo-Bsan Rin-chhen. 
At the age of forty he ordained him to the priesthood, but this Dalai 
having died shortly after, an incarnation was discovered who received at 
his hands the vows and the name of Lo-ssan Kal-ssan. In the year 
1713, he received a letter written in gold in three different languages, 
Tibetan, Mongol and Manchu, from the Emperor of China couched in 
friendly terms. The Imperial seal-keeper Ja-sag-Lama accompanied the 
Envoy, carrying with him the Imperial Insignia and a large Thamka 
or golden seal in which was inscribed the title Pan-chhen Erte-ni. 40 
The Panchhen-Rinpochhe returned a suitable reply with excellent presents 
for the Emperor. He subsequently ordained the 3rd Dalai, Kal-ssan 
Gya-tsho, and the grand Imperial Lama of Pekin, Chaft-kya-Rinpo- 
Dorje 41 , and taught them sacred literature. By the faithful assistance 
of king Lha-ssan of Tsan, Tsherin Ton-dub of Jungar and Pese-ba-dur, 4 * 
the exertions of this Panchhen in promoting the cause of human good bore 
excellent fruits. In the year 1728 the Emperer sent Ali-ha Ampan to 
settle the boundary between U' and Tsan. It was at this time when 
the kingdom of Tibet was about to fall into the hands of prince Sonam-Top- 
gye, after the abdication of king Miwah-Pholba, that the Imperial 
Commissioners requested the Panchhen Rinpochhe to accept the sovereign- 
ty of all the provinces of Tibet lying between Khambala and Kailasa moun- 
tain. The Panchhen declined the offer several times on the plea of old age. 

40 Er-te-ni is Mongolian, and is equvalent to Rin-po-chhe in Tibetan or Ratna in 
Sanskrit. Pan is an abbreviation of Pan^ita, and Chhen means great in Tibetan. 

41 Called Changay Lama by Bogle. 

42 In Mongolian Bahdur means a warrior or hero. Bahdur is probably the same as 
the Hindustani Bahadur. 

1882.] Sarat Chandra Das— Contributions on Tibet. 29 

He said that the government of so large a country and its responsibilities were 
too great for him to undertake, and that he would content himself with his 
ancient possessions. But the Commissioners insisted on his acceptance, saying 
the Imperial mandate could not be disobeyed. lie, therefore, consulted the 
then nominal king of Tibet, as to whether his compliance with the Emperor's 
commands would not clash with his interests. The king who was a pious 
prince advised him to accept the offer. The Panchhen, therefore, assumed the 
sovereignty of the whole of Tibet lying to the west of Pan am, in- 
cluding the districts of Lha-tse, Phun-tsholin, ftamrin, Johkha, Ki-ron, 
Nari-kor-sum, and relinquished the possession of Phari, Gyal-tse, Yar-do- 
tsho, and other places to the government of Lhasa. He wrote eighteen 
volumes of sacred hymns and precepts. The number of monks that received 
the vows from him was very great. Thus devoting his life to the good of 
humanity and living beings he departed from this world at the age of 
seventy-five, on the 5th of the 8th lunar month. A tomb with a gilt copper 
dome, like that of his predecessor, but somewhat larger, was erected to his 
memory, at a cost of 12,000 sans or Rs. 720,000. 


Pax-chhen Lo-ssaA Paldak-Ye-s , e. 4S 

This great sovereign Lama was born at Tasi-tse, a village of Shang 4 * 
in Tsan. His father, named Than-Lha, was distinguished for his wisdom, 
courage and frankness. His mother Jom-kyi was an honest and good natur- 
ed woman. Previous to his birth there appeared to his father in a vision a 
golden chhorten, glittering with lustre, and his mother saw in a vision Pan- 
chhen Lo-ssafi Yese presenting her with a life-reviving vessel and some 
consecrated pills. There appeared rainbows, refulgent with five variegated 
hues in all directions, five yellow flowers growing out of a single calyx and 
corn bearing five pods and three ears. All men were singing and dancing 
with spontaneous mirth and joy. Amid such auspicious and happy prog- 
nostics, at dawn, on Saturday, the 11th of the 11th lunar month, in the 
year 1737, Panchhen Paldan Ye-se was born. The extreme fairness of his 
person, and above all his lovely face attracted the notice of all men. At 
the end of the 2nd month the child lisped Oqi mani. 46 As he grew up, he 
was observed to delight at the sight of the monks of Ta£ilhunpo. 
Whenever he saw an Achdrya (Indian Buddhist) he used to say Bhala, 

* This is abridged from the Nam-thar, or biography of Paldan- Ye-Se, written in 
Tibetan in two volumes containing 2000 pages. 
M Name of a district. 
u The sacred Vija of the Buddhist as well as of the Brahman*. 

30 Sarat Chandra Das — Contribution* on Tibet. [No. 1, 

BhalA 46 . Sometimes holding the dorje and bell and at other times with 
joined palms, he used to sit in a pensive mood, as if to read or write. He 
was never known to delight in or amuse himself with ordinary and 
vain sports like other vulgar boys. When only three years old, he was 
found continually engaged in worshipping a bright and handsome image 
of Buddha. The fame of this wonderful child reached Tagi-lhunpo, 
when the Don-Jfer Lo-ssan Tson-du was assured by many of the re- 
appearance of the soul of the late Panchhen in the person of the said child. 
Accordingly, he equipped himself with some of the personal properties 
of the late Panchhen Rinpochhe, such as the rosary, dorje, and bell, the 
articles used in consulting gods, mixed with several imitation sets, and 
arrived at Ta£i-tse. On being subjected to the ordeal of finding out the 
real properties, the princely child easily and unerringly picked out all 
that belonged to the late Panchhen, and moreover called Don-Ner by 
his name though he had never heard it before. This excellent manner of 
acquitting himself established beyond doubt the identity of his soul with that 
of the late Panchhen. The princely child, now four years old, was therefore 
brought to Taii-lhunpo with great pomp and procession. The Dalai 
Lama Kalssan Gya-tsho gave him the name of Lo-ssan Paldan Ye-se. 
On this occasion the Emperor of China, most of the Mongolian princes, 
the Taranatha Lama of Khalkha, the government of Lhasa with its 
dependent chiefs, and the three great monasteries of Sera, Dapun and 
Gahdan sent him innumerable presents of various sorts. About this time 
a shower of flowers fell from the sky, which glittered with many a rain- 
bow and conical halo of light. The atmosphere was laden with sweet 
fragrance. On a background of variegated clouds, the shapes of a lion, a 
tiger, an elephant, a horse and a man under a canopy of radiance, surrounded 
by innumerable flags, were manifest to the eyes of all. During the sixth 
year of his age he was carefully instructed in aphorisms and mysticism by 
his chief spiritual minister Lo-ssan Yon-dsin, 4 ? from whom he received 
the vows of monkhood when only seven years old. In the 10th lunar 
month of the same year he took his seat on the chair in the grand 
worship hall. On this occasion also, the Emperor of China, the Dalai 
Lama, the king of Tibet Miwan Sonam-tob and the different Mongol 
princes sent him presents, which amounted to more than 80,000 pieces 
of horse-hoof shaped silver, 6,000 gold «arf*, 10,000 pieces of satin, and 20 
porters' loads of precious stones, suoh as turquoises, corals, oat's-eyes, 

48 In ordinary Hindf meaning " good", " very good". 

47 His full name is Dorje-dsin-pa, Lo-ssafi-sod-pa, yofi-dsin. The Yajia-dhara 
or the holder of the Thunderbolt. 

18S2.] Sarat Chandra bi»— Contributions on Tibet. 81 

onyx, amber, and pearl : so that Tasi-lhunpo overflowed with riches. 
The young Panchhen gave sumptuous dinners to all the monasteries 
of U and Tsan about 700 in number and distributed alms consisting 
of silver pieces to all the monks. At the age of eleven he came to 
Lhasa to visit the Dalai Lama. Although he received instruction in the 
S'astras from the Dalai, yet he was seated on the right hand side on a 
throne as high as the Dalai's own. After a short stay at Lhasa he returned 
to Tsan. At the age of fifteen he again visited Lhasa, heard some of the 
sermons of the Dalai Lama, made offerings to the two sacred images of 
Akshobhya and Gautama, entertained the Serd, Dapufi and Gahdan monas- 
teries with tea and soup meal and distributed a great deal of money for 
charitable purposes. At the age of twenty he visited Lhasa a third time 
and received ordination to the priesthood from the Dalai Lama Kal-ssan 
Gya-tsho. This time his great liberality in religious donations and en- 
dowments, offerings to the sacred shrines, and alms of a silver saA 
(its. 2£) to each of the monks of Sera, Dapun, Gahdan, Potala, Radin 
and various other monasteries, numbering 118 in 17 and 370 in Tsang, 
made his name famous far and wide. There were few beggars who did 
not partake of his bounty. He also spent immense sums of money in 
administering medicines to the sick. The twenty-first year of the Panchhen'a 
age was inaugurated by the advent to Tasi-lhunpo of Chankya Kin- 
po-cbhe, the Emperor's spiritual guide, the greatest of the Imperial 
high priests of the celestial Empire, to see the Vicegerent of Buddha in 
the person of the Panchhen Rinpochhe. He made innumerable kinds 
of presents among' which the following were the principal ones : 6 rosaries 
of pearls, coral and amber, 20 horse-hoof silver plates, 100 suits of Tartar 
robes of the very best China satin and numberless scarves. Chankya 
Einpochhe stayed at Ta£i-lhunpo for several months, aud received from 
the Panchhen lessons in the Sutras and Tantras. In the year 1759 the 
Panchhen Kinpochhe sanctified the golden tomb of the late Dalai Lama, 
whose soul was reported to have appeared in the person of the child. At 
the special request o'f the Emperor, he visited Lhasa. On examination he 
found that the incarnation was unmistakeably genuine, and gave him the 
name of Lo-ssaft Jam pal Gya-tsho. After lavishing alms on the various 
monasteries he returned to Taii-lhunpo. Three years afterwards he again 
visited Lhasa to place the young Dalai on the throne of Potala He comme- 
morated the occasion by giving grand dinners to the temporal and 
spiritual lords of the country. The amount of gold and silver expended 
on this occasion could not be estimated. During the return journey 
to Tsii-lhunpo he visited Gyal-tse the monastery of which place he richly 
endowed. At Tasi-lhunpo he administered the vows of monkhood to several 
thousand novices. At the age of twenty-eight he visited Lhasa and initiated 

32 Sarat Chandra Via— Contributions on Tibet [No. 1, 

the young Dalai Lama into the priesthood. In the year 1766 he received a 
deputation from the Emperor of China, consisting of Asakhan Kwan 
Ampan, the keeper of the grand seal frag- wan Paljor, a 3rd grade mandarin 
Khi-ya-thelen, together with twenty other officials. They brought him the 
Emperor's letter written on thirteen gold tablets, each an inch thick, 
3 inches broad and about 20 inches long. The following are the contents 
of the letter: 

"The commands of the all-powerful Hwaii 48 (Emperor) derived of 
old from heaven, extend over all the world. The four great oceans alone 
encompass the reign of bis excellent laws which are essential for the 
well-being and happiness of mankind. Throughout all the quarters in all 
ages, the fame of Hwan's merciful and generous protection is proclaimed. 
He adores and venerates the sacred creed of the yellow hat of sublime 
precepts, whose saints, pre-eminently holy in the moral virtues, have 
toiled according to the canonical rules. Thou, O precious Panchhen ! 
having fully comprehended the teachings of that sacred creed, sittest over 
the head of the Dalai Lama. Thy illustrious predecessor has obtained 
sainthood. Thou, too, during this sojourn in the world by the obser- 
vance of discipline and moral rectitude, shouldst obtain sanctity. Till now 
thou bast grown more and more exalted. By this grant of a golden 
diploma and seal the all-powerful Hwaii respectfully appoints thee to the 
dignities and offices of thy spiritual ancestors, to be the sovereign, spiritual 
and temporal, of the great province of Tsan. For the propagation of the 
sacred religion over all the earth, and for the spread of thy holy fame far and 
wide, thou wilt as of old have a general authority over all Tibet. Vouchsafe 
the blessing of thy mercy and prayers over us in this ceutral dominion ! 
The 4th day of the 1st winter month, in the 30th year of the reign of 
the Emperor Chhin-Lun 49 (of Nam-kyon or celestial protector). ** 

To this the Panchhen returned a dignified reply. In the year 1770 
he was invited to Lhasa to supervise the education of the young Dalai 
Lama. This time also he lavished his bounties over the monks and the 
beggars of the country. " In the year 1771 he received an embassy from the 
Duk-desi (Deba-Raj&) of Bhutan named Shidar (^G'S^) which brought 
him presents of some value. The Panchhen in return deputed one of his 
secretaries to Bhutan with a letter of advice. Being informed of the miscon- 
duct of the Deba Raja towards the Ghatika Raja (Raja of Cooch Behar) whose 
territories had been invaded by the Bhutanese and who had himself been led 
in chains to the capital of Bhutan, the Panchhen sent a messenger to Bhutan 
urging the immediate release of the captive Raj 4. The Deba wrote him 
to say that he (the Deba) implicitly obeyed the command of the Lama by at 

48 A Chinese word. 

49 In English works on China he is called Kyen-lung. 

1882.] Sarat Chandra D&8— Contributions on Tibet. 33 

once setting the Raja at liberty. The receipt of this letter greatly delighted the 
Panchhen. In the meantime the armies of the Ghatika Raja had applied for 
help from the owner of Bangala (Warren Hastings), who having espoused the 
Ghatika Raja's cause, 60 made certain proposals to the Deba, to which the latter 
did not agree. This difference gave rise to something like a war between 
tbe Lord of Bangala and Deba Shidar. It resulted in disasters being brought 
upon the Deba and in the occupation of a portion of his territory by the Lord 
of Bangala. To avert this calamity, Deba Shidar applied for mercy and 
intervention to this quarter, 51 at which the Panchhen, unable to bear 
the miseries of a large number of afflicted people, sent a Deputy to the 
Court of the Lord of Bangala, entreating him to forgive the Deba Raja 
his misconduct, to restore him his territories, and to put an end to further 
hostilities. Pleased with the mild and pacific tone of the letter, the Lord 
of Bangala at once complied with the Panchhen's requests. Thus by 
dispelling the causes of rancour and quarrel between the two powers, 
he established amity and peace, the direct consequence of which was the 
establishment of an unrestricted commercial intercourse between the different 

With a view to make offerings and oblations to the great Bodhisattva 
at Dorje-dan, 62 to the sacred cavern of Gaya-gauri, to the great city of 
Prayaga, and the great river Nairanjana (now called Lilajan or Phalgu), he 
despatched to India Tun-rampa of Don-tse Lo-ssan tsherin, 63 and three 
Lamas together with nine young monks. The three Lamas, being unable to 
stand the excessive heat of the country, perished on the way. The Tibetan 
travellers had to encounter many difficulties and fears arising from the 
immense distance of the journey, the burning heat of the country, the 
venomous serpents, the wild and ferocious animals, and more especially 
from the bands of robbers that infested the country at large ; and to 
crown their troubles, the princes of the frontier states had stationed 
guards to stop foreign intercourse. Yet, depending on the efficacy of the 
blessing of their spiritual Lord, 54 they succeeded in accomplishing their 
object. On declaring that they were the Taii Lama's priests, sent on 
pilgrimage, the Rajas of the frontier states did not molest them. On the other 
hand they received friendly assurances and warm receptions from the different 
classes of people in India. The Bhupdl of Varanasi (now called Kaii), named 

" Rija of Cooch Behar. 
« Tibet 

a Dorje-dan means Vajrasana or the diamond seat of Buddha at Buddha Gaya. 
" A town of considerable size near Gyal-tse. It is well known for being the spot 
where the spiritual prime minister usually takes his birth. 
M Panchhen Binpochhe. 

34 Sarat Chandra Das— Contribution* on Tibet. [No. 1, 

Chete Sing Babadur, 55 to whom they carried the Panchhen's letter, gave them 
a cordial reception. He kindly provided the travellers with passports and 
letters patent which enabled them to travel in wooden conveyances, 5 * as 
respectable parties. The same prince, having furnished them with convoys, 
they reached Dorje-dan in a fortnight from Varanasi At Dorje-dan they 
made grand offerings and performed divine services of five kinds before the 
image of the Maha Bedhisattva, and paid reverence to the Tirtha-dharas, and 
S'ivaridhi. They gave dinners to priests, beggars and other men. At this 
time, hearing that the Mahaguru Tasi Lama's offerings had reached Dorje- 
dan, people from different quarters assembled near the spot to see the sight. 

These spectators, full of faith, joining their palms, paid homage 
to the Supreme dispenser of mercy according to their own religious 
persuasions. They also made presents of edibles and various sorts of 
articles to these Tibetan worshippers. The travellers, having made their 
offerings at other important places of pilgrimage, arrived before the Prince 
of Varanasi who, according to the Mah&guru's commands, conducted 
religious services at the Buddhist shrine of * Varanasi. He showed 
much hospitality and kindness to these Gelons 67 with readiness and pleasure. 
At last, in order to pay homage to the Mahaguru Tasi Lama, Chete Sing 
Bahadur deputed his general Lal& Kas'miri Mall and two of his officers, 
Gusankshi-puri and Sopa-ram, to Tasl-lhunpo. Accompanying the 
Gelons they safely arrived before His Holiness. The account of the suc- 
cessful termination of this perilous pilgrimage, the offerings and oblations 
made to the sacred places and shrines, the hospitality of the natives of 
India, Chete Sing Bahadur's cordial reception of the monks and more par- 
ticularly the arrival of the Indian envoys, with presents and letters, trans, 
ported His Holiness with joy. Chete Sing's letter which was written in 
Nagari, when translated into Tibetan, rah thus : — 

"To the most precious and exalted personage, the all-knower who 
sits like the parent of all living beings that inhabit the region encom- 
passed by the heaven and earth. 

" We are in receipt of your favour, the perusal of which has afforded us 
as much pleasure as could be derived from an actual meeting. The enclosure 
consisting of satin and gold has been placed by me on the crown of my 
head as the best of blessings. In accordance with your request, I arranged 
for the comfortable journey of the Gelons sent hither by you. They 
visited all the important shrines and places of pilgrimage, such as Dorje-dan, 
Prayaga and others. I provided them with letters of recommendation and 
passports as required by them, by means of which they travelled from place to 

** Chait-sing, the RajA of Benares. 

•• Palanquins. 

« Buddhist priests in Tibet are called Gulon (Skr. Bhikshu). 

1882.] Sarat Chandra Das — Contributions on Tibet. 35 

place, well received by all men. After fulfilling their mission they hare re- 
turned here. The bearer of this letter Lala Ka£miri Mall is my faithful 
minister and general. I entreat you to be kind to him as well as to his com- 
panions, Gusankshi-puri and Sopa-ram, who are also my favorite and trust- 
worthy servants. Every act of kindness and benevolence rendered to them 
will be gratefully acknowledged by me. I also entreat you to bless me now 
and then with your kind favours. We shall also send letters to your 
Holiness. All news about this quarter will be communicated to you by 
my minister General Kasmiri Mall and the Gelons. This letter of mine 
written in Nagari I despatch with the accompanying presents, consisting of 
a model temple of the Maha-Bodhi-Man4* °f Dorje-dan, an excellent watch 
studded with precious stones, a mirror, tusks of elephant, yanti (jade) and 
many other curious articles." 

His Holiness was exceedingly pleased with these presents and expres- 
sions. On the llth of the 10th lunar month a gentleman, named Bogle 
Saheb (George Bogle), with a small retinue arrived in Tibet from Bangala 
(Bengal). After making presents which consisted of many curious articles 
of glass and toys, he solicited an interview with His Holiness. He was well 
received, admitted into the hall of audience and seated on a state cushion. 
After tea was served, His Holiness and Bogle Saheb conversed together 
on different topics in the Nagari language. On the day of the full moon 
of the same month, Bogle Saheb's party were entertained at a grand dinner 
and received many presents. The Panchhen often entered into long dis- 
courses with Bogle Saheb and evinced great delight at his answers and 
questions. His Holiness's kind attachment to Bogle Saheb resembled that 
of a spiritual guide to his disciple or of a Lama to his almsgiver. An 
account of his conversation with Bogle Saheb, and his correspondence with 
the Lord of Bangala will be found elsewhere. On the 7th of the 3rd 
month of the following year, after a residence of five months in Tibet, Bogle 
Saheb accompanied by Dagdor Saheb (Dr. Hamilton) and retinue, after 
attending a dinner given by His Holiness, started for Bangala. Mak- 
ing the usual salutation by prostrating themselves before His Holiness, 
loaded with excellent presents consisting of silk apparel and other 
things, and furnished with the Panchhen's reply to the letter of the Lord 
of Bangala, they rode off. A few days afterwards His Holiness dismissed the 
Envoy, General Kasmiri Mall, with two of his assistants loading them 
with presents, and furnishing the Envoy with a letter for the Prince of 
Yar&nasi in the Aryavarta. 

In the year 1777 the Panchhen visited Lhasa and administered the 
tows of ordination to the Dalai Lama. He also distributed alms to the 
different monasteries of Lhasa. At the age of forty-two, in the 1st lunar 
month of the year 1779, he received an invitation from the emperor of 

36 Sarat Chandra Das — Contributions on Tibet. [No. 1, 

China. The letter was written on a gold tablet, and inclosed was a pearl rosary. 

After compliments and enumeration o£ various titles, the emperor continued 

" Most precious Panchhen Erteni, I beg thee to honour me with a visit. 

I long to see thy face." The Panchhen in reply wrote thus, " I too long to 

gratify myself by the sight of the golden face of your Imperial Majesty. 

Accordingly I have resolved to start for Pekin." On the receipt of this, the 

Emperor in the course of a few months sent three letters one after another, 

thanking His Holiness for the promised visit. On the 17th of the 6th lunar 

month, on a Friday, at noon, His Holiness left TaSi-lhunpo for Pekin, little 

thinking that he would never return to his own country. At Yan pa-chen 

great preparations were made for his reception. Here the Dalai Lama, the 

king of Tibet Thi-chhen Erteni Noman Khan, the two Ampan, the four 

ministers of State, the Lamas, princes, nobles and householders of the 

realm assembled together to welcome His Holiness and pay him farewell 

honours. They all approached him with their parting offerings which 

consisted of gold, silver, blankets, ecclesiastical vestments, ponies, mules, 

yaks, jo, 58 and countless other things. The Dalai accompanied him to a 

distance of 8 days' journey, after which he returned to Lhasa from a place 

called Taii-than. 

He met 59 with his messengers on their way back from Pekin at Lhun~ 
dubphug, a place on the west of Chha-dan-La in the Kham country. Here 
he made a halt of three days which he occupied in conversation with the 
messengers. The emperor, in making inquiries, is said to have observed 
" How is the health of Panchhen Erteni ? How is that of the Dalai Lama ? 
Is the Dalai Lama making fair progress in gaining accomplishments ? 
Request him, in my name, not to fail to honour me with a visit next year, 
by which time a great temple, like that of Pot&la, will have been erected 
here in China. This year, also, I have raised a monastery like that of Tasi 
lhunpo for him. 

"My mind is eagerly waiting for the day when the Panchhen Ereteni's 
advent will sanctify this place. I am occupied with that thought alone. 
When His Holiness arrives in the vicinity, I shall send Wang and the 
chief ministers of state to escort him hither. My heart will overflow with 
joy, when he will arrive hereto converse with me. The very sight 
of his thrice-sacred face will increase my moral merits ten thousand- 

So saying he handed over to them his portrait to be presented to the 
Panchhen as a token of his deep respect for him. When the letter with the 
enclosures and the portrait were laid before the Panchhen, he was trans- 

48 A cross breed between a yak and a cow. 

M 28th of the 7th lunar months 41 days after starting from Tafi-lhinpo. 

1882.] Sarat Chandra Bis— Contributions an Tibet. 37 

ported with joy. He paid great reverence to the portrait, keeping it always 
before him. - Then, hy slow marches he reached Ku-bum. 80 Here he 
stayed till the 10th of the 3rd lunar month, residing in the new palace 
erected by the emperor of China at a cost of Rs. 2,50,000. Here in the 
Amdo country, there were 50,000 monks in all the monasteries, whom 
he entertained with food, besides distributing alms of one $aH to each 
monk. From the date of his starting from Ta£i-lhunpo to the date of 
his arrival at Fekin, not a single month passed in which he did not receive 
five or six letters with gold tablets and rich presents. The Emperor's 
arrangements for his comfortable accommodation and convenience were 
complete. jSach halting station was furnished with 2,000 pack-ponies, 100 
dromedaries, 40 Mongol felt tents, 100 cotton tents, stuffed seats and 
cushions, chairs, and other furniture and utensils. A daily allowance of 
Rs. 3,325 was allotted from the Imperial exchequer to meet the daily ex- 
penses of the Panchhen's party. At each station there waited a chamberlain, 
a master cook, a Don-$er, 61 a store-keeper, several purveyors, a chaplain, 
a Dorjelopon or master of the ceremonies, a physician, a chief of the 
grooms, orderlies, cooks and key bearers. The Panchhen Rinpochhe's party 
consisted of 500 monks, 100 soldiers or guards, 800 servants, 100 clerks, 
besides a few Indian Ach&ryas 6 * Mongols, Chinese and Tibetan deputa- 
tions, consisting of Le-hu, Ampan, a few officers of the Ampan's staff, Eerteni 
Komankhan, Ta-latna 63 and many other officers of State. A large convoy of 
provisions also accompanied them. The Emperor sent for him his own private 
dress, belt, fur hat, and other necessaries of a journey. Fruits and many 
sorts of dainties, and delicious dishes, and a few fish some of winch were 
about thirteen feet long. The latter, though considered very delicious by 
the Chinese, were scrupulously avoided by the Panchhen and his party. 64 All 
the Lamas and chiefs of Amdo and Kham, the laity and the clergy, 
together with the princes of the 10(5 Mongol principalities, and the gover- 
nors of the thirteen provinces of China proper, came to pay him obeisance 
and receive benedictions from his hand. Even on the way he gave 
the vows of monkhood to three lakhs of novices. By these kind and 
generous acts he won the affection of all people. He started from 
Kubum on the 10th of the 3rd month, and reached Silin fort, from which, 
by slow marches he arrived at a place called Pelokhe, where a deputa- 
tion from the Emperor, consisting of the High Commissioner Ta-phu, 

00 Vulgarly pronounced Kumbum. The birthplace of Tsofikhapa. 
n The receiver of guests. 
Pandits or Buddhists. 

n High rank Lamas are called T&Mamas by the Chinese. 

M At Taii-lhunpo fish life is considered very sacred. Although the livers teem 
with varieties of fish, scarcely do the people of Tsan kill or eat them. 

88 Sarat Chandra Dab — Contributions on Tibet, [No. 1, 

high Lama, S'erab dorje, and others waited upon him. They brought 
him the following reception presents ; a yellow sedan chair with 
golden spire, a pair of yellow and red umbrellas, a pair of red and 
yellow fans, embroidered with figures of dragons in gold, and nu. 
merous other things. Then slowly marching on he arrived at Taika, 65 
where the Imperial high priest Chankya Rinpochhe, accompanied by the 
Emperor's Gth son, also arrived to receive him. The meeting was an event 
of great joy and happiness to both parties. After exchanging presents, 
the high priest presented the Panchhen with the Emperor's letter written 
on a gold tablet, accompanied by a Lama crown studded with pearls, pearl 
rosaries, one of the best steeds from the Emperor's stable, a Yan-te (Jade) 
saddle, gold pots, and fine sorts of dresses. 

From here he started off in advance 2000 loads of Tibetan articles, 
consisting of images, blankets, shawls, Ac., and travelling slowly on he 
arrived on the shore of Dolonor 66 where he halted for 8 days. Here 
more than a million of Mongols assembled to receive benediction from his 
hands. He was then invited to a big monastery belonging to the Chankya 
Rinpochhe, where, after giving dinners to the monks of 12 monasteries, 
he distributed alms to the mendicants. Proceeding on by slow marches, 
on the 22nd of the 7th month, he arrived at Ye-hor. 67 Here he was met 
by the chief ministers of state, ordered to be in attendance for his Holi- 
ness's reception. Party after party of the nobles and chiefs of the 
empire arrived, all of whom dismounting from their horses, thrice pros- 
trated themselves before His Holiness. After the usual presentation of a 
lck&tag they received benediction from his hands. The procession of these 
nobles was a pretty sight indeed. At midday they conducted his Holiness 
to the top of a hill to show him the scenery of the surrounding country. 
His Holiness was delighted with the extreme beauty of the place. The 
green mountains and valleys, according as they were near or distant, resembled 
heaps of emerald or sapphire. The disposition of the natural obelisks of 
rocks, resembling so many piles of chhorten, and the fine verdure, with rows 
of juniper and birch, round numerous gardens, ravished his eyes. On all 
sides, there were bowers and orchards bearing varieties of flowers and fruits. 
The green corn-harvest that filled the country, the endless springs, and 
silvery cataracts that poured forth their foaming water from the neighbour- 
ing mountains, and the charming serenade from the warbling groves greatly 

M Called in Tibetan Tafi-Chhog-phel. 
M Lake Dolonor or seven lakes. 

«7 Visited by Col. Prijevalsky who calles it Jehole or Yehole. The Chinese call 
it Ye-hor and the Tibetans call it Tahe-jole. 
68 Khatag means a presentation Scarf. 

1882.] Sarat Chandra Vis— Contributions on Tibet 39 

refreshed him who was so long tired by continual marches in the endless 
steppes of Mongolia, and broke the monotony of his journey. The Emperor's 
palace, environed by numerous shrines, appeared like a celestial mansion. 
The most remarkable of all the buildings at Ye-hor were the two monas- 
teries called Potala and TaSi-lhunpo, newly erected after their prototypes 
of IT and Tsan. Their workmanship and architectural finish struck 
him with wonder. Just as he was stepping to the back of this sublime 
eminence, there arrived, accompanied by Chankya Rinpochhe and many 
high officials, the Emperor's prime minister Ar-a-phu-gun, to conduct 
His Holiness before the Emperor's presence. First they presented him with 
the Emperor's kh&tag/** and with tea. He was then conducted, carried on a 
State sedan, towards the palace gate, the left and right sides of which were 
lined with innumerable banners and umbrellas, amidst the solemn and 
imposing music of drums, cymbals, and clarionets. The Emperor, descend- 
ing from his throne, came to the door of the reception-room to welcome 
His Holiness. As soon as he saw the Emperor's face, the Panchhen was 
attempting to kneel down, when the Emperor stopped him. Then the 
Emperor, presenting the auspicious kh&tag, softly touched his hands and 
said — u Welcome, Lama ! Is your Holiness's health all right ? On 
account of the length and tediousness of the journey, I believe your 
Holiness has become exceedingly fatigued ?" " By your Imperial Majesty's 
mercy and kindness," replied the Panchhen, " no fatigue or weariness could 
do me harm." After a copious exchange of sincere and polite expressions, 
the Emperor, holding his hand, conducted him to the top of a spacious 
throne where, seated confronting each other, they conversed as intimate 
friends. The Emperor added, " Your Holiness has arrived here at a very 
happy and auspicious time. To-day is the 70th anniversary of my birth. 
I am exceedingly delighted." After a few minutes' stay here, the Emperor 
conducted him to the great palace, where seated as before, they both re- 
freshed themselves with delicious tea and engaged in conversation. On this 
occasion the Emperor took off from his own neck the necklace of pearls of 
inestimable value, — each pearl as large as an apricot — and put it on the 
Lama's neck. He also presented His Holiness with a yellow satin hat, 
the top of which was adorned with a pearl as large and regular as a 
hen's egg. Presently, they went to the new monastery of Tasl-lhunpo 
where a grand and sumptuous dinner was served. As soon as it was 
finished, the Panchhen's presents were laid before the emperor. They 
consisted of a silver manual, images of Buddha, Tsonkhapa and 
Sambhara wrought in solid gold, one thousand gold tarf*,* 9 1000 saddle 
ponies, turquoises, corals, and amber, besides incense sticks, 70 European 

89 A gold san is equivalent to 60 Rupees. 
70 Called in China joss-sticks. 

40 Sarat Chandra Das — Contributions on Tibet. [No 1, 

broadcloth, Tibetan broadcloth, and shawls, all of which formed 100 
horse-loads. The Jasag Lama's 71 presents to the Emperor were half as 
much as those of his master the Panchhen Binpochhe. The Sopon-Chhenpo 
and chamberlain 72 also made presents, each half as much as the above. 
The Emperor, at the first meeting, had made the following presents : Mali- 
dais of gold and silver, three excellent embroidered pictures of the three 
Tantrik systems, Guhya-Samaja, Sambara Chakra, and Bhairava Chakra, 
a few of the finest gold painted China cups, a gold mendicant's platter, a 
gold spittoon, a gold water- sprinkler, a pair of gold vases, a gold incense- 
burner, a square brocade carpet studded with turquoise ; many articles of 
jade and crystal, 500 scarves, 500 gold sad, 50 of the very best satin robes, 
9 tiger skins, 9 leopard skins, 9 fox skins, 1000 white ermine skins, 1000 
beaver skins, and 1000 lamb skins of the finest fur. The Jasag Lama and 
others also received suitable presents. The next day the emperor went to 
return visits at the Panchhen's residence at Ye-hor Taiilhunpo. From 
the 23rd of the month for two days they met each other twice or thrice daily 
and talked on various topics, each time exchanging presents. From tbe 
25th for 12 days they spent their time in witnessing magical and illusive 
feats and performances, wonderful sights, horse-racing, dances, operas and 
theatricals. During his residence at Ye-hor the Panchhen did not forget 
his religious duties. He initiated many thousands of monks, made offer- 
ings to all the temples and viharas, and distributed alms to the congre- 
gation of monks. All these acts of piety and virtue raised him ' high in 
the Emperor's esteem. One day the Emperor presented him with a seal of 
yanti (jade) and a diploma written on golden tablets. In his conversation the 
Emperor expressed great anxiety for the welfare of the Tibetans — " How 
is the Dalai progressing in his studies ? What interest does he shew in 
hearing religious sermons ? Does he possess intelligence and talents ? Does 
he show parental love and affection for his subjects ? What is his age P 
What are the religious accomplishments of the Panchhen himself ?" — were 
some of the points of his enquiries, to all of which excellent answers were 
given by his Holiness. The Emperor, in accordance with the custom of his 
ancestors, presented the Panchhen with the Imperial Diploma and seal, 
appointing him the sovereign of the whole of Tibet, 73 advising him to exert 
himself well to promote religion and the welfare of his subjects. The 
Panchhen then addressed the Emperor : 

71 Jasag Lama is the prime minister of the Panchhen Kinpochhe and Lord Treasurer 
of TsaA. 

7S Called in Tibetan Dsimpon. 

78 This does not rob the Dalai of his right, because the Panchhen and the Dalai 
bear the relation of spiritual son and father, vice versa when they differ in age, and of 
brothers when they are of equal age. 

1882.] Sarat Chandra Das— Contributions on Tibet. 41 

" O Heaven-elected sovereign, incarnate Manju-ghosha ! w Thou who art 
like the parent of all moving beings inhabiting this earth and the illuminated 
firmament, especially of China, Tibet and Tartary (Hor), hast vouchsafed to 
show so much kindness to such a petty Lama as my humble self. Where- 
fore we shall gratefully apply ourselves to praying to the three Holies 
to prolong your .Imperial Majesty's life and happiness. There is nothing 
more to convey to your Majesty than the expressions of our sincere thanks 
and assurance of serving yopr Majesty to the best of our power in all spiri- 
tual matters." On the 28th of the 8th lunar month they bid good-bye to 
Yehor. On the 1st of the 9th month the Panchhen arrived at the yellow 
shrine of the Imperial palace of Fekin where he took up his residence. 
The Emperor paid him a visit at the palace of Kema park. On the 10th 
he was invited to the Emperor's palace, where he spent three days. This 
time both he and the Emperor conversed in private, for 6 hours. Afterwards 
he visited all the palaces of the Emperor, conversed with the chiefs and nobles 
of Pekin, sent offerings to the 28 temples of the Emperor, and distributed 
aims and food to about 10,000 monks. The Emperor entertained him 
with several dinners and theatricals, and at times he heard his sermons. 
Even at Pekin his Holiness did not fail to administer the vows of priest- 
hood to several thousand monks. 

On the night of the 25th he felt a strong headache and irritating pains 
in his nose. In the morning he communicated his ailment to his servants. 
Next morning Sopon Chhenpo asked him how he felt during the night. 
Nothing very serious, replied the Lama. On the night of the 26th he did 
not take any food and said that he ailed very much. He also complained of 
colic and biliousness. All these symptoms of approaching danger alarmed 
the Sopon Chhenpo who at once communicated his fears to his colleagues. 
The Chankya Rinpochhe and some of the Emperor's physicians, came to feel 
his pulse. They declared, that except some disorders and bodily agita- 
tions, they saw nothing so serious in his pulse as would tend to endanger 
his life. On the 27th his Holiness performed the service of Mahdkaia for 
the Emperor's benefit. Hearing of the illness of his Holiness from the 
Chankya Rinpochhe, the Emperor requested him to take a few days' rest. 
The Panchhen himself also thought that a short cessation from labour 
might do him good. After a few days' rest, he seemed to recover. During 
this time he performed many pious acts, giving alms to 7,500 beggars, 
and ransoming 3,00,000 animal lives. His illness again returned. The 
Emperor, unmindful of ceremonies, privately attended him with two of his 
chief physicians who administered medicines to him. After this, his 
Bprightliness to some extent increased, and his cheerfulness revived. 

74 The Emperor of China is the incarnation of Manju S'ri or Manju Ghosha. the 
Lord of learning and wisdom. 

42 Sarat Chandra D&9— Contribution* on Tibet [No. 1, 

He was always merry when in the company of Chankye Rinpochhe and 
the Emperor's fifth son. Outwardly, there were do traces of indisposition , 
but it was apparent that his usual temper and appearance had undergone 
some change, and his friends and servants when they saw that he could 
take no food at all became very uneasy at heart. Once, Sopon Chhenpo, 
drawing up his sleeves, saw an eruption resembling small-pox on his arms. 
He at once showed it to the Jasag Lama. 

Being informed of this, the Emperor immediately sent his best physi- 
cians to attend his Holiness. Examining the pulse, they found nothing 
ominous, but could not mistake the eruption as other than that of small- 
pox. They gave him some medicines, but to no effect. He soon succumbed* 
On the 1st of the 11th month, he sent for the two Indian Pandits who 
had accompanied him in all his travels from Ta$i-lhunpo, one of whom 
happened to be absent, but the other, named Furuagir, came. Seeing Pur- 
nagir's face, his Holiness's became cheerful, and his last words were ad- 
dressed to Purnagir in the Arya language. In the afternoon, sitting up 
in a cross-legged posture like Buddha Amit&bha, he passed away from this 
world, A few minutes after, his person, still retaining its former brightness, 
contracted to the size of a boy. During this portentous interval there 
appeared many auspicious omens and sights. This melancholy event 
cast the whole of Pekin into mourning. The Emperor overwhelmed 
with sorrow, did not come out of his chamber for many days. The Sopon 
Chhenpo, Jasag Lama, Chahkya Rinpochhe were the chief mourners. The 
Emperor preserved the corpse in a coffin of gold and made offerings to it 
for 100 day 8, The Emperor and the government of Tsan distributed 
immense alms to the mendicants and the destitute for the benefit of the 
departed. Offerings were sent to all the monasteries and religious establish- 
ments of China, Amdo, Tibet and Hor for the increase of the moral merit 
of the deeply lamented Panchhen, which cost 32 millions of Rupees. The 
Emperor constructed a chhorten of gold at a cost of 42,000 Rupees or 7,000 
gold so A in which the coffin was placed. On the 12th of the 2nd month, in 
the following year he sent up this massive tomb to Ta£i-lhunpo, engaging 
500 conveyors. The Chankya Rinpochhe and the Cth prince accompanied 
the remains as far as three days' journey. Great honours were paid to the 
remains of this deeply lamented and illustrious guest by all classes of men of 
the celestial Empire. The arrangements for the reception of the remains 
were equal to what were made for the Panchhen during his journey. At the 
command of the Emperor the Ampan and many of the generals accompanied 
the remains to TaSi-lhunpo. Immense offerings were made to the coffin 
on the way. Headed by the Dalai Lama, all the Lamas of U and 
Tsan came to make obeisance to their late beloved spiritual guide and 
sovereign whose remains reached Taii-lhunpo on the 21st of the 6th month. 


Sarat Chandra D6s— Contributions on Tibet. 


All the earnings of the deceased were spent in pious services. About 
200,000 silver sai were expended in alms to the poor, and all the 
presents, made bj the Emperor, together with those obtained from 
other sources, of the estimated value of 4,15,665 *aA were spent in 
erecting his tomb and in decorating and adorning it with precious stones 
and satin flags on which were woven such mystic phrases as Ye-dharma-hetu, 
Ac. This was the greatest and noblest and perhaps the wisest of the 
sovereign Lamas that ever appeared within the snow-girt realm of Tibet. 
Equally wise and noble was his friend the great Chhinlun, the Emperor 
of the celestials. 


Names of the important Stages of TaU Paldan Teie Lama's Journey 
from Tati-lhunpo to Peicin. 1779 A. D. 


1. Tasi-son (a village). 

2. Dorje-po (a village). 

8. Lug-dofi-shik& (a large village). 
4. Tsan-tsan-naga (a small lake). 

6. Shon-shon-d<&-kar-gan (an insignificant vil- 

6. Lha-bu-kar-teg. 

7. Ta-bab-sum-do (the junction of three roads). 

8. Dsotn-than (plain). 

9. Lhi thao-kon (pasture plain). 

10. Mi-kyansum-do. 

11. Yan-tan-sam pa (bridge). 

12. Sog-bu-lam-nag. 
18. S'og-bu-pa-ma. 

14. Yafi-pa-Chan, tali thoA-mon. (River Yafi-pa- 

chan with a bridge.) 

15. Na-thu-mo, (one day's journey west of Lhasa). 



44 Sarat Chandra Das — Contributions on Tibet [No. 1) 

0|'g«r 16. Sha-bug. 

BV&Tf ft8'l»' 17. Bas-tsban-lha-chhui-kha (river) 

Sl^^WrS'l^' 18. Kur-karmai-do. 

Vac 19. Ne-u-than. 
"* -v 

QVTfVW W'ac 20. Dam-tod-ta£i-than (a large village). 

WBVffl'HtVM* 21. Chhorten-gya-pa (there is a Chhorten near it). 

QXjzj'xpr 22. Bab-ron (a small village). 

VQKlf 23. Na-taA-mo. 

Mffl W 24. Wyug-chhu-kha (river). 

*"*W2" ^' S'a-pur-thA (swampy place). * 

WWVT 26. Chhu-kar-mo (river). 

WJ'Tf* 27; Nak-chhu-mani (a long Mendan near the vil- 
lage. This is the boundary between Tibet 
and Kham). 

f*W Kham. 

WJ'^'S' 28. Nak-chhupar-bu (a large town with a garri- 
soned fort and a monastery). 

1 (5'icror ^V 29. Tha-tshan-la-deb. 

S'Vq"*!*' 30. Chhu-nak-gan (steppe). 

i'^Fyifl' 31. Cbyo-pho-de-rog (steppe). 

WwSof 32. S'ag-thil (steppe). 

WW*f 33. Tag-kar-mo (steppe). 

J^QJQ^flJT 34. fftig-lai-sam (a high mountain). 

jp'ffTg*' 85. Lhun-dug-bdg (steppe). 

UCQT 36. Dan-la (a high mountain). 

&•$'!»' 37. Tsharchhu-kha (a hot spring). 

OTq'ffyr 38. Bal-va-lu-yul (steppes). 

"W* 1 39. Aka-dam-ehhu (an extensive swamp)* 

1 A mountain of low altitude. 


Sarat Chandra Das — Contributions on Tibet. 





mi mi ^ 


1 * y ok "v 






Tag-kar-chhun-va (a rocky hill). 
Tag-kar-chhe-va (a rocky peak). 
To-lonp&-thur (a cluster of seven mountains). 
Kyan-chhui-ntib (river). 
Me-dothan (a plain filled with flints). 
San-khtiptin-gyiSar fto-kyithan. 

46. Tun-dugda (steppe). 

47. Tun-t hog (steppe). 

48. Na-mo-chhe (steppe). 

49. Hor-chhendul-go (steppe). 
60. Tha-tshansum-do (steppe). 

51. Di-chhti (a great river larger than the Tsafipo 

near Taii-lhunpo.) 

52. Di-go-lailho-sam. 

53. Di-goi-laichyan-sam. 

54. Di-chhtiilho-dam. 

55. Na-mo-chhe (steppe). 

56. Lab-tse-kar-chhdn (obo). 

57. Chhu-mar-kha (river). 

58. Yak-go-te-ten (a high mountain). 

59. Sau-stim-do (steppe). 

60. Lan-ma-lun (steppe). 

61. Pa-yan-ha-raila-sam (a high mountain). 

62. La-tehgal-na-sam (on the back of this moun- 


63. La-matho-lo-ga (a small hill called Lama's 


1 A high mountain. 

North face. 

* South hank of Di-ohu, 




















46 Sarat Chandra Das — Contributions on Tibet. [No. 1, 

Zem&than (thorny plain). 

Khu-khu-Ama (steppe). 

Tsbokja-rin (a lake about 5 miles in length 
and a mile in breadth). 

Ma-chya (steppe). 

Tsho-soma* (small lake). 

Bo*hase-be*su (steppe). 

The-men-khu-tsu (steppe). 

Dam-kar (steppe). 

Ma-chhenbom*raikan-ri-thon (snow moun- 

Tdrinur gyi-lhoharas6 (lake). 

Xrig-chhu-tshen (a hot spring). 

S V*f ^T Upper Mongolia, Khokhokubu 

^fJ;Qr 75. S'o-ro-la (low mountain range). 

g^'afSTiCr 76. XTr-ge-ta-tshan (a camp monastery). 

S'W'TQF' 77. Chhu-migme-lon (streamlet). 

W$3 78. S'a-la-thu (nomad village). 


Iftl f^SM'ST^W 79. Alonbu-lag (contains many fountains). 

*r£>Y*T*rW' WW 80. Ta-tshantasi-gadanpal-jor-lin (monastery lo- 

^M^aiX'Icr cated in stone building). 

TffQJQ*$^'W 81. Ha-tho-lai (inner side of a mountain). 

w£**V*r 82. Tsho-tfWpo (lake Khokhonur). 

S^S'X* 83. Kdn-khu-re (nomad village). 

Wvfxr%<£fB[ g^ Ho-yor-tho-lo-keh (two peaks). 

S r S'3*<*W 85. Khu-khulo-keh (a hill). 

&' B W$if*(' 86. Tsha-gantho-lo-keh (a hiU). 

1 A very high and snowy mountain. 


1<* Ok 

Sarat Chandra Das — Contributions on Tibet. 



O Ck 


87. fJi-Dai-La (the mountains of Sun and Moon ). 

88. ToA-khorgon-pa (monastery presided over by 

a Khutug-tu and containing 300 monks). 





















89. Hal-jin-fa-pa. 

90. Ton-khorkhar (a fort and a town). 

91. Go-kyakhar (a fort and small town). 

92. Te-marthan (a fertile plain). 

93. Ku-bum or vulgarly KHm -bum (a large town). 


Silin (fortress and town containing 300,000 

Shi-yan Phan-yi (a Chinese town). 

Phin-tun-yi (a town). 

Kati-ten-tsi (a small town). 

Ken-pi (khar or fort and town with a popu- 
lation of 30,000). 

La-pa-chhin (a small town with about 10,000). 

Pin-kd-^an (small town). 

Ho khyo-d yi (town). 

S'o-lan-tsi (small town). 

Thon-cho-yi (small town). 

Ton-Ian (khar or fort and large town contain- 
ing 60,000 men). 
105. Phin-chhin-phu (a village). 

1 A mountain of moderate elevation. 

* A low mountain. 

9 Birth-place of TsoAkhapa. 


Sarat Chandra Das — Contributions on Tibet 

[No. 1, 











Vtf T 









wF<*fts'V s r 















3ra , <5j , v 





■V" "V -v ^\T 









Ssun-san (a town containing 20,000). 
Khwan-ko (village). 
Sa-yan-jan (military outpost). 
Tun-tsi (a Tillage). 
Yin-phiii-shu (a village). 

Alaksha, Lower Mongolia, in the sense 
that the mongolian plateaux slope 
down towards the north. 

Me-khe-t6-l(5n (nomad town). 

A-le-su-i-hu-tag (sandbanks and loam piles). 

Ye khe thun-keh (small nomad village). 

Hu-lan or Khu-lan (nomad village). 

Ho-yor Hii-tag (there are two wells here). 

Au Ion Hu tag (contains many wells). 

Thu-Myur Hala-ka (small nomad village). 

Pin-chhin-phu (a small Chinese fort). 

Kui-sa (khar or fort) a large fortress under a 

Mogul Prince son-in-law of the Emperor, 

contains 50,000 men. 

Ma -chlili (river Hoangho). 

Khih-chhin-ko-wu. (small nomad village). 

Tha-pun-au-po (contains 5 " obos"). 

Oon-khul-tshig (nomad village). 

Tho-tbu-le (pasture land). 

Tho-so-thu-'Am (small nomad village). 

Sti-ji (pasture land). 
On-lontho*lo-k& (a hilly place). 

Parotho-lo-ka (contains many hillocks). 

Mi-lan (a pasture land). 

Ha-rakopi (a small desert-like plain). 


Sarat Chandra Das — Contributions on Tibet. 



flprwvrewser 144. 



** Ok 


ft A 









15 L. 










131. Ool-chithu-sti-mi (a monastery). 

132. Chha-ganili-keh (a pasture hill). 

133. Chha-ganchhti-lo-thu (a plain filled with 

white stones). 

134. Mo-tonpu-lag (a fountain with trees). 

135. Por-su-Ha (a desert-like plain). 

136. Chha-ganso-por-ka (a chorten built of white 

Mur-ga-tshug (a mountain of low altitude). 
Cher-keh-i-gol (river). 
Pa-ga-na-rin Er-ge (a large landslip)* 
Ho-thon-gol (a large river). 
Ha-tan-Ho-shu (a rocky hill). 
Je-kehsu-thu-su-me (monastery). 
Tan-gye-liA (monastery, 100 monks). 
Thub-tan g6-phel-lin (monastery, 200 monks). 
Tasi Mi-gyur-lift (monastery, 150 monks). 
Mu-tai-to-kon (a tent monastery). 
Pa-ri-chhi (a nomad town). 
Ta-ra (a nomad town). 
Dor-je (a nomad town). 
Wan-pai-san (a high mountain). 
Pa-ga-pi-chhai-chhi (pasture-land). 
Pelo-ha (pasture-land). 
Tho-ga-mod (a nomad town). 
Ge-gan-ni-pee-s'iil (a large monastery). 
Khu-khe-ho-thu (a large fortress, 30,000 sol- 
diers and a population of 60,030). 
156. Khar-fton-po. 


Sarat Chandra Das — Contributions on Tibet 

[No. 1, 


























"* ^ o* "v" a "v-v 


*r«* - S'4W 






Chha-gan (a white stone chorten and small 

So-ber-ga (ditto ditto). 

Mai-tri (a small monastery). 

Chha-gankhu-khu-re (inhabited village with 

a few nomads). 
Tsa-hapo-lag (contains a fountain). 
Pum-pa-thu (pasture-land). 
O-su-thu (pasture-land). 
Tai-kai (gon-pa monastery) (monastery, 200 

Tel-der-pu-lag (contains a well). 
Pa-yon-bti-lag (contains a well). 
Thal-bu-lag (contains a well in the middle of 

the plain). 
Jun-na-rin O-sun (contains a streamlet). 
Chha-ganer-ge (a landslip), (*j is sometimes 

pronounced as ge and at others as heh). 
Ta-lanthu-rd (filled with a kind of shrub 

from which Chinese paper is made). 
Kun-joi-gom (nomad village). 
Ha-ya-tu-wai-suma (a large monastery con- 

taining 500 monks). 
Jib-ha-lan-tM (a range of hills). 
Er-teni-tog-fihin-O-pa (contains "obo"). 
Paga-hwa-char (contains a mine of soda). (covered with long grass). 
Tagi (a nomad town). 
Thon-jug (a nomad town). 


I -* <* 

1882.] Sarat Chandra Das-- Contribution* on Tibet. 61 

W.fl' Vf' 179. Nar-thu-sti-me (a small monastery). 

S* ^'V 180. Gun-Nvtira (a small lake). 

AH'S* 181. Sil-ge-khu (a nomad village). 

ift^a-^Wr 182. Shan-tui-gol (a small river). 

MI'S'W 183. Chha-gan-lag (contains a well). 

*5* # 1 1®^' Tsho-flun (contains a large Lamasary with 

3,000 monks, a place of commerce with 
20,000 people). 

VWI *V * 185. To-lon-nor (Dolonor). 

JHTWy^T 186. A'la-than-tu-shi (a nomad town). 

V'JTWV^" 187. Po-ra-un-der (contains pasture hills). 

-WV 188. €hog-to (a valley with pastures). 

IK'S' 189. YaA-su (a small stream). 

■&T&* 190. Nol-chhin (a nomad village). 

^jQ'WVq' 191, Sai-han-fa-pa (a high mountain which cannot be 

crossed in one day, — a shelter for robbers). 

NQ-WBTq* 192. Sai-han-O-pa (contains an " obo"). 

fc'*W*^ 'X^ 193, Chha-gan-ho*r<S (boulder-plains and undu- 
lated valleys). 

W*q - 194. S&n-ta-pa (a low hill). 

flQT- 195. Thai-ji (low hill). [mountains). 

q*iqr*W*r 196. Ker-chhi-lan-ama (a saddle between two 

jr«W W 197. Kur-gun-hara (a rocky valley). 

S'-W'Vq- 198. Mu-ran ta-pa (a high mountain). 

Q'JT^'y 199. Theme-ha-ta (contains a huge rock). 

^ ^'^f *** ^®®' ^"P*" 8 ^* (contains a small monastery). 



*f^fa &* 201. Ko-ko-g£-ther (Chinese town). 

*G'V 202. Shin-kim (contains^ Mogul and Chinese 


52 Sarat Chandra Das — Contributions on Tibet. [No. 1, 

Ye-hor (pho-dan or palace) ( Jehor or Jehole). 
Wan-£a-then (a large town). 
Kwan-yin-liA (a Chinese town). 
Har&-hotho (contains a fort and town). 
HuA-^i-lin (a large town). 
Wan-kya-yin-tse (a large city). 
Khyan-^a-ya (a large town). 
Hwan-tho-liA (a large town). 
Si-lin (a large town). 
Men-chan-haA (a town). 
Pan-£i-yin (a large town). 
Nan-thas-men (a large town). 
Yo-thiA-tse (a large town). 
Lo-chi-chho-ko (contains a stone-bridge). 
T a-mel (a small town). 
Ytin-san (ditto). 
Eho-yA-san (a large town). 
Nan-sl-so (a small town). 
Lan-kwa-su (a town). 
Chhin (a small town). 
Ba-ba-phu (dittp). 
Pekin (Imperial Palace and Capital). 
Ree-chyar-Hwan-si (contains Dalai Lamas 

•s. -V AT 






V***5 a* 


— ft * 


¥F s foi* 



V a -o^* , 




iift'Zii w 






<3T * * *T 








1 ft 




.^ft ft "V" 


*» CT'93'sry-pc;* 


^•sT-q^-q 2* 

ojQ'g'wa^fift q- 

1 Contains Emperor's palace. 

1882.] Sarat Chandra Das — Contributions on Tibet. 58 


Tson-khapa was born in 1378, A. D. 1 in the town of Tson kha 
(or Onion valley) in Amdo in Eastern Tibet. His father's name was 
Lubum-ge, and that of his mother Shin-ssah-a-chho. The house in 
which he was born was overhung by a sandal* wood tree rich in foliage. 
It is said to have borne a hundred thousand leaves, on every one of which 
was visible the naturally grown picture of Tathagata S'eiige-na-vo (Simha 
dhvani). There having spontaneously appeared on the bark of that 
wonderful tree the mantras sacred to ManjusVi, the protector of the three 
classes of beings, viz., men, suras and asuras, the men of the place 
erected a chaitya at its foot. A large monastery containing 10,000 monks 
was established near it and called the monastery of Kuburn Chamba- 
lin. It is said that the marvellous leaves of the selfsame sandal tree 
are even at the present day observed by pilgrims to bear the Tathagata's 
image inscribed, as it were, by nature. 

When three years old, Tson-khapa received the first initiatory 
sacrament from the celebrated Karmapa Lama Rolpai-dorje, who gave him 
the name Kun-gah-ninpo. At the age of seven the young novice is said 
to have been miraculously visited by Vajrapani and the Indian saint Dipan- 
kara Sri-jnana (called AtiSa in Tibet), from whose hands he received benedic- 
tion. Having attained his eighth year, he received the second sacrament of 
novices from the sage Ton-dub Rinchhen who changed his name to Lo-ssaii- 
tagpa or Sumatikirti in Sanskrit. From the same Lama he received 
instruction in the Sutras and Tantras. His study-room is said to have 
been filled with sacred volumes, the lustre of which served him for light. 
At the age of sixteen he visited Tibet proper, where in the principal monas- 
teries of IT and Tsan, such as Dewa-chan &c, he studied the sacred literature 
of the Buddhists under such eminent scholars as Lama Wumapa, Je-tsun 
Ben-dab-va, the hermit of Lho-brag named Lakyi-dorje, Ta£i-senge 
&c. At the age of twenty he took the monastic vows from Tshul-thim 
Binchhen, when he manifested a very powerful memory. He was able 
to recite at a time about 553 slokas of the Dulva without a mistake. He 
was afterwards initiated into the vows of Bodhisattva and others of the 
strictest kind appertaining to the Tantras. He now acquired the right 
to confer benediction on others. He also propitiated the divine mother 
Tari called Dolma in Tibet, Dugkar.sam&ja Guhya, Sambara, Bhairava 
and others of his tutelary dieties. The great Indian teacher, N&g&rjuna, 
Sfri Saraha and the all-knowing Buton, besides many other Indian and 

1 On the 10th lunar month of the year, bearing the name ' fire-bird/ of the 6th 
cycle in Tibetan chronology. 


54 Sarat Chandra Das — Contributions on Tibet. [No. 1, 

Tibetan Buddhists miraculously visited him at the time of his studying 
their metaphysical works. Of all these divine visitors Manju$ri, the god 
of learning and wisdom, was his greatest friend. In fact he acquired 
great proficiency in all classes of science then known in India or Tibet. 
In the whole of Kanchan or the Himavat country, he was unrivalled 
amongst the learned. Gonpo-chhag-dug or the six-armed Bodhisattva 
(Vajrapani). Pehar Gyalpo, VaiSrainana, the lord of death called Tam-chhen 
S'injese and other guardians of the world became his friends and helped 
hi in uninterruptedly in the work of Dharma and the preservation of 
moral discipline and purity among the clergy. 

Even from his boyhood Tson khapa used daily to commit sixteen 
pages of his text-books to memory. In Tibet he studied up to the thirty- 
sixth year of his age, when he mastered the Tibetan translation of the Sans- 
krit Buddhist scriptures and the idstras, the greater and smaller vehicles of 
law, the ancient and modern versions of Buddha's precepts, and the 
philosophies of the various heretical and Buddhist schools. By these 
accomplishments he became matchless in learning in Tibet. After 
finishing his studies he devoted himself to writing various commentaries 
and works, such as aphorisms, Lam-rim, Nag-rim, Tantras, Vinaya, 
Paramitas and logic. At the time of his commenting on the Tantrik work 
called Sambara-mula tantra, the god Sambara is said to have miraculously 
appeared before him and remarked — " Tson khapa ! even in India such 
excellent commentaries and synopses as yours were never made." At the 
time of his commenting on the " Kalachakra," its reputed author, the 
celebrated Chandra Kirti, Emperor of S'ambhala, is said to have inspired 
him. The Yeshe-khadoma (the fairies of learning) are said to have 
miraculously transported him to S'ambhala before the presence of that 
deified emperor. 

At the age of thirty-seven he bethought himself of paying a visit to 
India and invoked Manju-sVi to advise him on the matter. Hanju-sri 
personally appeared before him and said, " If by remaining in Tibet, through, 
the medium of yoga, you invoke the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas, great good 
will accrue to living beings. If, for that particular purpose which can as well 
be attained by residence in Tibet, you visit India, your life will be shortened, 
consequently you will ultimately do less good to the world. I therefore 
exhort you to follow Nagarjuna and Chandra Kirti in doctrinal theories, and 
Atisa in meditative science, and Upali in ritual and religious observances. 
O saintly Tsonkhapa ! let your school be diffused over the whole of Jambu- 
dvipa and let mankind abide by its teaching !" On hearing this, Tsongkhapa 
gave up the idea of visiting India. After thirteen years of meditation (yoga 
in solitude) he obtained samddhi, after which he saw several of his tutelary 
deities. Even the fairies of learning came in visible form to pay their 

1882.] Sarat Chandra Das — Contributions on Tibet. 55 

He acquired great proficiency in argumentative philosophy and vya- 
kar&na. Once, in the course of twenty days, he finished reading 100 volumes 
of Sutras and Tantras, and in thirty days he unravelled the intricacies of 
those hooks. His acquirements in the Alankara Vidya (rhetoric) and 
in Upadesa were considerable, for he was found capable of explaining three 
volumes of such works daily. He was possessed of rare gifts of elocution. 
In fact, being an inspired orator, in the midst of a crowded assembly con- 
sisting of several thousand men, he could make himself heard to the 
satisfaction of all. His delivery is said to have been uniform and engaging, 
being without variation in the pitch of his voice. Being free from any 
kind of disease either of mind or body, he preached with untiring zeal in the 
daytime and during the night time. He used to sit in yoga in communion 
with Buddhas and Bodhisattvas. " Such rare talents and assiduity" 
remarks a Tibetan author 2 "have never been noticed in any of the 
Tibetan Lamas of ancient or modern times." The works composed by 
Tsonkhapa are replete with sense and profound reasoning. Excellence 
of style, perspicuity and conciseness are their never-failing attributes. Few 
authors can boast of such excellencies as embellish his extraordinary writings. 
They are scrupulously free from errors and blunders of any kind. Arrange- 
ment and judicious order are no unimportant characteristics of his writings. 
His works are faultless in the qualities called anga, pratyanga and mula, 
in consequence of which they are easy and intelligible to the general 
reader. In Grammar and Dialectics his reputation stands unrivalled 
in High Asia. He held long discussions with the learned philosophers 
of Tibet and Amdo. The well known Dharma Rinchhen and GS-leg- 
pal-ssang were forced to acknowledge his superiority. He discussed the 
merits of the prasanga mddhyamika school with the celebrated Tag-tshang- 
Lochhava and Sherab Rin-chhen whom he vanquished by his powerful 
logic and obliged to compose 80 slokas or verses in his praise. Prom 
that date his fame spread all over the country. The pride of rival 
want* was humbled when they came in contact with him, and they 
prostrated themselves before him in reverence and awe. These were 
the causes which led to the wide diffusion of his reforms. Prior to his 
advent, Buddhism, though widely spread in Tibet, had greatly degenerated 
through having assimilated much of the Bon heresy, and especially 
on account of the clergy having shewn some disregard for moral discipline 
and the teaching of Buddha. Every one behaved as he pleased under 
the shelter of its corrupt doctrines, and practised diabolical acts in the 
name of the Tantras. There were few among the Tibetan clergy who 
abstained from women and wine. It was Tsonkhapa who preached strict 

3 «Gyal dY&h mKbanpo, the late abbot of the Sera monastery who wrote a 
voluminous life of TsoA-khapa. 

56 Sarat Chandra Das — Contributions on Tibet. [No. 1, 

observance of the laws of the Dulva (vinaja or moral discipline), and by thus 
conforming to the precepts of Buddha, he revived the purest kind of 
Buddhism. Tsonkhapa introduced reforms in every direction. In his 
reformed school was to be found the essence of the Sutras, Tantras and 
Dh&rnnis of the Mahay&na and Hinay&na schools. One who is well versed 
practically in the Vinaya teaching of the Hinayana school, and who 
acquires the Mahay ana or Bodhisattva dharani, can become a good 

After S'dkya Si nib a, no teacher of Buddhism was so eminent as Tson- 
khapa. Even in the Arya-desa, no such refined school as that of Gelugpa 
was known to exist. In Tibet, Tsonkhapa is called the second Buddha, 
a title which Nagarjuna, the founder of the Madhyamika philosophy, 
enjoyed in ancient India. 

At the age of fifty-three, in the year 1429 A. D., he founded the great 
prayer assembly consisting of 70,000 monks well known by the name of 
the Monlam Chhenpo of Lhasa. It was held annually, and the practice 
continues up to the present day. Tsonkhapa on that occasion adorned the 
. head of the image of Jovo (lord) S'&kya Muni with a diadem of lapis- 
lazuli, pearls, rubies and other precious stones, at a cost of 500 gold srai 
(or 30,000 Kb), and prayed that the sacred religion might continue for 
ever without being corrupted or degraded. Immense offerings were 
made. A hundred thousand edibles were placed in heaps to the height of 
a man's stature. A hundred thousand lamps, fed with butter in huge caldrons, 
with wicks as big as the largest handkerchiefs rolled up, were lighted, so that 
the whole city of Lhasa was illuminated. The glare was so great that the 
residents of Lhasa could hardly distinguish the stars in the sky. Frank- 
incense, joss-sticks, myrrh, and flowers were offered in great profusion. 
There were present on the occasion, under human guise, all the gods and demi- 
gods, Nagas and yakshas that were friendly to Buddhism, together with 
the four classes of genii called Gyalpo with the great Pehar at their head. 
All these, disguised in human shape, took part in the proceedings. Tson 
khapa observed similar ceremonies in subsequent years. In the same year, 
the great reformer founded the famous monastery of Gahdan. In the course 
of the next ten years, he turned the wheel of Dharma with unprecedented 

In the sixty-third year of his age, knowing that his end was drawing 
nigh, he entrusted his principal disciples Gyal-chhab-je, Kha-dub Chho-je, 
Je-^erab-seng6, Jam-vyan Chho-je, and Chyam-chhen-chho-je, with the 
charge of protecting Buddhism. He also charged the lord of death, 
called Tam-chhen-smje-chhoikyi-Gyalpo, with the defence of the sacred 
creed, thus exhorting him : — "0 thou, the lord of Dharma, in this country 
of Kan-chan (Himavat), may thy religion so long as animal life 

1882.] Sarat Chandra Via— Contributions on Tibet. 57 

remains unextinct, be defended by thee ! Thou, together with thy retinae, 
shalt drive away all enemies, whether internal or external, and the warlike foes 
of the border lands ; thou shalt extinguish all kinds of heretics, who may try 
to injure the religion." The statue of this dreadful lord of death, who is 
the sworn guardian of Gal^dan inspires terror in the minds of sinners who, 
even to the present day, tremble at his name. It was, according to the 
popular belief, by the might of this dreaded deity that the progress 
of the Qurkha armies beyond the boundary of Tsafi was arrested. On the 
25th day of the 10th lunar month of the same year, Tsonkhapa's person 
having been contracted to the size of a boy of eight, and placed in a 
mansion encompassed by the radiance of the rainbow, prepared to start 
for the land of bliss. On that occasion innumerable Suras, Asuras, fairies, 
gods and goddesses played instruments of music in his honour, showered 
flowers, and with flags and umbrellas joined in a pious dance for full 
seven days. On the morning of the seventh day, when by the act of 
his will he was lost in yoga, his soul, leaving its mortal frame, was absorbed 
in the Sambhogakaya of Buddhahood. Thence forward Tsonkhapa, 
nnder the name of Jampal Smpo, sits by the side of Maitreya the 
Regent of Tushita (Gahdan). His remains, wrapped in cloths inscribed 
with texts from the Db&ranis, 8 were preserved in a Chaitya of gold. His 
tomb is a lofty edifice, with a gilt roof, and a golden Chaitya inside. 

The Tibetans have the following account of Buddha's prediction 
respecting Tsonkhapa: — In ancient times, when Bhagav&n S'&kya lived, 
a Brdhman boy prayed to him after presenting him with a crystal rosary. 
Bhagavan, in return, drew from his right side a white conch shell and gave 
it to him, saying, " Oh Br&hman boy, in time to come thou shalt work for 
my religion ; when it shall spread in the Himavat country, thou shalt be 
the president of the Dharma." The same conch shell was then concealed in 
the hill called Brogri, in Tibet. It is now to be found in the Dapun 
monastery and is said to be possessed of miraculous powers. 

* The mystical writings, called Dhiraufs, were brought from Indw during the 
Sakya hierarchy in the 10th and 1 1th century A. D. The inscriptions were prepared ia 

58 Sarat Chandra Das — Contributions on Tibet. [No. 1, 



Tibetan Text. 

l\th Booh o/Dub-tkoh Selkyi MeJoU 1 

W\ wary?! WN*ryn £*rq'*rvn fj3'y;i *wr*r*r 
vn |sr«rv;'i *#r#r^'i awste'i N»'<*iQ'ite f yri #*w 
3Q'85'vvi *rs*Q*i^vri *wra«ri i'toot *ri**yn 

1 See Vol. L, p. 187, note 1. 

1882.] Sarat Chandra Vis— Contributions on Tibet. 59 

utcrrrorvri •l'««r«ro^irfX'4'4rsN'i<;'ir a i« a r<r^re*»' 
^'33'^n-v wvS'St v*ev«R<vi s* v • In* *ry **i»'* N 4*!*i «r 

4*QW^ v q v ^*sq*4*^3^ v R v ^*^ v j^ v ^*^$ v 4 v S|q v ^iqrfF 

w*r£\ %'th *r*i**i cr<*'<3| xri*xi Q*Q'$| w$i 

Ifl'ffSl *i'£l &*£'|l *r<5'<§| fl'^fll toV^Fafa'te'e;* 

i- 3' •«& r ?* • £ • wra* w^«r fw^fi y £ vs^'Sor 3f§** *r 

•T 3Fvrqq*Q**n 8q|*«?N'»N'S'V^ ^ivv^V^VI oVflV 


60 Sarat Chandra Dfis — Contribution* on Tibet. [No. 1, 


Jilvq'iqrSFs^l ^ ' j^'q*i'«r ^i^iV^|V«wi tor 



*** *• mA ^ ^ 

1882.] Sarat Chandra Das— Contributions on Tibet. 01 

aci^xqf'S'^i^*QF»f^sc?v^'!a^v85si Qvyra^v^cw 

vqy wmor v ir w<wq w *jq* jor y Sor ^'^' q* wwfi -sr&w 
ir*c3*rziWQ$* f *fewfa *r M'*fcr«Y v*j |*' i <fa' «¥&• Sqj • yr 

62 Sarat Chandra T)&8— Contribution* on Tcbet. [No. 1, 


vr*TWl ^w jor *fS'3*S;r v*'e*i ^qpwr ^^av^rsci 

jf t^c; • xj jar ql* • tftq • 8«T g5 • ^fc ' q *^|* VW'*1FV VQ'tf^ri*' 


^ waifci'*^^' Sir v yrwv i V *«ra*«r jwr wy*or 

1882.] Sarat Chandra Dia— Contribution* on Tibet. 63 

jK-q^ayrswv-tn v^iw^'^w v-*V$'SP'^ w ™ g* 

64 Sarat Chandra Via— Contribution* on Tibet. [No. 1, 

3f §3' «r i3v S* yj^'SvQ^^^^Qy ¥4 vcrc'^'q'? * ? |«rqw 

***** tor ^^•^l:M r ^ , ^ f *r^'W t QM'q>c;v ^' *#* I %qn& 
qa'qjar qxr *3vq*S , aiKrW'q8 t | , *riar fi^qrasS'^^' w^l * T 

qs v*c wr wifr q**r 5c s'^' vr q*'*r&'«* ** aii'^ i *?sr * qy ***r 

»«i ' flS" W S' Rqq§'S^SN'q'$q , w f ^-q*R.S*r*| STIR'S' jf 

^?N' ^^winwi' v^i^'frfc'v^^i W'VryqFQrq*'i*'q$'£i 

j^wq'qrft'V wrier i ^•g'&'sq^'M'qi'^'w^'qS'fr 
*&r * w3 1 n • w ' 3i f a • two* wy ^gc^tW^crqs v^isfjc 
vwi wra^qw-waU'Bwi ^Sor^ijW^'v^q'Wv 

jarojcr q* **i<v ' Si* cs wq^^vsvq'tovs^^'^caw *r *nq$qn 
aii-xfr-qscyi ^^•Qi^^'^N , crqNW'8i'^ii'q , w; , s , svq^'q^i 

1S82.] Sarat Chandra Das— Contributions on Tibet. 65 

ws*tw i *5v v $Fr*i iriyprolvv w^orvQw^N^ws'SR' 

"><•" -V A N. "V"V 

s -si 

66 Sarat Chandra Das— Contribution* on Tibet. [No. 1, 


The three wheels of the Buddhist doctrine spread over various 
countries, large and small, such as Kashmir, Nepal, Persia, Champaka, Ki£- 
kinda. Sermig, Gyugma, Ramma, Siam, Sfingala, Priyanku, Yamuna, 
Chandra dvipa, Makha, Kasa, Gyi-Jan, S'han-S'hu'n, Brusha, Hash a, 
Sumpa, Sahor Minug or Burmah, Jan-yul, Yugur, Thogar, Orgyan, 
Dodipa, Lodpa, Chola, Kalinka, &c, &c. Various accounts are given of the 
rise and decline of the sacred creed in these countries in converting all 
living beings universally and partially, according as Karma permitted. In 
those countries many heretical doctrines also existed, which will not all be 
described here. It will be enough to describe the propagation of Buddhism 
in Sog-yul (Mongolia). • » # 

There is no account of the introduction of Buddhism in Hor by any 
Pandits or saints from India, The first light of Buddhism came from 
Tibet — and that from the Sakyapa school. Chhingis Khan who turned 
the wheel of might (became a mighty conqueror) visited Tibet. After 
subjugating ftari-kor-sum, U' and Tsan, Lho, Kham and Gan, he 
sent an envoy to Tsan, offering large presents to the learned Kun-gat- 
Ninpo, the hierarch of Sakya, and appointed him his spiritual guide 
and subsequently invited him to visit Hor. He obtained from Tibet some 
images, sacred volumes and Chaityas, from which the Mongols imbibed 
faith in Buddhism and commenced to adore Kon-chhog or the Supreme 
Being. During this time some Mongols also took the vows of Upasaka 
&c, whence they got hold of Dharma. This took place in the fire-hare 
year of the 4th cycle or 2041 of the Buddhist era, if Buddha's Nirvana 
were calculated from the year of the same name ; but if it be calculated from 
the iron-dragon year, the introduction of Buddhism in Hor must be placed 
in 2097 B. E. From the fire-hare year to the iron-dragon year of the 
10th cycle 503 years elapsed. During the reigns of Goyug and Gutan, 
the two grandsons of Chhingis Khan, Buddhism was formally introduced into 
Hor. Gdtan whose capital was in Lan-du, hearing the fame of Sakya Pandita 
sent an envoy to Tibet with rich presents to invite him to visit Hor. 

Sakya Panclita had been previously told by his tutor Sonam-tse-mo about 
a prediction, that he should be invited to propagate Dharma by a border 
race who wore hats like falcons and shoes like a hog's snout. The prophecy 
being now realized, Sakya Pandita accepted the invitation. Accom- 
pnied by his nephew Phag-pa and Chhyagna he set out for Hor and met 
the king in the year fire-sheep of the 4th cycle (this date corresponds with 
A. D. 1248). The king was laid up with a disease called sadag (leprosy), 

1882.] Sarat Chandra DAa— Contributions on Tibet. 67 

of which Sakya Pandita cured him by the mystical invocation of the 
Simhandda dhdrani. The king and his ministers heard from him the 
mjstical worship of Gye-va-dorje. 

He secured to himself their sincere faith by performing various miracles. 
Prior to this period the Mongolians possessed no written language. Sakya 
Pandita became desirous of designing a new alphabet for them. Once 
he observed a certain woman rubbing (softening) a piece of hide with a 
piece of timber of the shape of the teeth of a saw. He shaped the Mongolian 
characters after the teeth of that implement. By arranging the letters, 
divided in masculine and feminine characters,* with hard or tight, loose or 
slack, and weak or soft powers he invented the system of writing of the 
Mongols. In the year iron-hog (corresponding with A. D. 1252) both Sakya 
Pandita and the king died. The remains of the former were deposited in the 
Chhorten of Dulpai-de* outside the fortress of Lan-ju. Subsequently in the 
reign of Munkhe, Karma Bakshi and others from Tibet visited Hor. Mun- 
khe's younger brother named Khublai became very powerful. He conquered 
China, Tibet, the whole of Hor, and about half of India up to the furthest 
boundary of Kashmir. He invited Phagpa-Lodoi-Gvaltshan,f the nephew 
of Sakya Pandita, from Tibet. On his coming to Hor in the year 
mter-ox, the Emperor met and held long discussions on religious matters 
with him, and imbibed much faith in him. Previous to this, he had showed 
much attachment to Karma Bakshi. Although Phagpa* s acquirements in 
grammar and sacred literature were great, on the other hand the acquire- 
ments of the bearded Lama, as Karma Bakshi was called, in judicious 
learning were eminent. Once under the secret advice of the Emperor, the 
Empress, named Jema-ssanmo, who revered Phagpa above all, asked him 
to enter into competition with Karma Bakshi in the performance of 
miracles. This was done with a view to amuse the Emperor. The parties 
having agreed to the proposal, the Bakshi, in the presence of the Emperor 
and his ministers, mounted the sky where he sat cross-legged, as in yoga, 
and passed right through mountains, Ac. Phagpa also performed miracles 
by decapitating himself, then severing the five limbs and turning them 
into five Dhyani Buddhas. He afterwards accomplished their re-union 
to restore to himself his own body. * * * * • 

• Of the consonant characters, ev^ry individual was formed by the combination 
of a vowel and a consonant, such as — 

Na pa gha la ta 
Ne pe ghe le to 
Ni pi ghi li ti 

•ad so on. 

t Arya Mati Dvaja. 

68 Sarat Chandra D£s— Contributions on Tibet. [No. 1, 

Within the fortress of Lanju (or Lafidu) there is a tomb called the 
Chhorten of Karma Li Si which is identified with the tomb of Karma 
Bakshi, Karma Lis*i being a mere corruption of the name Karma Bakshi. 
In the face of this account, the Debther ftonpo and other works say that 
Karma returned to Tibet where he died. 

Previous to the Emperor's taking spiritual vows, the Empress ob- 
served the mystic ceremonies of Kaidorje. He inquired what kind of vows 
were to be taken. When the Empress uttered the words of the vow, 
he remarked, " Although I might take some of the vows, yet being a 
sovereign, I cannot say that I will not violate the words of my spiritual 
guide " The Empress removed the objection by observing, that in worldly 
matters the Emperor's authority should be supreme, whereas in spiritual 
affairs the Lama's command should be paramount. The Emperor, satis tied 
with the suggestion, observed 24.- ceremonies, called Thub pat Khor, together 
with the invocation of Gyeva-dorje. On the occasion of initiation, Khublai 
presented the Lama with two large mandalas (circular heaps of precious things) 
of which the one on the right-hand side was full of pearl balls without pin- 
holes and as big as sheep's droppings, placed in bundles ; the other on the 
left consisted of heaps of gold. Besides these, immense presents consisting 
of horses, mules, camels, silk robes, silver and gold, &c., were made to 
him. He decorated him with an exalted order which in Chinese is called 
" STinsm t&kausri," meaning the spiritual king of the three worlds, and con- 
ferred on him the city and country of Lishim and subsequently the entire 
sovereignty of Tibet and Tsholkha (Khokonur). Although the Emperor 
ordered that all the Bande of Tibet should adopt the Sakyapa theories, yet 
the most estimable Phagpa, thinking it fair to let them pursue their anciently 
adopted doctrines, showed toleration. He returned to Tibet in the year tree-ox 
and in the year earth-serpent of the 5th cycle revisited Hor. In the year 
iron-horse he framed the square shaped form of the Mongolian characters, 
and introducing the system of worship, meditation, and propitiation 
among the Mongols, furthered the cause of D harm a and living beings. 
The Emperor having obtained the sacred relics of Buddha, images and 
sacred books and chaityas from India, erected temples and monasteries 
by which Buddhism was greatly promoted. The square shaped charac- 
ters, called Khorig, having failed to answer the purpose of transla- 
ting the sacred books, the Mongolians made use of the Yugur character in 
writing their language as a medium forlihe expression of the sacred hymns, 
During the reign of king Olje, the Sakyapa Lama named Chhoikyi-hodsser 
came to Mongolia and perfected the saw-teeth shaped characters invented 
by Sakya Pan<Jita by adding tails to the letters. The Mongolian characters 
were thus fit to be used in writing translations from foreign languages. 
Subsequently in the reign of HaUsan-khulug portions of the Kah-gyur 

1882.] Sarat Chandra Das — Contributions on Tibet. 69 

and grammar were translated into the Mongolian language. In the reign 
of Poyantbu, Jam-yang the pupil of Rigral the Prefect of Narthan, 
who during his visit to Narthan had incurred the displeasure of his Lama 
by appearing before him in a mask, paid a visit to Hor. Subsequently 
Jara-yan pleased his master by sending him large presents for a copy of 
the Kahgyur collection. Among the presents there was a small box full of 
Chinese ink which delighted Rigral very much. On his return to Narthan, 
Jam-yan resided in the house where the Kahgyur was copied and which 
was called Jam-yan Lhakhan. 

In this manner, the way being opened, the copies of the Kahgyur gra- 
dually increased. After Jam-yan, Karma Ran-Ju-Dorje visited Hor and be 
came the spiritual guide of one of the Hor kings, who, it appears, was named 
Chiya-thu. Thogan-themur (the last Emperor of the Mongol dynasty), 
the well-known descendant of Chhingis Khan, invited Karma- Rolpai- dor je 
who accordingly in the 19th year of his age in the year earth-dog came to 
Hor. During the fourteen reigns from Chhingis Khan to Erteni Chhogthu, 
many Sakyapa and Karmapa Lamas visited Hor, some of whom received the 
honour of the order of Ti-sri. The introduction of the Gelugpa church in the 
spiritual relation of Mongolia commenced at this time. During the reign of 
Thumer-kyi Altban Khan, the third Gyal-van (Dalai) named Sonam Gya- 
tsho visited Hor and abolished the worship of On-gvad (the chief Demon) 
and the practice of offering animal sacrifices to demons. He introduced the 
Gelugpa (yellow-hat) school of Buddhism in Hor where he died, and hia 
incarnation named Gyal-van Yonton Gya-tsho appeared in Mongolia, for 
which reason Buddhism became greatly diffused over that country, and all the 
Mongols were converted to the Gelugpa church. Afterwards Shere-thu-gu£ri 
translated the three yum (vulgarly called bum) into the native Mongolian 
language. In the days of Chhahar-leg-dan Khuthog-thu several trans- 
lators headed by Kungah Hodsser translated the whole of the Kahgyur into 
Mongolian. The last of the descendants of Chhingis Khan named San- 
thu-gusi (called Legdar in Tibetan), a petty prince, was so degenerate that 
be failed even to rule over his own country and his dynasty passed off 
from power. In the reign of Sunchi (De-Kyi) the translation of the 
Kahgyur in Mongolian was revised and partially printed. It was in 
the reign of the Emperor Chhinlun (Kyen-long), the incarnate Manju£ri, 
that the entire Kahgyur and Tangyur were for the first time printed 
in the Mongolian language. " Then also the all-knowing Chafikya- 
Rolpai Dorje prepared the Khapai- Junne*, a compendious grammar of the 
Mongolian language, which was indispensably necessary to facilitate trans- 
lations (lit., which served as an eye to the future translators.) Asuthu, king 
of Khalkha, had met the Gyal-van (Dalai Lama) Sonam Gya-tsho 
daring his sojourn in Mongolia and erected the temple of Erteni Jovo. 

70 Sarat Chandra D is— Contributions on Tibet. [No. 1, 

At that time the incarnation of TAr& N&tha (Je-tsnn-dampa) named 
Lo-ssafi-tanpai Gya-tsho in the person of the son of his grandson Dorje 
Thushi-ye-thu Kh&n, was acknowledged as the supreme head of the seven 
Khalkhd Khanates. The Emperor of China greatly exalted his position by 
conferring on him high distinctions. The great monastery of Urga called 
Kivo-ge-gye-lin was founded, and from that time the incarnations of Tara" 
Natha successively appeared. Jaya Pandita Lo-ssan-thin-leg, who was the 
pupil of the fifth Gyal-van and Panohhen-Lo-ssan Chho-gyan, and Erteni 
Pandita Lo-ssan tan-dsin founded many monasteries and promoted the 
spread of Buddhism in Hor. From this period the land of the Khal- 
kha became filled with priestly congregations, sages and saints of imma- 
culate birth, and sacred study and saintly communion were greatly diffused. 
The Prefect of the Goman College of Dapun, named Ton-dub Gya-tsho, who 
was famed to have attained the 2nd stage of Bodhisattva perfection, 
introduced Buddhism into the Thorgwod country, the progress of which was, 
however, impeded by the surrender of the country to the Russians (Orrus). 
Subsequently, when the country was brought under the Emperor of 
China, the chiefs were re-instated in their respective states and the 
practice of the precious religion revived. Hashag-chhe-cbhu Kh&n, the 
reigning chief of the four great tribes of (E-loth, also called Orod, was 
defeated and dethroned by Boshog-thu Kh&n of the tribe of Tshoru who 
had grown powerful, in consequence of which the whole of the (E-loth 
kingdom came under his possession. He established many schools for the 
instruction of monks in the Sutras and Tantras (aphorisms and mysticism). 
Thereafter Erteni Jorig-thu khun tho-che-Tshe-van-rabtan encouraged 
Buddhism in general and especially the Gelugpa church. He by turns invited 
the Mahdmantri of Taii-lhunpo named Geleg-rabgya, and Paljor-gya- 
tshog, and latterly by inviting Tampa-rabgya of Washul from the Dapun 
monastery and many others, introduced domestic priesthood and service (like 
that of the Upasakas) among the Mongols. He founded the monasteries of 
Nam-tse-din and the system of imparting instruction to neophyte monks, 
and established moral discipline and training. Although he failed to esta- 
blish schools for the study of dialectics, yet by teaching the higher and lower 
(simpler) Lamrim of Tsonkhapa, he introduced the secret way to Bodhisattva 
(perfection). Like the celebrated Balpachan sovereign of Tibet, he allotted 
three families of tenants, 6 camels, 40 cows and horses and 200 sheep <fco. f 
for the maintenance of every monk or neophyte. After him his son 
Gabdan-tsherin Wanpo invited the celebrated professor and sage Paldan- 
Ye£6, the learned principal of Thosam lin of Taii-lhunpo, the Vinayic ascetic 
Lo-ssan Phun-tsho from Dapun, who held the office of the Prefect of 
the Goman College, and Ge-dun-leg-pa the Prefect of the Ser& monastery, 
of whom the last succeeded in opening classes for the study of metaphysics 

1882.] Sarat Chandra Das — Contribution* on Tibet. 71 

and dialectics. He erected many monasteries and filled them with images, 
sacred volumes, and chaityas by which he filled the Chungar country. 
By conferring distinctions and endowments on the scholars of philosophy, 
he greatly diffused Buddhism. 

Afterwards when the kingdom was overthrown by internecine wars, 
all the religious edifices were demolished, the effect of which even now survives 
in the desolate aspect of the country like the fields of autumn (after harvest). 
From one of the four famous tribes of Orod, the celebrated king, the up- 
holder of religions, called Gu£ri Khan, son of the KLhan of the Hoshad, 
was born in the year water-horse. His name was Thorol-b&-dur. According 
to the prophecy of Ti-me Lhun-dub the obtainer of sacred treasure, he is said 
to have been the miraculous emanation of Chhyagna Dorje (Vajrapani), 
and according to the revelation of the Kahgyur, he was a religious king who 
obtained one of the Bodhisattva perfections. At the age of thirteen he 
assumed the command of the army of the Gokar (white heads), numbering 
10,000, and went on an expedition against Hoi- Hoi (Tangyut). He 
gained a complete victory in the fight, for which he became eminently 
famous. During this time Buddhism was not spread in the Oeloth 
country. In other Mongolian countries the Gyal-van (Dalai-Lama) 
Sonam-gya-tsho, at the invitation of Althan Khan, had visited Khalkha* 
By reason of their spiritual relation Buddhism flourished there. GuSri- 
khan, on only hearing its name, imbibed faith and veneration for Buddha. 
He made many salutations by repeated prostrations towards that sacred 
country (Tibet), thereby hurting his forehead. When he was twenty- five 
years old, his mother died. In order to celebrate her funeral and for her 
salvation, he distributed a large quantity of gold and silver as alms 
to the poor. On a certain occasion there arose a dispute between the Orod 
and Khalkha. Being overpowered by compassion, he came before the 
Khalkha assembly to plead for the amicable settlement of the matter, 
removed their differences and, having brought the contending nations 
to terms, returned to his own country. At this Ton-khor Chho-je and 
the princes and ministers of Khalkha became greatly delighted. They 
gave him the title of " Tai-kausri." During the Dalai Lama Sonam 
Gya-tsho's visit to Mongolia, an Orod came to reverence him. He saluted 
and presented him a book called Serhod Tampa. On being asked the 
name of the book, the Orod replied, "Lord! this is called Althan-kerel."* 
The Gyalvan (Dalai), then accepted the man's alms and predicted that in the 
land of Orod after twenty years Buddhism should be introduced. Accord- 
ing to this prediction, GusVi-khan introduced Buddhism by translating 
Serbod-Tampa and many other volumes after a lapse of twenty years. 

• From althan, gold, and keral (Sanskrit kit**), ray of light, golden light. 

fr2 Sarat Chandra Das — Contributions on Tibet. [No. 1, 

During this time king Chha-Har having embroiled the six great prin- 
cipalities in internal wars, one of the princes took refuge among the 
KhalkhA tribes. The Khalkha princes not agreeing to shelter the refugee, 
fell out among themselves. One of their chiefs named Chhog-thu, banished 
from his own country, took possession of the Amdo province. No sooner 
had he established his power over the Amdo people, than he began to injure 
Buddhism in general, and more particularly the Qelugpa church. When 
the report of his evil doings reached Gusri-Kb£n, he became greatly enraged. 
In order to succour particularly the church of Tsonkhapa, he left his 
native place at the head of a large army, and in the year fire-ox 
arrived near Khokhonur where he inflicted a signal defeat on Chhog-thu 
and slew 40,000 soldiers in the field. The whole of Amdo now passed 
under his power. 

He then started for IT to pay homage to the Dalai, Taai and Gahdan 
Thipa of whom the last was the spiritual father of the other two. He had 
an interview with the fifth Gyal-van (Dalai-Lama) and Panchhen-Lo-ssan 
Chhoi kyi-gyal-tshan whom he greatly venerated. At the time of his 
visit to the Gahdan monastery which took place during the night of the 
new moon, he saw the interior of the monastery by the light emitted 
from luminous pebbles on the floor and through the avenues. This event 
he considered very auspicious. In the year fire-ox during the winter 
season he returned to Khokhonur. In the mean time king Beri of 
Kham commenced to persecute the Buddhists, having himself become 
a proselyte to the Bon religion. Hearing this, Gus>i-KMn marched towards 
Kham in the year earth-hare with a large army, commenced hostilities 
and annexed Kham to his dominions. King Beri was captured in the year 
iron-dragon, on the 25th of the I lth month and was thrown into a prison in 
Kham, while all the Lamas and chiefs of the Sakya-pa, Gelug-pa, Karma* 
pa, Duk-pa and Taglun-pa sects were liberated, and sent to their respective 
monasteries. After defeating Beri, GusVi Khan turned his attention 
towards the conquest of Jan, the king of which oountry submitted to 
him without hostilities and agreed to pay him homage and tribute. 

During this period the whole of Tibet was ruled by king De-si- 
Tsanpa whose fort was the castle of Shi-ga-tse. Having adopted the 
teaching of the Karmapa school, he tried to exalt it above all others and 
evinced much disregard towards the Gelugpa school. GusYi Khan took 
umbrage at this. Accordingly, to raise the prestige of the Gelugpa 
church, he invaded If and Tsan at the head of his army, defeated all the 
armies of Tsan and sent the vanquished monarch and his ministers 
captives to the prison house at Nehu, in 17, and brought the whole of 
Tibet under his power. He was now acknowledged as the sovereign of 
the countries Tibet, Kham and Amdo. He organised an enlightened 

1882. J Sarat Chandra Da*— Contribution* on Tibet. 73 

government. He extirpated all enemies and rivals of the Qelugpa 
ehurch. The Indian king Rabo Sin, the king of Yambu (Nepal), and 
the Eaja of Nari and many other border kings sent him presents according 
to their national custom. Afterwards he made a present of the whole of 
Tibet proper to the fifth Dalai Lama in the year 1615 A. D., and thereby 
laid the foundation of the fame and dignity of the Court of the Dalai 
Lamas. Even at the present day their earthly mansion Potala or 
Gahdan Phodan is believed to be a counterpart of the celestial mansion 
of Gahdan or Tushitapuri (Paradise). Gusri Khan (Kausri Khan) 
had ten sons, of whom Taj en Khan and his grandson Lha-ssan ruled 
successively in Tibet. GuSri's son, Tha-akhu-tagi Bathur, became king 
o! Khokhonur. Thus the descendants of Gu£ri Khan, though they ruled 
separately as independent princes, did not require to be directed by 
others, but, subsequently, on account of the war raised by Tan-zing 
Wan, they were weakened, when the Emperor of China subjugated them 
all and annexed their countries to his dominions. But he allowed 
them to retain their respective possessions, and permitted them to 
follow their religious observances, according to the Gelugpa principles. 
It became customary with a great number of Mongolian Lamas to enter the 
different monastic colleges of Tibet, to study sacred literature. On their 
return from Tibet they shewed themselves capable of teaching the 
sacred religion. They founded schools in their respective native places. 
Holy personages from IT and Tsan, Amdo and Kham, having come to take 
their birth in Mongolia, the country of Hor has now become flooded 
with monasteries and chhortens and religious congregations. The study of 
dialectics also has been introduced there. 

With the exception of Solonpa, Bargwad and a few other savage tribes, 
all the Mongols are Buddhists. The heretical Yavana (Lalo) religion 
decayed and passed away. The old schools of Sakyapa and Karmapa 
Lamas were abolished, and in their place the Gelugpa school flourished 
encompassing the land. 


(Ancestors of Jenghis-khan). 
Thengir-khu-borta Chhi. 




Chhi- J imer-khan. 

♦ Obtained from Tibetan sources 

H 8arat Chandra Das— Contribution on Tibet. [No. l f 






LaV Ju. 


Dd-p dn-mer-khan. 








Bai- shift. 





Bar-than-BA-DUB, {Badur or Bathur a hero, from which the 

| word Bahadur is probably derived.) 

Te-phur-ga badur, 

married to 


ChhiAgib Khan or JeAohis Khan (born 1182 A. D., reigned 

123 years, and was killed by his wife). 
_ oda. (reigned 6 years) 

Goyug (reigned 4 years) Gogan or Goyugan (also called 
or Gutan). 


Olta or Aulta (reigned 6 months) 

Munkhe Khan (reigned 9 years) 

Khublai Khan (reigned 35 year, died at the age of 80) 


1682.] Sarat Chandra D&s— Contribution* on Tibet. 75 

Yesun Themur (reigned 5 jean) 
O-Wan- Je or Olje (reigned 13 years) 


Haisan Khulug (not known) 

Poyanthu (reigned 9 years) 

Siddbi Pala Yeft (reigned 3 years) 
Ju- thi 

Yesun thumer (reigned 5 years) 

Ba-khyi-Phag (reigned 40 days). 

Kushala-go-thin (reigned 30 days). 

Thog-thumer Chi-ya-thu (reigned 5 years). 

Erteni Chhog-thi (reigned 1 month). 

Tho-gan Thumer* or Themur (1333 A. D., he sat for 85 
years on the Imperial throne of China, and fled 
from Pekin in secret to save himself from the 
conspiracy formed by the Chinese nobles against 
his life). 

The Min Dynasty superseded the Mongol Dynasty in China. 
* From Thumer or Themur the name Timur is probably formed. 

76 Q. H. Raverty— Memoir of the Author [No. 1, 

Memoir of the Author of the Tabakdt-i-N6sir%. By Major 
Q. H. Ratkbtt, Bombay Army (Retired). 

Few materials exist for a notice of this author, and these are chiefly 
furnished by himself. 

The first mention he makes of his family is to the effect that " the 
Imam, 'Abd-ul-Khalik, the Jurj&ni, having, in his early manhood, dreamt 
a dream on three successive occasions, urging him to proceed to Qhaznin 
and seek a wife, set out thither ; and, subsequently, obtained in marriage 
one of the forty daughters of Sultan Ibrahim of Qhaznin," who was in the 
habit of bestowing his daughters, in marriage, upon reverend and pious 
Sayyids and 'Ulama, like other Musalman rulers have continued to do, 
down to recent times. 

By this wife, 'Abd-ul-KhaHlf had a son, whom he named Ibr&hira, 
after his maternal grandfather, the Sultan ; and he was our author's great- 
grandfather. He was the father of the Maulana Minh&j-ud-Din 'Usrn&n, 
who was the father of the Maul&na Sar&j-ud-Din Muhammad — who is 
called Ibrahim by some — who was known by the title of 'Ujubat-uz- 
Zaman or " the Wonder of the Age." He was the father of the Maul&na 
Minh&j-ud-Din* Abu-'Umar-i-'Ugmdn, the author of the History entitled 
the Xabakat-i-NAeiri, who thence often brings in his father's and grand- 
father's name, styling himself Minhaj-i-Saraj-i-MinhaJ, the two izdfaU 
being used to signify son of in place of the Arabic bin. 

Our author's ancestors, on both sides, for several generations, appear 
to have been ecclesiastics of repute and men distinguished for learning. 
He states that he possessed, among the misdl or diplomas granted to his 
maternal ancestors by the Khalifahs, one from the Khalifah Mustazi 
B'illah, conferring the Kazi-ship of the fortress, or rather, fortified town, 
of Tulak, described in his work, together with that over the Kuhistan, and 
the Jibal — Highlands — of Hi rat, upon his maternal grandfather, in con- 
formity with the diploma previously held by the latter's father before him. 
His paternal grandfather also received an honorary dress from the same 
Pontiff ; and our author says that he himself possessed the diploma which 
was sent along with it. 

In the oldest copies of the text, and in aeveral of the more recent, our 
author almost invariably styles himself * the Jtfrjani' (^W)y^), as I have 
from the outset rendered it ; but those MSS. noticed in the Preface to 
the Translation, which appear to have been copied from the same source as 
that from which the India Office Library MS. was taken, or from that copy 

• The title, Saraj-ud-Din, means " The Lamp, or the Luminary of the Faith," 
and Minhij-ud-DiB, 4t The High-road, or the Way of the Faith." See " Translation," 
note*, page 1296. 

1882.] of the Tah"kdt-i-Ndsirt. 77 

itself, generally have c^^i^ Juzjdnt and sometimes Jurj&ni as above 
If tbe point of } z be left out, as is very liable to be tbe case, like tbe 
points of other letters, by copyists, it is but simple j r. Words con- 

Gaining long u j are often written with the short vowel zammak or 

peth — — instead of j ; and hence, in some few copies, it is jJU.^ 

Jvrjani, while sometimes it is written both ways in the same MS. 

Since writing note 7 , at page 321 of my " Translation," giving an 

account of the Amir Mas'ud's inroad into the northern parts of Qhur, 

when on his way from Qrhaznin to Hirat, I have considered that the word 

given by our author referred to the tract of country described in that note 

as the Guzganan, or the Guzgans, by Tajziks, but which Arabs, and 

people of Arab descent, who use,; ^ for the Tajzik g «-?, turn into Juzjanan, 

and that the word he uses in connexion with his own name refers to 

one of the Quzgans, and that he should be styled ' the Guzgani' or * the 

Juzjani.' As the most trustworthy copies of the text, the best and most 

correctly written, had Jurjani, I considered it necessary to follow them as 

I had begun, and to mention the matter more in detail in the Memoir of 

the Author's life. 

Guzgan, as the native inhabitants styled it, and Arabs Jtizjan, is not 

the name of a single town, village, or fortress, but of two or more of the 
small districts or tracts of country among the mountains, on the north- 
west frontier of the country of Qrhur, and north of Hirat, beyond the 
Murgh-Ab — the Jibai of Hirat, as he himself styles it, — but its exact posi- 
tion, and the localities of most of th% great fortresses mentioned by our 
author in the last Section of his work, are at present unknown to us. The 
Guzganan, or Guzgan s, were the appanage of the Amir Muhammad, brother 
of Mas'ud ; and it was from thence that he was brought when he assumed 
the throne of Qrh'aznin after the death of his father. Notwithstanding the 
details which our author gives respecting the great fortresses of (Jrhur, 
Qharjistan, and other parts, including the fortress of Tulak, which appears 
to have been his own place of residence at the time, and also the home of 
his maternal relatives (see "Translation," page 1066 and note 5 ), which he 
helped to defend against the Mughal invaders, and which must have been 
situated in one of the Guzgans, he never once, throughout his whole work, 
refers to Guzg&n or Jtizjan, except in connexion with his own name. See 
also notes to pages 186 and 232. 

After the (jrhuris obtained possession of Lahor in 582 H., and they had 
seized the Sultan, Khusrau Malik, the last of the Sultans of Qthaznin, our 
author's father was made l£azi of the Q-hurian army stationed at Lahor, 
under the Sipah-Salar, 'Ali-i-Kar-ma^h ; and twelve camels were assigned 
him for the conveyance of the establishment of his office, his tribunal, etc., 
on the line of march. 

78 G. H. Raverty— Memoir of the Author [No. 1, 

Our author was born after this, in the year 589 H., the very year in 
which Dihli, of which, and of which Musalman kingdom, he was subse- 
quently to become the chief Kazi and Sadr, was made the seat of the 
Musalman government in Hindustan by the Turk Mamluk, Kutb-ud-Din 
F-bak, who was, in after years, to become its first Muhammadan Sultan. 
That our author was born at Lahor, as the Daghist&ni, referred to farther 
on, asserts, cannot be correct ; for, from what he himself states respecting 
his arrival at ITchchah in 624 EL [see pages 541 and 722], that was the 
first time he set foot in Hind. Had he been born at Labor, he would, 
doubtless, have mentioned it, and he would probably have been styled and 
known as the Lahori in consequence. 

The next mention he makes of his father is, that, when Sultan Baha- 
ud-Din Sam, ruler of Bamian and X u t^aristdn, succeeded his father on 
the throne, he desired that our author's father, the Maulana Saraj-ud-Din 
Muhammad, should take up his residence in his kingdom and enter his 
service. With the sanction of his own sovereign and patron, and Baha- 
ud-Din Sam's suzerain, namely, the Sultan of Qrhur, Qhiyag-ud-Din Mu- 
bammad-i-Sam, the Maulana proceeded to the Court of Baha-ud-Din Sam, 
and was made £azi of the kingdom of Bamian and Tukhari&tan, with the 
judicial administration over its forces, was made censor, with full powers as 
regards ecclesiastical law, and entrusted with the charge of two colleges 
and their funds. This happened in 591 H., when our author was in his 
third year. He states that the diploma conferring these offices upon his 
father, in the handwriting of the Wazir of the Bamian state, was still 
contained in the kharitah [a bag of embroidered silk for holding docu- 
ments] containing his own diplomas, his banner and turban of honour. 

The mother of our author was the. foster-sister and school-mate of the 
Princess Mah Malik, the daughter of Sultan Qhiyag-ud-Din Muhammad- 
i.Sam, mention of which lady will be found in several places in his History ; 
and his mother appears to have continued in her service after her marriage. 
Our author distinctly states that his early years were passed in the ffaram 
of the Princess, until the period of his entering upon adolescence, when, 
according to Musalmam usages, he had to be sent elsewhere. He speaks 
in terms of much gratitude of the fostering kindness and protection he 
received while dwelling in that Princess's household. Under these circum- 
stances, Lahor can scarcely have been the place of his birth. 

As early as his seventh year our author began to prosecute his studies ; 
and used to attend that eminent teacher and Imam 'All, the Qrharmani, 
for the purpose of acquiring the Kur'an by heart. 

When Sultan Takish, Jjfhwarazm Shah, withdrew his allegiance from 
the Khalifah Un-Nasir-ud-Din-Ullah, and the latter' s troops had been 
defeated by him, lbn-ur-ltabbi', and lbn-ul-£ha(ib, on two different occa- 

1892.] of the TabakdU-Msiri. 79 

lion*, came as envoys to the Courts of the Sultans of (?hdr and Qhaznin 
to demand aid from those monarchs against Suit da Takish. In conse- 
quence, the Im&m Shams-ud-Din, the Turk, and the Maulan& Saraj-ud- 
Din Muhammad, the Tajzik, our author's father, were directed to proceed 
to Baghdad, to the Khalifah's Court, along with the envoys.* They set 
out for Baghdad by way of Mukran ; and, in some affray into which they 
fell on the road, they were attacked by a band of robbers, and our author's 
father was killed. Intimation of his death was received in a communica- 
tion from the Khalifah to the Sult&n Qhiy&s-ud-Din Mu^ammad-i-S&m, 
in these words : " Furthermore, Sar&j-i-Minb&j perished in an affray on 
the road. The Almighty recompense him !" 

Another of our author's relatives, his mother's brother's son, was 
£ija-ud-Din Muhammad, son of 'Abd-us-Sall&m, Kazi of Tulak, who was 
left in command of the fortress of Tabarhindah, with a force of 1200 
Tulakis, by the Sult&n Mu'izz-ud-Din Mu^ammad-i-Sam, when that 
Sultan was about to retire from Hind before the hot season of 587 H., 
intending to return after it was over and relieve him. The Kazi of Tulak 
was to hold the place for seven months ; but as the Sult&n, just after this 
arrangement was made, was defeated by Rae Pithora and severely wound- 
ed in the battle, and an expedition into Khurasan soon after intervened, 
he was totally unable to come to the Kazi's relief, as agreed upon, in the 
following season, and, consequently, after having held out over thirteen 
months, the Kazi Ziy& ud-Din Muhamrrjad had to capitulate. 

At the time Sultan (Jhiyas-ud-Din Mahmud, son of Qrhiy&s-ud-Din 
Mutiammad.i-Sam, was assassinated by the Khwarazmi refugees, in Safar, 
607 H., our author was dwelling at Firuz-koh, and was then in his 
eighteenth year. 

In 611 H., the yeaf preceding the surrender of his capital Firuz-koh, 
by the last of the Sultans of the (jrhuri dynasty, our author proceeded 
thither. Two years after we find him in Sijistan, at Zaranj, the capital, 
where he remained some time. At this period the whole of 'the territories 
which had formed the empire of the Q-huris, including the dominions of 
Qhaznin, and extending east of the Indus into the upper part of the Sind- 
Sagar Do-dbah of the Panj-db as far as the Jhilam, had fallen under the 

* He was despatched on this mission by Qhiyas-ud-Din Mul?ammad-i-S£m, Sul- 
jtfn of Qhfir, the elder brother and suzerain of Mu'izz-ud-Dfn Muhammad, Sulfcan of 
Qhaznin. The latter is mentioned in a paper in this Journal, Part I., No. 1, for 
1880, page 28, by Mr. 0. R. Stiipnagel, who, is at a loss to know why the elder brother's 
name appears on his younger brother's coins, and informs us that "of Sultan Ghias-ud- 
din scarcely anything w known" Some in formation respecting him will be found in the 
Translation of the author's History, and in note ', page 472, and 8 , page 489. See also 
Part L, No. IL, page 84, of the " Journal:' 

80 G. H. Raverty— Memoir of the Author [No. 1, 

sway of the Ijthwarazmis. These events must, in some way, have been the 
cause of his sojourn in Sijistan for seven months, but he is quite silent on 
the causes which led him there. See page 195. 

In 617 H., during the first inroad of the Mughals into Qhur and 
Khurasan, before the Chingiz Khan himself crossed the Oxus with hia 
main army, our author was living at Tulak ; and, shortly after, in the) 
same year, took part in the defence of that fortified town against the) 
invaders, who kept prowling about it for about eight months. During a 
period of four years, from the above mentioned year up to the close of 
620 H., during which the Mughals made several attempts upon it, he helped 
to defend it. 

In 618 H., the year in which he says the Chingiz Khan crossed the 
Jihun into l£hurasan, and he was in his thirtieth year, he married the 
daughter of a kinsman of his own ; and, in 620 H., he determined, as soon 
as circumstances permitted, to leave his native country, and proceed into 
Hindustan, not liking, apparently, to dwell in a country overrun by the 
Mughal infidels. In 621 H. he was despatched from Tulak, where he was 
then living, and in the defence of which against the Mughals he had just 
taken part, by Malik Taj -ud- Din Hasan-i-Khar-post to Isfizar, after 
Khurasan had become clear of Mughals, and from thence into the Kuhis- 
tan — the Chingiz Khan had, at that time, returned homewards — to endea- 
vour to arrange for the re-opening of the kdrwdn routes, which, during the 
Mughal invasion, had been closed, and the traffic suspended. 

On a second occasion, in 622 H., he again proceeded from Tulak into 
the Kuhistan for the same purpose, at the request of Malik Rukn-ud-Din 
Muhammad, son of 'Usman, the Maraghani, of Khaesar of Qhur, the 
father of Malik Shams-ud-Din Muhammad, the first of the Kurat dynasty, 
as the Tajzik — not Afghan, I beg leave to say — rulers of the fiefs of Hi rat 
and Qhdr and their dependencies, who were the vassals of the Mughals, 
were styled. The following year he again set out on a journey into the 
Kuhistan, on 'the part of Malik Rukn-ud-Din Muhammad, that the 
kdrwdn route might be re-opened. From Khaesar he first went to Faraht 
and from thence proceeded by way of Sijistan into the territory referred to, 
and returned to Khaesar again. 

In 623 H., our author, who appears to have left Tulak and was resid- 
ing at Khaesar, with the permission of Malik Rukn-ud-Din Muhammad 
went to Farah in order to purchase a little silk required by him for his 
journey into Hindustan. Having arrived in the neighbourhood of Farah, 
Malik Taj-ud-Din Binal-Tigin the Khwarazmi, who then ruled over 
Sijistan, and was engaged in war with the Mulafeidah of the Kuhistan, 
induced him to undertake a journey into the latter territory, to endeavour 
to bring about an accommodation between himself and the Mulafridah 

1882.] oftheT«1*Mt-i-irdsirt. 81 

governor of that part, the Muhtashim, Shams-ud-Din. Oar author was 
accompanied by the son of Malik Rukn-ud-Din Muhammad whose name 
is not mentioned, but, in all probability, it was the identical Shams-ud-Din, 
Muhammad, the founder of the Karat dynasty. Our author succeeded 
in effecting an accommodation, but it does not appear to have been 
on terms acceptable to Malik Taj-ud-Din Binal-Tigin; for he wished 
him to return to the Mu^tashim's presence and declare war again. This 
he declined to do, as he had several times put off his journey into Hind, 
and was now desirous of departing without further delay, and before 
the Mughals should again appear. Malik Taj-ud-Din Binal Tigin was 
wroth at this refusal, and shut him up within the walls of the fortress 
of Safhed of Sijistan. There he was detained for a period of forty-three 
days, bat, Malik Rukn-ud-Din Muhammad having interfered in bis behalf, 
he was set at liberty. 

He did not allow the grass to grow under his feet after this ; and in 
the fifth month of the following year — Jamadi-ul-Awwal, 624 H., [in 
soother place he says it was Rajab, the seventh month, while in another 
place— page 612 — he says it was in 625 H.], by way of Qhaznin and 
Banian, he reached Uchchah by boat ; and, in the following Zi-Hijjah, 
Sultan Nasir-ud-Din Kaba-jah, ruler of Uchchah and Mult an, placed him 
in charge of the Firuzi College at Uchchah, and made him Kazi of the 
forces of his son, 'Ala-ud-Din Bahrain Shah. 

Our author could distinguish the winning side, and preferred it ; for, 
no sooner had Sultan Shams-ud-Din I-yal-timish, ruler of Dihli, $aba- 
jah'8 rival, appeared before Uchchah, than he deserted Kaba-jah and the 
Firuzi College, and went over to his rival. In the first place, our author 
presented himself before Malik Taj-ud-Din, Sanjar-i-Gajz-lak ghan, who 
was in command of the van of I-yal-timish's forces ; and, a few days after, 
I-yal-timish himself having arrived, he waited on him. He was favourably 
received, and was appointed to officiate, in his priestly capacity, within 
that Saltan's camp. After the fall of Uchchah, he accompanied I-yal- 
timish to Dihli ; and reached it in Eamazan, 625 H. 

He subsequently accompanied the Sultan, in his priestly capacity, to 
Gwaliyur in 629 H. ; and, in the following year, after that stronghold was 
taken possession of, was made Ka$i Khatib, and Imam of Gwaliyur and 
its dependencies, under the governor, Kashid-ud-Din 'All. In the early 
part of Sultan Raziyyat's reign he returned to Dihli, but he was not re- 
moved from office, neither was he a " forgiven rebel ;"* and, during his 
absence from Gwaliyur, his Deputies acted for him. On reaching the 
capital, in 635 H., that sovereign added to his offices that of Superinten- 
dent of the Nasiriah College at Dihli. 

• See Translation, page 1285, and Thomas's '< Pathdn King* of Dehli," page 106. 

82 a. H. Raverty— Memoir of the Author [No. 2, 

In the year 639 H., in the reign of Saltan Mu'izz-ud-Din, Bahrain 
Shah, our author was made Chief JCazi of the Dihli kingdom, and of the 
capital as well. In the disturbances which arose between that Sultan and 
his Amirs, our author, and other ecclesiastics, endeavoured to bring about a 
peaceful accommodation, but without effect. In Zi-l£a'dah of the same 
year, the Khwajah, Muhazzab-ud-Din, the Wazir, bribed a number of vil- 
lains to murder him ; and, after the conclusion of the Friday's prayers, on 
the 7th of that month, they actually attacked him in the J ami' Masjid, but 
he escaped without hurt. 

Soon after, on the accession of Sultan 'Ala-ud-Din, Mas'dd Shah, on 
the l£hwajah, Muhazzab-ud-Din, being re-appointed Wazir, our author, in 
640 H., resigned the Chief gaziship, and in Rajab of that year left Dihli 
in order to proceed into the territory of Lakhanawati. There he remained 
about two years, and there he acquired his information respecting it and its 
rulers. While residing in that country, he accompanied Malik Tugbril-i- 
Tugh&n Khan in his expedition against the Rae of Jaj-Nagar, and was 
present at the attack on the frontier post of Katasin, in Shawwal, 641 H. 
On the removal of that Malik from the government Lakhanawati in 643 
H., our author accompanied him on his return to Dihli, and, in Safar of 
that year, presented himself at Court. Muhazzab-ud-Din had in the mean- 
time been put to death by the Amirs ; and, through the interest and efforts 
of his subsequent munificent patron, Malik Qhiyas-ud-Din, Balban (after- 
wards Ulugh £han-i-A'zam, and subsequently Sultan of Dihli), who beld 
the office of Amir-i-H&jib, three days after his return, he was put in 
charge of the Nasiriah College once more, and entrusted with the admin- 
istration of its endowments, the lectureship of the J ami' Masjid, and the 
Kaziship of Gw&liyur, according to the previous grant. Subsequently, in 
the same year, he accompanied the army which advanced to the banks of 
the river Bi&h for the relief of Uchchah when invested by the Mughals. 

In 644 H., at Jalhandar [in the Panjab], on the return of the army, 
on the occasion of performing the services prescribed for the Td-i-Azlja 
in the hall of the College there, the new Sult&n, Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud 
Shah, to whom his History is dedicated, and after whom it is named, pre- 
sented our author with a cloak, a turban, and a richly caparisoned horse. 
In 645 H., he wrote a description, in verse, of the expedition against 
Talsandah, entitled the " Nasiri Namah." The Sultan rewarded him for 
this with a yearly stipend, and Malik Qhiyag-ud-Din Balban, the hero of 
the poem, and commander of the expedition, give him the revenues of a 
village in the Hansi province, which was that Malik's fief at that period. 
In 649 H., for the second time, the Chief Kaziship of the Dihli kingdom 
with jurisdiction over the capital as well, was conferred upon him ; but 
when, two years after, in 651 H., the eunuch, 'Imad-ud-Din-i-Rayhan, 

1882. J of the Tabakdi-i-Msiri. 83 

succeeded in his conspiracy for the removal from office of our author's 
patron, who had been raised to the title of Ulugh ghan-i-A'zam in 647 
H., and he was banished the Court, our author, like others of the Ulugh 
Khan's clients and supporters, was removed from the office of Chief Kazi, 
and it was conferred upon one of the Rayhani's creatures, notwithstanding 
our author stood so high in the estimation of the weak and puppet Sultan. 
In 652 H., matters improved a little : a new Wazir succeeded ; and, while 
in the Kol district, whither our author appears to have accompanied the 
Sultan's Court, the title of §adr-i*Jahan* was conferred upon him. 

At the close of the following year the Rayfeani was ousted from office, 
toe Ulugh gh&n-i-A'zam again assumed the direction of affairs, and our 
author, who, for months past, had been unable, for fear of his life, to leave 
his dwelling, even to attend the Friday's service in the J&mi' Masjid, was 
in Babi'-ul-Awwal, 653 H., for the third time, made Chief Kazi of the 
Dihli kingdom, with jurisdiction over the capital as before. 

With the exception of his remark at page 715 of his History in 
winding up the events of the year 658 H., that if his life should be 
spared — he was then in his seventieth year — and aptitude should remain, 
whatever events might subsequently occur would be recorded, our author 
henceforward disappears from the scene, and we hear no more of him. 
At the end of his account of the Ulugh Khan-i-A'zam farther on, he 
does not renew that promise, nor does he do so when finally closing his 
History. The munificent rewards he received on presenting copies of his 
work to the Sultan and to the latter's father-in-law, the Ulugh Khan-i- 
A'zam, are mentioned at page 1294. He refers to his family casually, 
now and then, in his work, but, with a single exception, enters into no 
particulars whatever. At page 820 he says, with reference to the Malik- 
ui-Hujjab [Head of the Chamberlains], 'A16-ud-Din, the Zinjani, that he 
ib "his son, and the light of his eyes;" but he could not have been his 
son from the fact of his being styled " the Zinjani," that is to say, a native 
of Zinjan in Khurasan. He may have been his son-in-law, or an adopted 

When the emissaries from Khurasan were received by the Sultan, 
Nasir-ud-Din Marjmud Shah, as related at page 857, our author composed 
a poem befitting the occasion, and this, he says, was read before the throne 
by one of his sons. He also, in one place, refers to a brother. 

Between the time when our author closes his History in 658 H., and 
the Ulugh gh&n-i-A'zam succeeded to the throne of Dihli under the title 
of Sultan Qhiy&g-ud-Din, in 664 H. — the date generally accepted, although 
Fasib-i says it was in 662 H. — is a period of about six years ; and, as no 
other writer that we know of has recorded the events of that period, it is a 

• See "Translation," page 699, and note 8 . 


84 G. H. Raverty— Memoir of ike Author [No. 2> 

complete blank in Indian History, which, I fear, cannot be filled up. 
Ziya-ud-Din Barani, in bis Tarikh-i-Firuz-Sh&hi, which is not much to be 
depended on, says he takes up the relation of events from the time our 
author left off, but this is not correct, for he begins with the reign of 
Sultan (jhiyas-ud-Din Balban. 

Our author died in his reign, but when cannot be discovered, neitber 
can the place of his burial. Possibly some inscription may hereafter turn 
up which may tell us, but there is no record available in any of the works 
I have waded through in search of the information. Whether his health 
failed him ; whether he grew out of favour with his old patron, tbe new 
Sultan ; or whether circumstances arose which, as regards the Ulugh 
Khan's conduct towards the weak-minded, but amiable, Sultan Nasir-ud- 
Din Malmiud Shah, would not bear the light of day — for there are vague 
statements of foul play on the part of the Ulugh Khan, but no proofs— 
who shall say P Some writers state that the Sultan died a natural death, 
which is most probable, and some further add that he, having neither off- 
spring nor heir, nominated his father-in-law, the Ulugh Khan-i-A'zam, his 
successor, which was but natural, seeing that, for nearly twenty years, he 
had virtually ruled the state. That the Ulugh Khan-i-A'zam poisoned 
him appears unworthy of credence, since, had he desired to supplant him, 
or get rid of him, he might have effected either object many years before. 
See " Translation," note 6 , page 716. 

The only mention I can find, after much search, respecting these 
years, between the closing of our author's History and the accession of the 
new Sultan, is the following from Fasih-i. " Sultan Nasir-ud-Din MaJj- 
mud Shah died in this year 662 H., and great anarchy and disorder 
arose throughout the territory of Hindustan. At last, since among the 
great Amirs of Hind, for prudence, counsel, wisdom, munificence, dignity, 
magnificence, and power, the Amir (Jhiyas-ud-Din [the Ulugb Khan-i- 
A'zam] was preeminently distinguished, and as he had obtained his free- 
dom previously — a matter never alluded to by our author — he, with the 
unanimous accord of the great nobles and grandees of the kingdom, ascen- 
ded the throne of Dihli in the beginning of this year, 662 H." 

The Daghistani, previously referred to, in his Tazkirah under the 
letter <j* s has the following : — " Saraj-ud-Din»i-Minhaj is the author 
of the fabaV&t-i-N&siri, which he completed in the name of the Malik 
of Hind, Na$ir-ud-Din. His birthplace was Lahor, and his origin was 
from Samr-k;and." 

This last sentence of the Daghistani's is sufficient to show that he is 
not entirely to be depended upon, in this instance at least. Our author's 
family was not from Samr-kand. The Daghistani also gives the following 
as a quatrain of our author's : — 

1882.] of the Tahakat-i-Nasiri. 85 

" That heart which, through separation, thou madest Bad ; 
From every joy that was, which thou madest bare of; 
From thy disposition I am aware that, suddenly and unexpectedly, 
The rumour may arise that thou hast broken it" 

In the " Akhbar-ul-Akhyar"-— a Biographical Collection of Notices of 
Saints— of 'Abd-ul-Hakk [he died 1052 H. = 1642 A. D.], the following 
irill be found respecting our author : — " The Shaikh, Kazi Minhaj, the 
Jurjani, the author of the 7abakat-i-Nasirf, was a saint, and one of the 
most learned and excellent of his time, and one of those who would become 
filled with religious ecstasies on hearing the singing at Zikrs or Tazkirs. 
When he became Kazi of Hindustan, that office assumed integrity and 
rectitude. The Shaikh, Nizam-ud-Din,* states : — " I used, every Monday 
to go to his Tazkirs, until, one day, when I was present at one of them, he 
delivered this quatrain : — 

'"The lip, in the ruby lips of heart-ravishers delighting, 
And to ruffle the dishevelled tresses essaying, 
To-day is delightful, but to-morrow it is not — 
To make one's self like as straw, fuel for the fire.' 

"'When I heard this verse,' says the Shaikh, Nizam-ud-Dfn, ' I be- 
came as one beside myself ; and it was some time, before I came to my 
senses again. 9 " 

Our author appears to have been deeply imbued with the tenets of 
§ufi-ism, for a brief essay on which, see the Introduction to my " Poetry 
of the Afghans." Professor Sprenger tells me that he was a notorious 
§ufi. A good account of these Zikrs, or Tazkirs, will be found in the 
notes to the Third Chapter of Lane's " Thousand and One Nights." 

In the Preface dedicating his work to the Sultan Nasir-ud-Din Mah- 
mud Shah, our author mentions the reasons which led him to write it, and 
this will appear as the Preface to the Translation of his History. 

* This, probably, is no other than the celebrated saint of Dihli. 





" r 





No. II.— 1882. 

Contributions on the Religion, History Sfc, of Tibet — By Baboo Sarat 
Chandra Das, Deputy Inspector of Schools, Darjiling. 

(Continued from page 75). 


Buddhism introduced from India. 

Me~tse religious sect. — Previous to the spread of Buddhism in China, 
there arose certain religious sects which possessed something in common with 
Buddhism. One of those sects was called M6-tse after the name of its 
founder. It enjoined every man to devote himself to the service and 
welfare of others even at the sacrifice of his own interests, life and body ; it 
also taught that the nature of the soul from the beginning is pure and 
immaculate, and that only at times it suddenly becomes perverted by ad- 
mixture of impurities produced by evil thought and action. 

Li-ye-tse religious sect. — The second in importance among the non- 
Buddhist religions is that of Li-ye-tse, who taught that all things depend 
for their existence and development on mutual coherence and support. 
During this period, there having existed no communication with India, 
not a word of Buddha's name or religion was known in China. But 
Li-ye-tse, by his power of foreknowledge, wrote in his own work that in the 
West there would appear a self-created noble sage, the performer of 
great deeds, capable at will of engaging in the highest degree of meditation, 
and passing beyond the region of speech, who would be called by the name 
1 Translated from Dub-thal? Selkyi Mel6£L See Vol. L, p. 187, note 1. 

88 Sarat Chandra D&s — Rise and Progress [No. 2, 

of Buddha. By this prediction he first made known the sweet name of 
Buddha in the country of China. 

Chwad-tse.— Again the founder of another religious sect, called 
Chwafi-tse, saw in a vision that he was metempsychosed into a butterfly. 
After awaking from sleep, he reflected on the meaning of such a transient 
and empty dream which lavishes all on you and at last vanishes as a 
phantom, and inferred that life was an illusion. 

Ttt-*?. — Again another teacher named ' Yu-su* (meaning the lord 
of the world), who was famed as born of a rose, preached a religion which 
forbade the destruction of human lives and instituted the taking of vows for 
observing ten moral acts, similar to those of the Buddhists. It also taught 
that, the results of virtuous actions being multiplied, the pious should be 
born as gods to enjoy eternal happiness; that on the other hand, the 
perpetrators of sinful actions should be plunged in hell, to be afflicted 
with everlasting pains ; and that despite their repentance or confession of 
sins, greater damnation would await those who had knowingly and deliber- 
ately transgressed. 

All these different sects prevailed in China as can be gathered from 
the religious histories of China. They did not spread all over the country, 
nor did their influence guide men for any considerable length of time, but 
they paved the way for the reception of Buddhism in that vast country. 

In the 26th year of the reign of Chou-Wan, the fifth of the Tehu 
Dynasty, there appeared, towards the south-western boundary of the king- 
dom, a halo of golden light, the lustre of which illuminated the realm. 
The king having witnessed this wonderful spectacle asked the astrologers 
what was meant by it. They declared that it presaged the birth of 
a saintly personage in that quarter, whose religion, after one thousand 
years, should be known in their own country (China). The king recorded 
this wonderful phenomenon in the Imperial debthers.* It was in that 
very year 3 that Buddha was born. Some authors believe that it was 
the 24th year of the Emperor Chou-wafi's reign. At the age of 
twenty-nine Buddha entered on the life of a mendicant, on the 8th 
of the 2nd lunar month ; he turned the wheel of Dharma between 
the 30th and 49th years of his age, and last of all it is mentioned in the 
works of Chinese Buddhists that he obtained nirvana* in the 79th year of 
his age, on the 15th day of the second month. 6 Buddha died in the 53rd 
year of the Emperor Moo-wan's reign. In the 8th year of the reign of the 
Emperor Mifidhi-yun-phan of the great H&n dynasty, 1013 years after 

a Records. 

3 The year 1882 A. D. * 2835 A. B., after the birth of Buddha. 
« Died. 

* Thifi does not tally with the more correct account of the Indian historians, as 
may be collected from several Tibetan chronologies. 

1882.] ofJM or Buddhism in China. 89 

the birth of Buddha, Buddhism was brought to China. On an auspicious 
day, in the third year of his reign, Mindhi saw in a vision, that a saintly 
personage with a golden complexion, bright as the sun, full three fathoms 
high, approached his throne from the direction of heaven. In the following 
morning Mindhi communicated the night's dream to his ministers, one of 
whom named Fu-ye informed him, that there existed a certain prophecy about 
the appearance of a great noble sage in India, of the' description that the 
king gave, and he begged to ascertain if it was not so. The king referred 
to the ancient records, and computing the dates, found that just 
1010 years had elapsed. Exceedingly delighted with this remark- 
able coincidence, he despatched a messenger of the name of Wan- 
tsun to India, in search of the doctrine of Buddha. During that time, 
there lived in India two great Arhats, one called Matanga who was 
born of the race of Kasyapa, and the other named Bharana Pandita. 
The Chinese messenger besought them to visit his country, in order to spread 
the benefits of Buddhism among the teeming millions of his countrymen. 
The Arhats welcomed the invitation and equipped themselves for the journey. 
A few volumes of sacred scriptures, chiefly of the Mahayana school, 
several portraits and some sacred relics, all of which they packed on a 
white horse for conveyance, completed the church necessaries with which 
they marched towards that distant land. They entered China by the 
southern route and were received by the Emperor at a place called Lou-yo- 
khyi in southern China. Accompanied by Wan-tsun, the messenger, they 
arrived at the palace, while the king, with the greatest demonstration of 
reverence, approached to receive them. They presented to the king all 
that they had brought from their country. The king expressed himself 
well pleased with the presents, and especially with the image of Buddha 
which bore a striking resemblance to what he had seen in his vision. The 
Indian Arhats performed some miracles which served to strengthen the 
monarch's faith in Buddhism. He built a large temple called Peima-ssi 
and engaged his two Indian guests for conducting religious service therein. 
Seeing this, the priests of Lo-u-kyun,* whose religion was then prevalent in 
China, remonstrated against the king's encouraging the new doctrine. They 
said that it would be improper to introduce an alien creed dissimilar to the 
ancient religion and practice of the country. They also exhibited many 
prodigies to convince the king of the superiority of their religion over Bud- 
dhism. The king, wavering much, at last decided that he should test the 
merits of both, by casting their respective religious scriptures into fire : 
whichever passed the ordeal successfully by being untouched by the fire, 
should have his patronage. It so happened that all the To-u-se 6 books were 
burnt and the Buddhist volumes remained undamaged. The king being 
convinced of the impositions of the To-u-se priests, ordered that their high 
• [Referring to the Bon religion of China, see p. 112, Ed.] 

90 Sarat Chandra Das — Rise and Progress [No. 2, 

priests Selou and Chhushen should he burnt alive. The two Indian Pandits 
were extolled to the skies. The king with his ministers and a large number 
of subjects embraced Buddhism. 

On this occasion of the triumph of Buddhism oyer the To-u-se religion, 
the king uttered the following verses : 

In a fox are not to be found the virtues of a lion, 
The torch cannot enlighten like the sun or moon, 
A lake cannot encompass the earth like the boundless main, 
The splendour of Sumeru is not to be seen in a mountain, 
The blessed clouds of religion encompassing the world 
Will rain upon and quicken the seed of universal good ; 
All that existed not before, will now appear. 
From all quarters, ye moving beings, draw near the Victor (Jina) ! 
In the great fortress of He- nan- f u, the king erected seven temples, of 
which the temple of Peimassi? was the principal one. He also established 
three convents for the use of nuns. The king himself took the vows 
of an Upasaka (a lay devotee). More than a thousand men, headed by the 
ministers of State, entered monkhood. Once the king addressed the Indian 
sages thus, — " Venerable Fathers, within the environs of my kingdom, 
is there no saintly Being residing for the permanent good and protection 
of all living beings'* ? MAtana replied : " Yes, Arya ManjusVi dwells in 
Kevo-tse-na on the top of Panchagra parvata." He then gave an aecount 
of Manjusri's chosen land, which, accompanied by his friend Pandit Bharana 
he now prepared to find out. After much search he reached the enchanted 
8 pot which he distinguished from others by his saintly knowledge. He 
then reported it to the king—" During the days of Buddha Kasyapa there 
lived a king of the name of Asvakala who, with the help of demons, 
constructed 84,000 chaityas, one of which exists on Revo-tse-na con- 
taining a fragment of the genuine relics of Kasyapa Buddha." The Em- 
peror, in order to preserve the ancient chaitya, built a lofty temple over it 
which is now called by the name Tabotha chhorten. Near it he erected 
the great monastery of Shen-thun-su. Among many other religious edifices 
that were built by this pious monarch, one is the " white chhorten** of 
Pekin (Pechin). The monastic establishment of Revo-tse-na consisted of 
620 monks and 230 nuns. The learned Arhat prepared an abridgement of 
the Hinayana Aphorisms and Sutrantas in the language of China. This 
work, the first Buddhist work in Chinese, is extant to the present day. 
Pandit Bharana also translated the five Sutrantas, such as Basa-Bhumi Ac. 
but unfortunately they are lost. In course of time Arhat Matanga and 
Pandit Bharana died. Mindhi's successor invited several other Indian 
Pandits. Among the first batch Arya-k£la, Sthavira-Chilukaksha, Sramana 
Suvinaya, and five other Pandits were well-known. In the second batch 

7 That is, 'the Lord of tho white elephant' 

1882.] ofJii or Buddhism in China. 91 

Pandit Dharma-k&la and several other Pandits, well versed in Mahay an a, 
Hinayana and Yinaya Dharma (discipline), were of great note. 

The third batch of Indian Pandits, Ganapati, Tikhini and others, 
propagated Buddhism in Kinnan and other provinces of southern China, 
These, with the Pandits who appeared during the reign of Napo Kaan, were 
the most learned translators and best linguists. Thereafter, during the reigns 
of the thirteen kings of the Han dynasty, fourteen kings of the Jin dynasty, 
several kings of Jin-Yugur Su and other dynasties, the Than dynasty of 
twenty kings, and eighteen kings of the Soong dynasty successively, Indian 
Pandits and sages were invited to China,. all of whom exerted themselves to 
increase the stock of Chinese Buddhist scriptures. There also appeared a host 
of learned Hwashan 8 (Chinese monks and Sframanas), some of whom visited 
India to study Sanskrit and Buddhism. There were others who acquired 
great 1 proficiency in Sanskrit without going to India. They were all pro- 
foundly read in Buddhism and wrote numerous elaborate works in the 
Chinese language, besides translating many volumes of Sanskrit Scriptures. 
They also wrote the lives of eminent Pandits of China, who laboured with 
wonderful energy for the diffusion of Buddhism. These are to be found 
in the Chinese works called " Histories of religion." 


Buddhism introduced from Tibet. 

From the time of the establishment of the Tartar (Hor) supremacy in 
China, many Tibetan sages visited China and contributed more and more 
to the propagation of Buddhism. The number of translations of Buddha's 
teachings and S'astras increased. Those that were translated after the 
reign of king Wendhu of the dynasty of Su were analyzed and 
catalogued. Twice during the reign of the Than dynasty and twice 
in that of the Soon dynasty, the scriptures were revised, and additions 
made to them. All the books that were subsequently written were 
famished with tables of contents and indexes. Last of all during the 
reign of the Tartar Emperor, Sa-chhen, the Chinese scriptures were 
compared with the Tibetan collections of the Kahgyur and Tangur. 
Such treatises and volumes as were wanting in the Chinese were translated 
from the Tibetan scriptures. All these formed one complete collection 
the first part of which consisted of Buddha's teachings (Kahgyur). 
To the second part 21 volumes of translations from Tibetan, the Chinese 
S'astras, and the works of eminent Hwashan, comprising 153 volumes' 
were added. The whole collection consisted of 7-AO volumes. An analytio 
catalogue of all these books was also furnished. In this collection many 
S'astras were found which did not exist in the Tibetan collections. 

8 The same as Tibetan Lamas. 

92 Sarat Chandra Das — Else and Progress [No. 2» 

In China there were five Buddhist schools : 

I. The Vinaya or Hi nay an a school. 

II. The Mantra or Tantrik school, 

III. The Mahay ana school. 

IV. The Gabhira Dar£ana school. 
V. The Sarartha Tanfcra. 

L Vinaya. oe Hi'natXna School. 

The Indian sage Matanga who first carried Buddhism into China was 
the first of this school in China. * His successors, for a length of time 
maintained his school, but latterly it dwindled away when Kumara S'ri was 
invited to China. Kumara S'ri was a great scholar and deeply read in the 
sacred literature of the Buddhists. He had also a great fame for 
prodigies and foreknowledge. During this time Chaiidana Prahhu* was 
also invited. King Hun-shi showed great reverence to him. Che-u- 
H wash an and 800 other pupils of the Prabhu were engaged in the great 
work of translating the sacred scriptures into the Chinese language. Sermons 
and instructions in Mahayana philosophy were copiously given, and more 
particularly the vows of monkhood and of the Bodhisattva order were taken 
by many. Henceforth the H wash an of China introduced the system of 
entering into the Bodhisattva order — a stage which is only attained after 
fulfilling the duties of asceticism of the first order. Kumara S'ri, together 
with Buddha Jnana, professor of Vinaya, Vimala Chakshu, and Dharma- 
ruchi and the most eminent of his colleagues, translated the four Vyakaranaa 
of the Vinaya portion of the sacred literature, and thereby succeeded in 
enhancing the teaching of the H in ay ana philosophy to the monks. 
Sthavira Sanga Varma, another illustrious Buddhist teacher, came from 
India to this country (China). The system of the Vinaya school, introduced 
by Kumara S'ri and matured by Sanga Varma, still prevails in China. 

There is an account of the arrival in China of a famous Sihalese nun 
named Devasara, accompanied by ten nuns from India. It is not known 
whether she was successful in her attempt to organize the convent system 
and of extending the vows of chastity and religious devotion to females. 

In the four fundamental truths of religion and in works respecting the 
solution of disputes and doubts about them, the Chinese do not differ 
from the Tibetans. From among the large body of books of instruction 
they selected those which suited them most in respect of their habits and 
ways of life ; in consequence of which they differ in some external obser- 
vances from their co-religionists in other countries. They have their own 

• The Chankya Lama, the spiritual guide of the Emperors of China, is.believod 
to be an incarnation of Chandana, one of the disciples of Buddha. 

1SS2] ofJiH or Buddhism in China. 93 

peculiarities. Animal food is forbidden according to their custom. They 
do not ride nor drive such animals as are naturally intended for those 
purposes. They prefer the smallest kind of mendicant's platter to the 
larger sizes. The mendicant's raiment is sewn with depressions and 
loopholes, in the order and arrangement of birds' feathers. In China, in fact, 
there is but one class of Buddhists, in consequence of which there is no 
necessity for the Hwashan to put marks on their dress, like the Tibetan 
Lamas of the present day and the Indian Sramanas in ancient times, 
to distinguish the followers of one school from those of another. 

According to the established laws of China, yellow is the sign of 
royalty, red being the colour reserved for the ministers and nobles. The 
kings of that age, not liking to alter the ancient usage and also to 
give a distinctive appearance to the monkish dress, prescribed scarlet 
for the clergy. In China, people consider it a shameful matter to appear 
in public with naked arms. So they did not choose to adopt the mendi- 
cant's raiment as prescribed in the sacred books. Unlike the Tibetan 
monks who are forbidden to use sleeves, the Chinese Hwashan wear 

In later times when Tibetan Lamas visited China, the question of 
uniformity in clerical dress arose. The Tibetan Lamas succeeded in 
preserving their own uniform, owing to the supremacy of the Tartar 10 
Emperors over China who tolerated national practices. Up to the present 
day, those customs remain unchanged. The Chinese Hwashan dress in 
scarlet with sleeved jackets, and the Tibetan Lamas dress themselves in 
red and yellow, each according to their national practice. 

II. Taxtbikism. 

The first of all the Tantriks who came to China from India was 
Sthavira S'ri Mitra. He diffused the knowledge of Tantrikism by translating 
the Mahamayura and other Dharanis into the Chinese language. Although 
contemporaneously with him many other eminent Indian Tantriks came 
to China, yet very few books on Tantrikism were translated for the public. 
The sage Kumara S'ri also did not communicate his Tantrik lore to the 
general public, but only to one or two of his confidential disciples, so that 
Tantrikism made very little progress in China. The little progress that 
it made, was due to Vajra Bodhi, a learned Xcharya of Malava, and to 
his pupil Amogha Vajra. These two arrived together in China during 
the reign of the Emperor Thafi-min hun. Vajra Bodhi instructed 
Shi-ye-she-than-ye* and Sherab-thah-ye, 11 the two great Hwashan, in 
mysticism. Amogha Vajra performed the ceremony of Vajra Garbha 

w Mongol. 

11 These are Tibetan translations of Chinese names. 

91 Sarat Chandra Das — Sue and Prroge** [No. 2, 

Mandala for the benefit of the king who, on account of his devotion 
to Buddhism, was given the religious name of " Repository of wisdom 
and knowledge of the triple pitaka." The astrologers having found that 
malignant stars were ascendant on the king's destiny, he averted the evil 
by performing a yajna as prescribed in Buddhist mysticism. Amogba 
Vajra also propitiated one of the guardians of the world called Vaiiramana 
and thereby enabled the king to triumph over his enemies. Being pleased 
with him for his eminent services, the king made him a gift of a piece of 
land supporting three thousand tenants. He translated seventy-seven 
principal treatises on Tantrikism. After installing his pupil, Huilan, in 
his place as the high priest, or Vajracharya, he retired to the region of 
peace. Although both these two great Tantriks and their pupils passed 
for saints and sages, yet Tantrikism did not flourish long but soon declined. 
During the reign of the Soon dynasty, Pandit Danarakshita, Dharmabhadra 
and other Indian Pandits visited China, but, being very jealous of their mystic 
operations being known to the public, they only communicated the mantras 
to a selected few, under solemn promise of not revealing them to the 
people. The later Hwashan were taught in only a few of the Tantrik 
rites, such as the ceremony Amogbapa£a. It was owing to these several 
restrictions that mysticism made no progress in China. 

III. Vaipulya Dabsaka (Mahay ana School). 

The founder of this sect was Than-san, 13 one of the most famous 
Budddist teachers of China. He was a descendant of Tun-kun, the 
chief minister of Than kin. He was admitted into the order of monkhood 
at a very early age Being of saintly origin, in intelligence, quickness, 
sharpness of mental faculties and aptitude for learning, he was unrivalled 
by any boy of his age. While only II years old, he committed to memory 
theVimala-kirti sutra of the Tangur and the Saddharma Pun^arika of 
Kahgyur, both of which he could reproduce from memory. He first 
mastered the Abhidharma pitaka and then studied all the volumes of the 
Kahgyur and Tangur collections. At the age of twenty-nine he became 
acquainted with the Prakrit language of India, and with a view to travel 
in that country, secured for himself a passport from the Emperor. Passing 
through different countries, he reached India, and travelled all over 
its central and border provinces, such as Kashmir, in all of which he 
visited numerous places of pilgrimage. He learnt many of the higher 
and lower yanas from several Indian PanditB. Jetari, an illustrious sage, 
was his chief preceptor. At the noble monastery of Nalendra, he learnt 
the Yogach&rya philosophy from one of its most learned professors, 
Danta Bhadra or Danta Deva, who was then in his 106th year. Some 

u Contraction of Than-Ssen-tsan. 

1882.] ofJii or Buddhism in China. 95 

writers identify him with the Xch&rya D&ntasena, the pupil of Vinaya 
Deva. He met his chief preceptor Jetari a second time, from whom ha 
tgtin received instructions on the Yog&charya tenets. Besides Jet&ri and 
Dantasena, there were other Pandits from whom he received instruction in 
Buddhist philosophy. He devoted one year and three months to hearing 
lectures on Maitreya's series of Dharma s'&stras. In tbe remaining nine 
months of the second year, he completed his study of Ny&ya (Logic) . 
Since then during a period of three years he studied Indian philosophies 
of various schools, and vanquished a certain Br&hmanist king in disputa- 
tion. In refutation of heresies, he wrote a work based on Mahay&na 
principles, called " The Extinguisher of Heresy," containing 6600 s*lokas— 
the excellence of which struck all Indian wise men with wonder. 

Again Pandit Haraprabha having written a treatise in refutation 
of the Yogach&rya tenets, Than-Ssan-tsan also wrote a volume con- 
taining 8000 slokas, called Ek&ntasiddha, which he presented to his teacher 
Danta-bhadra. All these works being written in the Sanskrit language, 
the Chinese philosopher became eminently famous. The people of ArysL- 
varta gave him the name Mahay&na Deva. Some of the Indian Xch&ryas 
became his pupils in Buddhist philosophy, and king S'iUditya and 
Eumara, and the king of Southern India called Dh&tubhaira and several 
other princes treated him with great reverence. Among the numerous 
Hwashan teachers who visited India, Thari-ssan-tsan was the only one 
who obtained the high dignity of Pandit and enjoyed the veneration of 
Indian kings. After an absence of seventeen years of .which three were 
spent in the return journey, he returned to China. The reigning Emperor 
of China, Chen-ku-an, received him with the greatest demonstration of 
reverence and respect, and Than-Ssan-tsan presented him with more than 
600 volumes of Sanskrit manuscripts written on palmyra leaves, relics of 
Buddha, images, portraits and different sorts of Indian articles. The king 
placed him at the head of the monastery of Hun-fussi, where he 
employed him, together with other learned Hwashans, in translating 607 
volumes of Buddhism including the Sherchin Ashfasahasrika, chiefly of 
Maitreya Dharma, also in revising many of the ancient translations. He 
rebuilt the monastery of Tshiain-ssi or in Tibetan Chambalin. During 
that period there were 3,716 religious establishments in China, from all of 
which he recruited intelligent and well-behaved monks for his new 
monastery. He also admitted new monks. By these means he was enabled 
to establish a grand monastic establishment, containing 18,630 monks of 
which he became the abbot. After the death of Chen-ku-an, his son Ea-u- 
tsun became Emperor. He greatly patronised Thang-ssan-tsaug and his 
monastery. To every fifty principal monks of Paimin-ssi he supplied four 
servants, namely, three apprentice monks and one neophyte. He made 

96 Sarat Chandra Das — Rite and Progreti [No. 2, 

excellent arrangements for the support of the clergy and appointed the 
illustrious sage as bishop of the three great monasteries, Paimin-ssi, 13 
Hunfussi and Tshi-an-ssi. 

Than-ssan-tsan introduced the three orders of priesthood and the 
five methods of meditation among the clergy, and wrote commentaries on the 
S'ata-sahasrika, according to the Yogacharya method, eight treatises on his 
own system (Vipulacharya), the Lankavatara sutra and many other 

He also wrote many £&stras in general, such as Nyaya Sangraha, 
Kriya Sangraha, &c, &c., and devoted all his attention and energies to 
diffusing the Mahay an a and Yogaoharya schools. He erected a lofty 
chaitya called Arya Fantha to the south of the monastery of Tshi-ain-ssi, 
in which he deposited palmleaf MSS. in Sanskrit of Indian scriptures and 
some sacred relics. He collected one million sacred images from various 
sources, ransomed 10,000 animal lives, distributed alms to 10,000 men and 
offered ten millions of lamps to sacred beings. Having worked for a period 
of nearly forty years to promote the well-being of all living beings, at the 
age of sixty-five he was emancipated from mundane sufferings. The 
Vipulacharya doctrine of Buddhism, taught by him, was obtained by him 
from his teacher Danta Bhadra. The following were the illustrious pro- 
fessors whom he followed : 

1. Buddha. 5. Dharma Rakshita. 

2. Maitreya. 6. Ananda. 

8. Xrya Sanga. 7. Vinaya Bhadra. 

4. Yasu Mitra. 8. Danta-sena. 

It was Than-ssan-tsan who first introduced this system of Buddhism 
into China. The name Than-ssan-tsan means " the knower of the three 
Pitakas in the kingdom of Than." 14 From one of Than-ssan-tsan*s pupils 
named Khuhu-ki-fu&i, Ti-yan-Shi-han-shehu (teacher of the Sunyata" 
philosophy) and other learned Hwashans received instruction! and handed 
down the system to posterity. 

IV. The bpbead of the S^htatA philosophy. 

Buddha delivered this philosophy to Manju Ghosha 15 who in turn 
delivered it to Nagarjuna. The following were the eminent teachers of 
this philosophy :— 

1, Nagarjuna. 2, Arya Deva, also called Nila-netra, on account of his 
having two spots, as large as the eyes, on both his cheeks. His real name 
was Chandrakirti. 3, Svami Prajna-ra£mi. 4, the Chinese sage Yese-pal 
who was miraculously visited by Nagarjuna. 5, Yese-Lodoi, from whom 

19 Variously called Pai-maaai or Piman-ssi. 
14 He was a member of the Thaft royal family. 
" The same as Manjuiri. 


1882.] of Jin or Buddhism in China. 97 

Ti-chi-tasl learnt it. The last was an eminent scholar who first introduced 
this philosophy into China and by his piety and excellent accomplishments, 
promoted the well-being of his countrymen. In the knowledge of the 
Abhidharma, there was none in China to equal him. In the practice and 
observance of Vinaya, he is said to have been like a Bodhisattva (saint). 
He became spiritual guide to the second king of Thengur in Southern 
China and also to king Wendhi of the Su dynasty. In moral merit he was 
incomparably great. He erected a monastery called Kw-chhifi-ssi, on 
mount Th6-an-tha, and another on the hill called Yu-khyu-wan. In these 
two he founded thirty-six schools, and furnished them with complete copies 
of the Kahgyur and Tangur. He constructed 800,000 images of Buddha 
and Bodhisattvas and miniature chaityas, in gold, silver, brass, sandal- 
wood, &c. He ordained 14,000 monks and had 32 principal disciples, all of 
whom were versed in the Sunyat& philosophy. He wrote numerous com- 
mentaries on the various branches of Buddhism, besides notes on Buddha's 
precepts delivered at the Mrigarshi grove, the Mahavaipulya sutra, PrajnA 
paramita and Mahanirvana tantra. He also introduced the study of a 
aeries of books called " The sacrament of offering obeisance by prostra- 
tions," " Tun-min," " Tse-yanmin," " Beema," a treatise on mysticism, 
* Ma-ne," and " Sutranta Vidya," a complete analysis of Dharma and 

At the request of Kin Wen-dhi, he wrote forty religious treatises and 
fifty synopses of the Prajna-paramita, Sadharma Pun^arika, Mula Prajnd, 1 * 
Ac., for the use of students of Buddhism. After labouring for thirty years 
in endeavouring to propagate the Madhyamika philosophy of Nagarjuna, at 
the beginning of the sixtieth year of his age, 17 in the 17th year of Khai-hu- 
ftn's reign, he sat absorbed in deep meditation to pass away from this 
life. He vanquished the " great god" of the Chinese, named Kwan-yun- 
chhan, 18 or " the lord of clouds and thunder," and bound him under a solemn 
oath to defend Buddhism in China. He had thirty- two principal disciples 
of whom the following were the most remarkable for their learning and 
purity of life : 

(1) Tan-an-tsun-che. 

(2) Fu-hu-wa-tsun-che. 

(3) Tun-yan-the-an-tsun-che. 

(4) Cho-shi-lafi-tsun-che. 

(5) Kin-shi-tsun-che. 

Among his spiritual successors, one named Tha-an-thai-tsun who 
spread his system in the southern province of China called Kin-nan, became - 

11 Commentary by Nagarjuna. 

17 On the 24th of mid- winter month* 

w Also-called Kwan-lo-yu-yor. 


98 Sarat Chandra Da* — Bise and Progrei* [No. % 

very eminent, while the northern part called Tun-yu-an, adopted a differ- 
ent school. Commencing with Ti-che, spiritual father and son, and during 
the five spiritual successions — viz., (1) Dhi-sin-fu-£un-da-shee, (2) Yun-hu- 
wa-ti-yan-da-shee, (3) Shi-an-she-hu-fa-tsan-dashee, (4) Chhin-li-han- 
chhin-kwa-shee, and (5) Ku-hi-fun-chun-meedashee, the study of 
u Phal-chhen" was chiefly pursued by Chinese Buddhists. The same 
practice has come down to the present day and it must he admitted 
that Fhalchhen is the favourite scriptural work of the modern Chinese 
Buddhists. The fourth chief Hwashan, named Chhin-li-han-kwashie 
also known by the name of Then-kwan, meaning Vimala-drishti or 
" clear sight" became the abbot of Revo-tse-na, for which reason he was 
called Chhin-li-han-kwashie. He flourished during the reign of Than. 
Min-hu-aA, and was well versed in the ten branches of sacred literature 
as well as in the science of government. Through the religious sanctity 
and purity of his life, he obtained sainthood. Although he did not visit 
India, yet he had mastered the Sanskrit language and could fluently 
converse in it, nor did he require any interpreter to explain Sanskrit works* 
He had a gigantic frame, nine cubits high ; his hands hung to his knees ; 
he possessed forty teeth ; his eyes were scarcely seen to wink ; and the 
very sight of his monstrous person struck men with awe and reverence. 
Throughout the country of China he was famed as a Mah& PanoUta, 
who had no rival. The illustrious Chankya Rinpochhe Rolpai dorje, the 
spiritual guide of the Emperor Chhin-luA, in his hymns on the story of 
Revo-tse-Aa describes this great Pandit as an incarnation of Maitreya 
Buddha. Other writers believe him to have been an emanation of Manju 
Ghosha. Among the Chinese, he was the greatest scholar in Phal-chhen, 
on which subject he wrote three large commentaries. Among his principal 
works the following are well known: — (1) "Vows," (2) "the Mirror 
of Dharmat," (3) "the Mirror of Lamp of S'astras," (4) Bodhisattva 
Pancha Marga, and other synopses of the triple pifakas, (5) three hundred 
detached treatises of S'astras. It is universally admitted that a greater 
scholar in Phal-chhen never appeared in China. He lived one hundred 
and two years, during which time he became spiritual guide to seven 
kings in succession, and taught the sutrantas several times. His school 
is known by the name of " S hi-an-she-hu." Its tenets differ very little 
from those of Than-ssan-tsaiks, the difference being in the ways 
prescribed. The 21st spiritual successor of this great teacher named 
Khu-an-fu thai-fa-shee became celebrated for his learning. He is said to 
have been miraculously visited by Maitreya, while going on a pilgrimage 
to Eevotse-ua. Although the school founded by Tishi, and his spiritual 
son, continued for a long time, yet it wrought very little change in 
the religious persuasion of north and south China. 

1882.] qfJiA or Buddhism in China. 99 

V. Feeth S1b£btha-v£di School. 

This is the most ancient school of India, derived from Buddha and 
handed down to his spiritual successors directly. The following is the 
order of succession in which it has come to posterity : 

Buddha, Mahakasyapa, Ananda, Sbanabastri, Madhyam£bna,Upagupta, 
Dhitika, Arhat Krishna, Sudarsana, Vibhaga, Buddhananta, Buddha Mitra, 
Panasha, Asva Ghosha Mashaba, Nagarjuna, Aryadeva, Rahula-bhadra, 
Saogananta, Arhat Ghanasa, Kumarata, and Sha-ya-ta. 


The name of this great country in its own language is S'en-te-ha 
(S'en = God, Tehu = land) or the celestial country. Some authors 
identify it with the fabulous Continent of Lu-phapa. 

The people of Aryavarta call it Maba" China, where Mahd means 
great and China is a corruption of Tshin. Among the sovereigns of China 
She-'hu-hun, king of the province of Tshin, became very powerful. He 
conquered the neighbouring countries and made his power felt in mo6t 
of the countries of Asia, so that his name as king of Tshin was known 
to distant countries of the world. In course of time by continual phonetic 
change, the name Tshin passed first into Tsin and then into Chin or China, 
whence the Sanskrit designation Maha China or Great China. The 
Tibetans call it Gya-nag, (Gya " extensive" and nag " black") or people 
of the plains who dress in black clothes : for all the Chinese dress in blue 
or black. So also the Tibetans gave the appellation of Gya-gar to the people 
of India, on account of their wearing white, dresses. According to the 
ancient historical records, many religious schools and customs originated 
in China. Of these, three were the most important, viz., She-hu, Do-hu 
and Jin. The first, She-hu, partakes more of a literary than of a religious 
character. We shall therefore treat it as literature. According to Sam- 
bhota, the father of Tibetan literature, letters are the origin of all science 

1 Translated from Dub-thafc-Selkyi-M6l6fi. See Vol. L, p. 187, Note 1. 

100 Sarat Chandra Das — Sacred Literature, etc. [No. 2, 

and speech : they are the rudiments of words and their significations : to 
the formation of letters, religion owes its success : hut for the principles 
of reading and writing, the progress of work, knowledge and science in the 
world would have come to a standstill. 

The first sovereign of China, King Fohi, was a very accomplished 
prince, possessed of an intellect quick, powerful and discerning. With the 
aid of his wise minister Tshankye he first invented the art of writing and 
gave to the letters their form, power and inflection or orthography . He in- 
troduced the system of writing on bamboo slates with waxen pencils. His 
characters were of a rounded shape called Ton-tse, and it was during 
the reign of Tshin-shi-huA that his minister Li-si invented the running 
hand which were called Li-si after his name. His General Minthe-yaft 
invented the brush pen made of hare's hair, and with ink prepared from the 
smoke of pine-wood painted the characters on silk cloth. Afterwards 
Tshai-wan of Sag-rum invented paper. Then, by the invention of a 
neater sort of characters called khya-i-si (and the cursive called Tsho-u-si) 
a more convenient and easy method of writing was introduced which gradu- 
ally displaced the earlier systems. Many works were written which illustra- 
ted the simple and childish character of the earlier people. Li-si and Min- 
the's systems of slow and quick handwriting were found unfit and rude and 
so fell into disuse. 

The first king Fo-hi wrote a large treatise on the art; of divination 
and astrology called Khyen-shan which is the earliest work of the 
kind known. He also wrote a book on Ethics, called " The perfect and 
judicious behaviour." Then appeared the five literary and moral works 
called by the general designation of Ookyins, viz. : — Yeekyin Shee-kyiiu 
Shoo-kyiA, Lee-kyin. and Chhun-chho-u. The authorship of YeekyiA 
is attributed to Fohi, the writers of the remaining four being unknown. 
She-hu is also a well-known term for that science which treats of the re* 
gulation of the customs and manners of a nation. 


Ethical philosophy. 

The works on this subject are very interesting. The founder of this 
philosophy was the famous sage KhuA-fu-tse (in Tibetan Kon-tse, the 
latinized Confucius). He was born not long after the birth of Buddha. 
In the latter period of the Te-hu dynasty, during the reign of Te-hu- 
win, Khun-fu-tse was born in Shan-tu one of the thirteen great divisions 
of China. His biography is well known every where in China and he is 
universally believed to have been a particularly sacred personage. The 
present laws of China and the ethical works, so well suited to the welfare 

1882.] of Ancient China. 101 

of all classes of men, are all founded on the Code of laws first drawn up 
by this great philosopher. From that time to the present day, for a period 
of more than two thousand and five hundred years, during which time China 
has witnessed many political changes and revolutions, the downfall and growth 
of many dynasties, the laws of Khun-fu-tse have continued to regulate 
and govern the manners and customs of {he whole community from the Em- 
peror to the meanest subject. So wise and excellent are those laws that 
they have undergone little change in the course of time. Being the first 
and wisest preceptor of the monarchs of China, the portrait and name of 
Khun-fu-tse are adored and venerated by every sovereign who succeeds 
to the celestial throne. This ceremony handed down from generation to 
generation has got the sanction of antiquity as a heritage to the Emperors 
of China. The descendants of KhuA-f u-tse enjoy the second order of the 
Empire as an hereditary honour, in token of the high regard due to the 
memory of the wisest man born in China. The Tibetans believe that 
their celebrated Sron-tsan Gampo was an incarnation of Khun-fu-tse — 
one of miraculous birth — in whom was manifest the spirit of Chenressig, 
Some authors conjecture that Khun-fu-tse was the inventor of astrology 
from the few verses bearing his name and praise, which head almost all 
the astrological works of China and Tibet. He is also believed by some 
people to have been the inventor of handicrafts, manufacture, techno- 
logy <fee. It was Khun-fu-tse who first taught philosophy and literature 
in China, but he wrote only a few works on those subjects. His pupils and 
followers made copious additions to and improvements on his works, which 
were revised and annotated. The works so annotated and revised which 
served as guides to the scholars of China, are four in number, viz. : — Ta- 
•he-u, Chun-yun, Loon-yu and Men-tse. The outlines of Ta-she-u, 
drawn up by Khun-fu-tse himself, were enlarged by his pupil named Chon- 
tse from hints taken from him. The second work Chun-yun was composed 
by Tse-se. The third work Loon-yu was attributed to the joint authorship 
of Tse-le-u Tse kyan and Tse-sha. The fourth work Men-tse derived its 
name from that of its author. These writers were either Khun-f u-tse's 
pupils or pupils of his pupils. From the time the Te-hu dynasty was founded, 
literature made rapid strides in China and the number of literary works 
greatly increased. There grew up during this time, (as afterwards), a number 
of scholars (not less than 100) who interpreted these works and wrote com- 
mentaries on them. The statutes and laws which uphold the government 
were drawn up during the reign of Hwanku by a learned scholar named 
She-u-hu, on the basis of Khun-f u-tse's works. A few years afterwards, 
Tse-u-fu-tse, a great philosopher, wrote many original works which, even 
at the present day, are considered as great authorities and works of refe- 
rence. Again, there are five other works, called Kan-chen, which resemble 

102 ' Sarat Chandra D&s — Sacred Literature, etc. [No. 2, 

the Deb-thers or Historical records of Thibet in subject matter ; besides 
they contain many literary and philosophical notices which come more 
properly under the heading of She-hu, Astrology or the art of Divination. 

The earliest written encyclopaedia of Astrology is the chief repository 
of Yeekvin, the first of the Uhu series. The art of divination called 
Porthan which was brought into Tibet during the reign of the Than 
dynasty was obtained from this great work. In early times, as stated 
above, there reigned in China the Hun dynasty of three kings and that 
of Dhi of five kings. During the reign of Fohi (whose name is also written 
as Hpushy), the first of the Hun kings, there came out from the great river 
H6 in the province of Henan (modern Ha-nari) a monster called Lun-ma 
having the body of a horse and the head of a dragon. On the back of this 
hideous monster there were eight figures or Mudr&s (called Pakwas in 
Chinese), curiously inscribed. The eight Pakwas being multiplied to 
64 by permutation, a work was written under the name of Lyan-shan 
(chief work). The figures on the back of the monster were called 
He-tho-hu; tho-hu in Chinese meaning "figures" and H6 being the 
river from which the monster issued. This earlier account of the origin 
of the Pakwa is called the " First Heavenly System." Afterwards a learned 
man by the name of Sten-non wrote a work on the Porthan, called 
Ku-hi-tsan, based on the first work on divination. It is also said that 
it was brought down by an eagle from the mountain called Swan-y wan. 
It is related by some writers that there is a work which was composed 
from the cry of an eagle. The third monarch of the Hun dynasty named 
Yee-khyun (written as Yihi-shyin), by accurate observation of the heavenly 
bodies and by assigning the distinctive signs of male and female to the five 
elements, formed the ten fundamentals 9 (and gave the names of mouse, bull, 
&c, to the twelve concatenations or DendaUP named the divisions of time, 
viz.) — years, months and days). All these were represented on a globe, 

1 The five elements of astrology— 

1. Tree, Male and Female. 

2. Fire „ 
8. Earth ,, 
4. Iron „ 
6. "Water „ 

• The Sanskrit words corresponding to the 12 Dondals of the Tibetan astrology 
or causal connection on which the existence of the human soul depends are : — 

1. Avidyi. 7. Vidana. 

2. Saqiskara 8. Rishna. 
8. Vijnana. 9. Ap&dana. 

4. Namarupa. 10. Bh&va. 

5. Shagyatna, 11. Jati. 

6. Sparfa. 12. Jaramarana. 

1882.] of Ancient China. 103 

called Hun-thyen-yi constructed by him for the purpose. The clocks (Tse- 
men chin) and watches (Pe-yo-hu) of modern China are prepared after 
those illustrations. Moreover, the invention of chariots, boats, forts, ten 
torts of musical airs and the use of arms were attributed to him. 

The later heavenly system. 

The fourth king of the crynasty of Te-hu named Yo-hu-tho-hu- 
than-shi, was, in the year tree-dragon (the first of the heavenly years 
according to this system of calculating time), presented with a wonder- 
ful tortoise by a man from the south named Yui-shan-she. By carefully 
observing the figures and marks on the tortoise's shell, which were supposed 
to expiess the names of divisions of time, the king improved the former books 
on astrology and the art of divination. From that year to the fire-dragon 
year of the 12th cycle when the Emperor Chheu-lun ascended the throne, 
there elapsed 4092 years. There are legends which relate that a subject 
presented a wonderful tortoise to king Yo-hu, but there is no record of 
his utilizing the marks on the shell for the purposes of astrology. It is 
stated that king Shi-hu-yohi obtained a wonderful tortoise of miraoulous 
origin from the Biver Loo of Hanan, and by reading the astrological symbols 
and marks known as Fakwa, found on its shell, wrote a large treatise on 
"divination." He gave the name of Loo-tho-u 4 to it, from Loo, the river 
whence the tortoise came out. 

The period during which the heaven and earth remained one and undi- 
vided, 5 was known as Nam fta, and the period when they became separated 
and distinct from each other, as Nam Chhye*. During these two periods, 
and also previously, the science of Pakwa or astrology and divination is said 
to have existed in itself, in consequence of which it is considered as ever 
unchangeable. It is not stated in the Chinese books that the " great 
tortoise" is the prime cause of all things, as is fabled by Tibetan writers 
on astrology and the black art, after the above account of the wonderful 
tortoise of the Chinese from whom undoubtedly they have derived their 
knowledge of astrology and divination. The following are the verses on 
which the Tibetans, after the Chinese, base all their knowledge of astrology 
and of the position of the earth. 

4 Tho-hu meaning the book of symbols and signs. 

* From this it must not be understood that the first work on divination written 
from the figures on the horse-dragon, was composed before the formation of the Heaven 
and Earth from chaos. The name Nam fta is used to distinguish its priority to that 
which immediately followed it. 


104 Sarat Chandra D&a— Sacred Literature, ete. [No. 2, 

Tsug-lag-tse-kyi-tsa-va-ni The principal root of astrology. 

Ma-h£.ser-gyi-rus-bal-de\ . Is the great-golden tortoise. 

Go-vo Lhor-dan Jud-ma The tail to the north and the head above. 

Shog-yeshar-la-shog-yen- The right and left sides lie east and 

nub. west. 

Yau-lag-shes-po-tsham-zi- The limbs extend to the four quarters 

Gan-kyalne-pade-ye teng. On which lies supreme 

Dsam-lin Jig-ten Chhag- The world Jambudvipa and rests. 

Wen-wan father of the first king of the Chigur dynasty who was a 
saintly personage revived the first work on astrology written by Fohi. The 
later heavenly system of astrology, based on the symbols and marks on 
the tortoise's shell, was revised and improved by Che-hu-ween. Altogether 
there were three great works on astrology written at three different 
times, the first being Le-an-shan's, the second Ku-hi-tsafi's and the third 
Wen-wafi's — all well known in China. During the latter period of the 
Te-hu dynasty, the wicked and stupid king of Chhen-gur in utter ignorance 
of the worth of astrology, and apprehending danger from the existence of 
astrological works which in his eyes appeared ominous and fraught with 
evil, ordered them to be burnt. The first two works were destroyed, 
but fortunately Wen-wan's work survived, and it is on this that the 
modern astrological works of China are chiefly based. Wen-wan's son, 
Chi-hu-kyun, revised and illustrated his father's work. Khun-fu-tse 
is said to have improved upon the writings of his predecessors, but this is 
questioned by some writers who doubt if he ever wrote on the subject of 
astrology and divination. Another painstaking author wrote a small treatise 
on astrology, based on Che-hu-kyuft's work. One of Khun-fu-tse's 
pupils is said to have drawn up some astrological formulas under the name of 
Shi-chin, which were ascribed by some to Khun-fu-tse himself. Probably 
people mistake this book for Khun-fu-tse's. Among the ancient writers 
of China, Fohi Wen-wan, Chi-hu-kyun and Khun-fu-tse are famed as 
four saintly authors. Old men of Tibet believe that the art of divination 
was first discovered by Manju-sri, the god of wisdom, on the summit of 
Bevo-tse-fia. Other accounts, stating that it was given to the world by the 
goddess Namgyalmo (S. Vidya) and by Padma Sambhava, also obtain credit 
in Tibet, but are mere fabrications, having no more truth in them than those 
ascribing the origin of astrology to Buddha. 

1882.] of Ancient China. 105 

Medical Work*. 

The second king of the Han dynasty named Yan-dheu-shen-hun-shi 
was the first who wrote on medicine. To feel and understand the pulse 
and to divine human destiny by an intimate knowledge of the fundamental 
elements were the principal subjects of his works. This latter science 6 
was unknown in India and other countries. The four great classes of 
Tibetan medical works are said to have been based upon the above named 
early Chinese works. The five fundamental elements of the Chinese are 
quite dissimilar to those of the Indians, being tree, fire, earth, iron, and 
water, while akdsa has no place. Tree probably supplies the place of wind, 
but it is not easy to understand how iron could be imagined to be a subs- 
titute for ak&sa. 


Yu, minister of King Shun, discovered the use of the five Khin or 
Sanskrit Tar and the twenty-five tones of music called Shee in Chinese or 
Sur in Sanskrit. He wrote a book on songs and musical performances 
called Sho-hu. The Tha-shi dance of Tibet of the present day was based 
upon this Chinese mode. There also appeared many original works on 
rhetoric (Alanka>a Vidyi) in both the periods. The number of figures of 
speech in the Chinese language i* greater than in Tibetan. 

Works on history, technology, selection of lands, physiognomy, and 
prognostication existed from an early age. The number of works on 
these subjects increased in latter times, but they are not classed as great 

She*hu or an exposition and vindication of the Confucian philosophy. 

With regard to religious faith among the She-hu scholars very few 
persons possess the " predisposition to piety" (according to Buddhistic 
principles). The majority of them, content to limit their aims to this 
life, are careless whether their future after death be one of happiness or 
damnation, while others look upon this life as the consequences of Karma and 
Phala. They argue that had it been true, Khuh-f u-tse and King Fo-hi 
wuld have mentioned it in their works, which contain no such account. 
Both King Po-hi and Khun fu-tse who were distinguished for their pro- 
found wisdom and learning were, no doubt, aware of those religious principles, 
but omitted them in their works, owing to the people of the age not having 
been so far advanced as to comprehend the triple pitakas of Dharma. The 

The science of predicting human destiny by marking the pulsation, is different 
from palmisty which was known in India* 

100 Sarat Chandra Das — Sacred Literature, etc. [No. 2, 

works called U-hu-jin and Ssi-shi-hu, &c., treated of such matters of 
worldly utility as would meet the requirements of the age they lived in, 
and would pave the way for the future reception of Buddhism. Fo-hi and 
Khun-fu-tse did not speak a single word against Buddhism like the 
unprincipled Ch&rvakas who reject the theory of the transmigration of 
souls and the inevitable consequence of Karma and Phala. Once, one of 
Khuh-fu-tse's pupils asked him what would be the state of man after 
death. Khun-fu-tse answered that he could not say that there was no 
future existence : that it was so mysterious and unknown, that he could not 
hazard any opinion on it : but would presently explain all that was conceivable 
and open to cognition. Again once while he was explaining some meta- 
physical points respecting the supreme being, one of his pupils, Wuen-fu-hu, 
questioned him thus, " Sire, if there is a great being as you mention, what 
and where is he ? Is he so and so ?" Khun-fu-tse having replied in the 
negative, the pupil asked if he (Khun-fu-tse himself) was not that being ; 
" No, how could I be like that supreme being ?" replied Khun-fu-tse. " If 
so" retorted the pupil, " where must he be ?" Khun-fu-tse said, " such a 
being is born in the western quarter*' (by which he evidently meant Buddha). 
In the works of these two personages there are some mysterious passages 
which appear like the aphorisms of Buddhism, capable of a higher 
signification than the mere earthly objects they are taken to mean- 
The text of Yee-kyih in some respects resembles the Tantrik philosophy 
of the Buddhists, as has been explained by the most learned Lama Chan-kya 
Kolpai Dorje. During the supremacy of the Jin dynasty, two eminent 
Chinese scholars named Hwa Shan Fo-shen and Dhu-hu-min, wrote com- 
mentaries on both She-hu and Dohu, in which they pointed out many striking 
resemblances to the theories of Buddhism. In a later work called " The 
History of the rise and progress of religion (or Chhoijun)" being an 
exposition of the works of the great She-hu teacher Khun-fu-tse, it is 
found that his teachings were akin to those of Buddhism. Khung-fu-tse's 
works avowedly treat on ethics and on public utility for the benefit both 
of individuals and of nations, but essentially they point to saintly wysa, 
Those who have studied Buddhism critically, can easily perceive the similarity 
between Khufi-fu-tse's teaching and that of Buddha, but the general 
readers of Khun-fu-ste may not form any sound judgment in this respect. 
Of the classes which go by the name of U-hu-chin, five viz., Y+, 
Tee, Lee, Kyi, and Sheen, are the principal works. In the Chinese language 
they are called U-hu-chhan or one's own doctrine, behaviour or morality. 
The first, Yin, inculcates mild and gentle behaviour ; the 2nd, Yee, 
treats of affection, cheerfulness, and good humour; the 3rd, Lee, of 
manners and customs ; the 4th, of wisdom ; the 5th, of a calm and firm 
mind. The four well known ethical works called Ssi-she-hu are mere 

1882.] of Ancient China. 107 

applications of these five subjects. Those who in China carefully master 
these five subjects are regarded as sages, those who can practise them, as 

Origin of Heaven, Earth and Men according to the " Ye-kyW\ 

In the beginning, before the formation of Heaven and Earth there 
existed nothing but " Hun tun" or void, which evolved of itself and was in 
a state of chaotic agitation from eternity, until it fell into utter confusion and 
disorder. In this state of chaos, the order, distinction, cognition, classifica- 
tion and nomenclature of things were unknown. The Chinese account bears 
a striking resemblance to the account as to the origin of the world in all 
Tibetan works on mysticism that in the beginning there existed nothing 
except void from which the world arose. In that chaotic state there was 
the virtue of " The-ji" that is, the supreme nature, matter and self -existent 
energy. Just as we have the innate power of distinguishing different 
things in ourselves, so the primeval chaos possessed the virtue of giving 
rise to distinct existences. From its internal agitation, it produced first of 
all Namba (species), and nature, which were like male and female. Again 
these being endowed with a virtue like the germination of the seed by 
the union of the male and female elements, divided themselves into the 
"Tsba-shin," i. e., the fourfold distinction into (1) great male, (2) little 
male, (3) great female and (4) little female. Afterwards from the union 
of those two species sprung the Pa-kwa or Tibetan Parkha and Choo-gufi 
or the nine mansions with forty- five gods residing in them. Thereafter 
from the virtue of these two, light and clearness came forth. All light 
substances flew upwards from the ocean of chaos, the thin and at- 
tenuated things resting on the surface. When this separation took place 
the upper region or Heaven (or Thain) was produced. This was called 
the age of the formation of Heaven (Nam ftama). All heavy (Sanskrit 
guru), thick, unclean and ponderous substances sank to the bottom and 
formed the Earth called Tee. This is called the age of the Earth's 
closing. When Heaven and Earth were produced, the shining lustre of 
the former radiated from above and the bright effulgence of the latter rose 
upwards. These two, united together, produced " Man." This age was 
called the period of the formation of Man. Heaven, Earth and Man 
are possessed of three virtues or potential energies and three aims 
(designs). In works on mysticism a similar description is given. Heaven 
is said to have been anciently the father and Earth the mother. These 
two meeting together produced a sound, whence emanated Man. The 
Tibetan " Nam" or Chinese " Thain" means both Heaven and potential 
Energy. Tibetan "Sa" or Chinese " Tee" meaning Earth is purely matter 
that has productive powers. 

108 Sarat Chandra Das — Soared Literature, etc. [No. 2, 

Parkha or Pakwa or Mudrd Symbols. 





namkha chhn ri 







khin kham kin 







sky water hill 



Chinese ChooguA or Tibetan Mevagu. English nine mansions of the 45 gods. 

Tibetan chikar ninag flam thin shijun naser tngkar dunmar gyatkar gumar 
English white black bine green yellow white red white red. 

No. of Mansions 1 28 4 5 6 7 8" 9 

' Again, the blue sky (or the middle illuminated atmosphere), and the 
Earth are both called the world. Vulgar people say that the Heaven is 
of dark blue colour and the Earth four-sided. According to this system 
only nine heavens are mentioned without a word about their disposition. 
The Tibetans alone hold that there are nine strata of earth, one above 
another and nine heavens in regular succession. The great period counted 
from the beginning of the formation of Heaven, Earth and Man till their 
destruction is called Yi-yvan (JEvum). The measure of time in one 
Ti-y van is equal to 129,600 human years of the Hindu system or " kalpa." 
After the destruction of Heaven, Earth and Man, Huntdn and Theji will 
be convulsed to form a second chaos, from which there will be a renewed 
formation of the world. 

Man is like the effulgence or the essence of all conglomerate matter. 
The Chinese do not recognize the theory of the four ways of birth, viz., 
from the egg and the womb and the manner of production of insects and 
plants. According to them, man was not born in the beginning but 
formed after the manner above described. The earliest writers do not 
appear to hold that the Heaven, formed after the dissolution of Chaos, 
possessed any visible appearance or magnitude, nor do they explain what 
will be the state of man after death. They neither enumerate the six 
classes of living beings, nor describe how they were produced. Latterly an 
eminent Chinese writer called Chou-tse, who was acquainted with the 
works of the Buddhists wrote as follows : — After death, those portions 
of the mind and soul or the spiritual effulgence, obtained from the Father 
consisting of the Three Pr&nas (called Sanhaon) fly towards the skies and 
became absorbed in S'en (divinity), while the six parts (consisting of 
spiritual emanations) obtained from the mother (Lehu-pho) go down 
towards the earth, and mix with the spirit called " ku-hi" or the devil. 
All the Chinese authors attributed the happiness and sufferings of this 
world to The-han (Thain) or Heaven. The same theory prevails now all 
over China, the Heaven of the Chinese bearing some resemblance to the 
idea of the Supreme Being. According to them, pigs, sheep and other 
animals (as well as herbs and vegetables) being designed for human 

1882.] of Ancient China. 109 

consumption by The-han, there is no harm in killing them. The Chinese 
adore many gods endowed with a visible shape among whom Yoob-Hwan. 
is well known. They also worship a multitude of devils. They pay 
homage to dead bodies and, under a belief that the mane* of the dead, 
though in Hades, can enjoy earthly pleasures, offer them meats and other 
edibles. Some of their customs are formed by affinity with those of their 
neighbours the Lalos and To-u-se. There are also some customs which 
are evidently borrowed from the Buddhist creed. 

KhuA-fu-Ue's teaching compared toith the doctrines of Buddhism. 

Khun-fu-tse in his work on the fundamental formulae called Ta-she-h a 
while describing the manners and attributes of a " Teacher" says, that 
liberal and enlightened accomplishments depend much upon clear judgment 
and understanding. The doing of good and contributing to ennoble others 
depend first on one's own goodness and excellencies. After the acquire- 
ment of knowledge it should be retained, when it is comprehended it 
should be practised. When it is practised it will produce happiness, 
when it has imparted happiness, it can be utilized in teaching others, when 
it is communicated to others, knowledge is acquired. Thus by progressing 
further and further from the origin or beginning of learning, the ultimate 
object can be obtained. It is easy to understand the apparent meaning 
of his words which generally relate to the enumeration of moral virtues 
pertaining to this life, but a mystic and deeper meaning pervades them all, 
which may be interpreted thus : — By enlightened knowledge he meant, 
the clear knowing of what the true and false ways (of religion) are, which 
he exhaustively illustrated in his chapter on the " duties of a Teacher.' 1 
By ennobling others and leading them to good <fcc. he meant that, in order 
to be able to do good to all animate beings and to lead them to the real and 
true end of existence, one must first himself arrive at perfection. When 
he has first become good, others will follow him. Having himself obtained 
happiness, he will be able to conduct others to happiness, who have not 
already obtained it. After reaching perfection himself and bringing 
others to it, right discrimination is attained when he will know the 
means of emancipating himself from transitory existence. Thus by 
progressing further and further he will see the beginning and end of 
all knowledge. From this, it is evident that Khun-fu-tse's doctrines 
were akin to those of the omniscient Buddha. The maxim, " First mature 
yourself and after you have done so, try to mature others" and others of a 
like nature correspond with those contained in the Mahayana philosophies. 
Although the name of Buddha was unknown to Khun-fu-tse, yet 
in saying "gone to the extreme limit of knowledge" he must have 
meant an exalted state of being, closely resembling that of Buddha. 

110 Sarat Chandra D&s — Sacred Literature, etc. [No. 2, 

Thus he approached very near to Buddhism in that twilight of civiliza- 
tion. The Chinese scholars who, bj critically studying Khuft-fu-tse's 
works became learned, are given the title of "Shyan-shen." For having 
mastered the ancient classics, they are called wise men. Above all, when they 
have mastered the above-mentioned five classical works and can elaborately 
elucidate the formulas and riddles, they are styled Sho-hu-tsha or Chwan- 
y wen. Thus by studying the classics they become learned, and then by 
acquiring a knowledge of the laws of their country, they become possessed 
of a knowledge of things. Having acquired both kinds of knowledge, 
they discharge the duties of the administration of their country. Such 
learning qualifies them for preferment in the government of their country. 
Learning alone opens to them the chances of reaching the highest offices 
in the land including those of Governor and Minister of State. It is 
such literary distinctions that raise men in China to rank and position ia 
utter disregard of birth or riches. All public offices in China are in fact 
open to competition. 

Among the theological distinctions of China the three highest are — 

Shyan-shen equivalent to Tib. Ge-she = neophyte. 

Sho-hu-tshahi „ Tib. Kahchu = monk who has observed the 10 Command- 

Chwafi-ywan „ Tib. Babchyam = superior monk. [menta. 

As by proficiency in classical studies men are raised to governorships 
in China, so in Tibet scholars of sacred literature are placed at the 
head of all religious institutions as prefects and high priests. But 
now-a-days the number of such erudite scholars is very small both in 
China and in Tibet. There are some Khun-fu-tsist saints who being 
profoundly read in the great classical works of China, regardless of high 
preferment in government service, of commercial emoluments and of ,the 
pleasures and allurements of a worldly life, betake themselves to ascetism 
and a life of seclusion in caverns of hills or in the solitudes of the 
wilderness. They take such students as are willing to accompany them, 
and do not care if they get none. These men are like Buddhist hermits 
who pass their days in solitude, devoting their lives to study, meditation, 
and asceticism, but it must be admitted that there are few such in both 
countries. It appears from his writings that Khun-fu-tse had veneration 
for Buddha although Buddhism was not in existence in his age. In his 
works he neither remarked as in prophecy that Buddhism was good or 
bad. Chau-f u-tse, another writer of fame, evidently had some knowledge of 
Buddhism. In his writings he speaks in commendation of it rather than 
with any dislike. Subsequently one Cho-u-tse wrote blasphemously of 
Buddha. He was happy in his discussions on other matters but not in 
those on Buddha. He argued thus : — As the prosperity and happiness 
of a nation arise from the king's virtue, it is the king's first and 

1882.] of Ancient China. Ill 

prime duty to treat his subjects kindly. One's own body being derived 
from his parents, they are his great benefactors. Among his subjects 
those who are intelligent, industrious, learned, able and powerful should 
help their king in the administration of the State and in war. The people 
generally should in retarn help him with tribute, revenue and presents* 
Again it will be the duty of all men to respect their parents besides sup- 
porting them and ministering to their wants ; and after their death 
to honour and pay homage to their manes and bones. — Thus his moral 
sayings are excellent, but at the end he rushes into blaming Buddha : — 
" Afterwards one S'akya Muni, unmindful of his duties towards his king and 
parents and forgetful of their kindness, quitted his home and preached a 
religion of which selfishness is the leading feature, inasmuch as it enjoins 
on each man separation from the world and care for only his own 
food and clothing. This religion being introduced into China during the 
reign of the Emperor Hwan-min-yun-phifi, many a family became 
destitute and extinct. The excellent creed of ancient times faded away 
as the new one progressed." But, indeed, the religion of Buddha does not 
specify one's duties towards his parents and the king, but aims at a wider 
good, — the good and well being of all living beings of the world by freeing 
them from miseries and sorrows not only of this present life but also of 
all transitory existences. The aim of Buddhism is to know how to lead 
all living beings from misery and grief to a state of endless beatitude. 
So that there is a vast difference between the doctrines of Cho-u-tse and 
those of Buddha, the aim of the former being as small as the point of a 
needle, while that of the latter is as wide as the immeasurable Heavens. The 
-writings of Cho-u-tse with the exception of some vilifying expressions to- 
wards Buddhism contains not a word of argument and refutation. They 
only contain some erroneous views besides some commonplace principles. 
Since the introduction of Buddhism into China to the present day all 
the monarch s, with the exception of one or two, were devoted followers 
of the Buddhist faith in consequence of which such insane observations 
as those of Cho-u-tse and other profane writers, have been as ineffectual in 
their aims as echoes returned by rocks. Nowadays there are some among 
the vulgar classes who obstinately follow these stupid writers who can 
show no reasons but bark like old dogs. 

112 Sarat Chandra D6s — Sacred Literature, etc. [No. 3, 




The chief god or teacher of this most ancient religion of China was 
Lo-u-kyun. He is both god and man. As a god he is called by the 
name " Thai-shan Lo-u-kyun" which in Tibetan means the chief lord 
of goodness. He is said to have appeared when, according to the Chinese 
account, Heaven and Earth were first formed. Some writers identify him 
with the god Brahm&, which conjecture is accepted by many. In the begin- 
ning of the formation of the world the great Brahm& formed the superb 
mansion of the gods and thereafter the Earth, which accounts agree with 
those given of Thais ban Lo-u-kyun as well as with the signification of 
his name " Brahm& built the world." Lo-u-kyun from that period to 
modern times is said to have sent forth 81 emanations among which 
the great teacher Buddha is counted as one, just as the Br ah onanists 
reckon him (Buddha » as one of the Avatars of Vishnu. The human Lo-u- 
kyun was an incarnation of the divine Thai-shan Lo-u-kyun. He is 
believed to have been contemporary with Khun-fu-tse. After a stay 
of 82 years within his mother's womb he was born when all his hair had 
turned grey, for which reason he was called by the nickname Lo-u-tse or 
the grey-haired old man. His followers addressed him by the name " Lo-u- 
kyun" the honorific equivalent for Lo-u-tse. Having obtained 72 chap- 
ters of what are called " heavenly scriptures," from a certain cavern of a 
hill, he became a religious teacher and preaohed the religion called " To-u-se." 
The famous Chankya Rinpochhe Bolpai dorje observed that this Lo-u- 
kyun is identical with S'en-rab of the Tibetan Bonpo 7 . In Chinese a sage 
is called Shyan-shen of which the first syllable shyan by the phonetic laws of 
the Tibetan has been changed into shy en, whence " 6en }1 ; Set means rab or 
" excellent." Ywon-shi-then-tsun another celebrated teacher of the To-u-se 
religion who appeared after the founder, is also considered as one of the 
81 incarnations of Lo-u kyun. The pith of To-u-se doctrine as originating 
from Thai-shan Lo-u-kyun is similar to that of the religion of the god 
Brahma. The To-u-se religion obtained its greatest diffusion under two of 
Lo-u-kyun's incarnation called Lo-u-tse and Ywon-shi-then-tsun. 

To-u-se religious theories. 

The supreme being is immaterial (Anipa), shapeless and invisible. 
He is self-created and matchless and most noble. 8 In the abridged 
To-u-se scripture there are mentioned many gods possessing a shape, being the 

7 [See Yol. L, p. 187 ; also ibidem, p. 195, note 5. Ed.] 

8 The writer did not see the chief of the To-u-se scriptures for which reason he 
could not describe what views they had respecting the state of the soul and transmigra- 
tion and emancipation. 

1882] of Ancient China. 113 

presiding deities of the five great mountains of China, of the four great 
riven and of wind, rain and lightning, besides many powerful demons, for 
whom several ceremonies are prescribed. At the time of propitiation 
(ascetic performances) the To-u-se hermit is required to purify himself by 
washing his body, mouth and tongue, before beginning the mantras. Puri- 
fication of the body by ablution is the principal feature of the religious rites 
of the To-u-ses. Having prepared for the ceremony by careful ablution &c, 
the devotee sits and regulates the exhaling and inhaling of his breath. 
He then extols and praises his own rambling " spirit," abstracts his mind, 
aheorbs himself in deep meditation and chants the sacred mantras. In 
this way there grew eight saints who obtained the power of working miracles 
according to their will. They are called Pa-dud-shy an-shin or the eight 
saints. Another saint named TaAthwen-shi by skill in mysticism subdued 
many demons and evil spirits, all of whom he bound by solemn oaths to guard 
the Imperial Palace of Pekin. These demi-gods and demons even at the 
present day are found to stand sentry round it as of old. The descendants 
of Tan -th wen when they approach the palace walls, are politely received 
by these spirit sentinels. There are also accounts of many who acquired 
superhuman powers such as that of performing miracles and illusions. 
There are mantras and incantations for performance of the lowest classes 
of samadhi. But notwithstanding all these, there is not found in their 
scriptures the true way of emancipation which can be obtained in Bud- 
dhism alone. Witchcraft, rites and ceremonies of mysticism and con- 
catenation of time and circumstance, besides those which are used by gods and 
sages in the way of Tantrikism are numerous among the To-u-ses. Among 
them there are two classes, the lay-people and the monks. The latter take 
vows of piety and discipline which they scrupulously observe. 

An Episode. 

During the reign of the great Han, a heretical Pandit of Singala-dvipa 
called Mah& Brahmana arrived in China. He was warmly received by the 
king Yo-hu-chhan, whom he exhorted to introduce his doctrine all 
over China. During this time the celebrated sage Hwashan Dha-hu, 
who was versed in the Vedas of the Tirthikas was present. He held 
long discourses in most of the heretical S'astras of the Tirthikas with 
the Singalese Pandit. The controversy was conducted in the Sanskrit 
language in which the Chinese sage debated with fluency and facility. 
The heretical Pandit was defeated, which he publicly acknowledged 
by prostrating himself before the learned Hwashan. The king greatly 
rejoiced at the Hwashan's triumph over the Singalese who was ignominiously 
expelled from the country. It was for this reason that Brahman ical 
doctrines obtained no footing in China. They are not known there even at 
the present day. 

114 Sarat Chandra Das — Ancient China. [No. 2, 

Ho-u-se ob Hoi-Hoi EKLIGION op China.. 9 
During the reign of the Thaft dynasty in one of the wars, a large army 
waa brought to China from the country of Tho-kar (Sita or Turkistan) 
which, unable to return to their homes, settled in China. Their descendants 
gradually multiplied and formed a large tribe who were known by the 
appellation of Housi or Hoi-Hoi. Again, the great warrior Jengis Kh&n 
after conquering the countries in the West when returning home brought 
with him a man of the country of Siyang which is an Island. This man, 
being versed in a kind of religion in which The-yau-nu the lord of Heaven 
was adored by all, taught the principles of the Hoi-Hoi which became 
their adopted religion. Their descendants followed this religion and much 
of the Chinese religion came to be mixed with it, but the Chinese though 
dwelling with them did not become a whit connected with them in their 
religion and manners. 

Religious theories of the Hoi-Hoi people. 

They believe that all happiness and misery, good and evil, are the 
doing of The-han. The god The-han dwells in Heaven and in all things. 
The Hoi-Hoi people will never act contrary to the word of The-han. They 
do not take refuge with any worldly gods nor worship nor bow down before 
them. The souls of all the dead are collected by The-han, who ordains 
their second existence. They are to be re -born when this world will be 
re-created by him after destruction, and within this interval the souls of the 
dead will remain mixed with the void space of Heaven. Some among them 
also believe that men are born very often, and that all their senses and 
faculties are lost at each break of existence. They send the spirits of all 
animals killed by those who belong to their faith to The-han who takes 
charge of them. The spirits of those that are killed by others, who are not 
Hoi-Hoi are damned. A Hoi-Hoi will not eat the flesh of an animal that 
has been slain by outsiders. If they remain unclean The-han becomes 
displeased. It is therefore of great importance to them to wash and keep 
aloof from unholy things. Besides these they have no knowledge of the 
transitory state of existence, the misery, and the confinement and eman- 
cipation, of the soul. They possess not the learning of the Tirthikas, or the 
materialists, but resemble the Yavanas (Lalos). These wicked people cer- 
tainly turn into pigs after their death for which reason they do not touch 
pork, the touch of which brings defilement, and the eating of which 
destroys their intellect and understanding. 

• This is a form of Muhammadanism. 

1882.] Sarat Chandra Das — Life of Nag&rjuna. 115 


When the dynasty of A£oka waned and gave place to that of the 
illustrious Chandras, N agar j una was born in Central India destined to play 
an important part in the religious history of Buddhism. According to 
the Tibetan historians who wrote on the authority of Indian historians, he 
was born a century before Chandra Gupta's accession to the throne of 
Magada. But to conform his age to the conjectural chronology of the 
occidental orientalists one would be required to bring that date more than 
a century later than Alexander's invasion of India. Nagarjuna's age must 
remain a positive uncertainty as long as we cannot get hold of the histori- 
cal works of the Indian authors of the Buddhistic period. I am sanguine of 
being able to bring to light much about Buddhistic history from the works 
about Nagarjuna and other Indian philosophers. For the present I will 
only mention certain legendary accounts of Nagarjuna which I have gather- 
ed from detached sources. 

A rich Brahman of the Vidarbha country to whom no son had been 
born for many years, once saw in a vision, that if he gave alms to, and 
entertained one hundred Brahmans, he could get a son. Accordingly he 
made offerings and prayers to the gods and entertained one hundred 
Brahmans. After ten months his wife gave birth to a son. The rich man 
invited learned astrologers to predict the fortune of his child, but they 
found that it would not live more than a week. In all other respects the 
child was calculated to be fortunate. In consequence of this sad intelli- 
gence, the minds of the parents were overwhelmed with extreme sorrow, 
and in their deep anxiety they urged the astrologers to discover some 
remedy to save the child. The astrologers assured them that if they 
observed some religious ceremonies and paid money for virtue's sake, read 
religious books, and entertained one hundred Brahmans, the child would 
live seven months, and if they entertained one hundred Bhikshus, it would 
live seven years, beyond which its life could not be prolonged by any 
means whatever. They accordingly underwent all sorts of ceremonies and 
observances calculated to prolong the child's life. When the seventh year 
was about to expire the parents were overwhelmed with grief. 

To avoid the painful sight of their son's predicted death, they caused 
him to be removed to a certain solitary place in company with a few retainers. 
As the boy was passing his mournful days, one day the Mahabodhisattva 
Avalokiteswar Khasharpana visited him in disguise and advised him to 
go to the great monastery of Nalendra in Magadha as the surest means of 
escaping from the hands of death. He accordingly repaired to that famous 
Vihara and arriving at the gate recited some gathas. During that time 

1 The great Buddhist reformer of ancient India and founder of the M£dhyamika 

116 Sarat Chandra Das— Life and [No. 2, 

the great sage SVi Saraha Bhadra was the high priest of Nalendra. Hear- 
ing the gatha the sage sent for the boy who was accordingly brought to 
his presence. Saraha asked him who he was and what brought him there, 
on which the boy gave a faithful account of his life and the melancholy 
aspect which overhung his fate and which he was painfully anxious to 
escape. The sage advised him to enter the holy order of monks, which 
act alone could deliver him from the hand of death. The boy took the 
vows of monkhood. Saraha, then invited him to the worship and service 
of Buddha Aparimita Xyusha and secured him his blessings. He required 
the boy to recite holy mantras and gathas in honour of that Buddha from 
sunrise to sunset, within which time the fatal moment was predicted to 
arrive. The boy remained engaged in reading sacred books and reciting 
gathas without falling asleep. The fatal moment passed. The messenger 
of death did not arrive or could not sieze his victim. This happy news waa 
conveyed to his parents whose hearts now overflowed with joy. The great 
high-priest Saraha then ordained him a Bhikshu of the Nalendra Vihara. 
Here he prosecuted his religious studies under the tuition of that great 
sage. After a few years service he obtained the subordinate office of 
head steward of the congregation. During the first part of the tenure of 
office, Nagarjuna is said to have propitiated the goddess Chandika, by 
-whose agency he succeeded in providing the great body of priests with the 
necessaries of life. The propitiation took some time, after which the god- 
dess presented herself before him in obedience to his call. Enslaved as it 
were by the force of the propitiatory rites of Nagarjuna, she submissively 
asked if she was to carry him to heaven. So saying she prepared to 
transport him thither. The sage not caring for his own happiness and ever 
mindful of his duties, exclaimed, " Bold goddess, I will not go to the celestial 
regions, I called you to help me in the propagation of Dharma on this earth." 
He then built a lofty stone temple in honour of Bodhisattva Manju Sri, in 
the court of which he pitched a thick pointed wooden club to fix the goddess, 
as it were, to her appointed terrestrial duties by the spell of mystic charms. 
He then addressed the goddess Chandika,— " thou divine nymph, I bid 
thee to look to the supply of provisions for the great congregation. Thou 
shalt not leave thy post till this club becomes reduced to dust." Chandika 
accordingly, in the guise of a beautiful damsel began her homely work. 
During her temporary residence within the environs of the monastery, the 
chief cook of the congregation was enchanted with her personal charms. 
He spared no pains or means to win her favour, with the sensual object 
of enjoying her person. The maiden refused his addresses several times, but 
at the end consented on the condition that he should reduce the said club 
to dust. The deluded cook not knowing the secret connected with the 
club, instantly burnt it to ashes. The maiden now set free from this 

1882] Legend of N&g6rjuna. 117 

bounden duty assumed her celestial Shape radiant in angelic glory that was 
too strong for mortal eyes to bear, and ascended to her ethereal home, leaving 
the disappointed lover to stare at her with surprise. No sooner did this affair 
take place than Nagarjuna by dint of his divine eyes came to know of it. In 
order to retrieve the loss, he visited the courts of kings, princes, and nobles of 
Magadha and other Buddhist countries, from whom he obtained annuities 
and donations for the support of the great body of monks at Nalendra. 
He constructed a gigantic image of of Mahak&la whom he charged with 
the defence of his religion. During the latter part of his office the country 
was visited by a famine in consequence of which the monks fell into great 
distress. The manager became very thoughtful about the terrible effects 
of the natural calamity. Distress and scarcity compelled the congregation 
more keenly to feel the necessity of money. The monks now determined 
to devise some means of acquiring treasures for the support of the 
famished congregation, and Nagarjuna accordingly started on an expedition 
to visit an island in the great ocean where lived a great saint well versed 
in the art of alchemy. As the sea could not be crossed by any earthly 
means, he, by dint of his divine learning, got two leaves of an enchanted 
tree, by means of which he crossed the ocean and miraculously visited the 
island and presented himself before the sage who was greatly surprised 
to see a human being arrived at his abode deemed inaccessible to mortal 
beings. The sage earnestly inquired how he succeeded in achieving 
this wonder. Nagarjuna replied respectfully stating to him the reasons 
of his visit and the circumstances that brought him thither. He also 
showed him one of the enchanted leaves, concealing the other in his 
mendicant's platter. He begged him to teach him the art of turning 
metals into gold. The sage consented to the proposal, but not liking to 
let the wonderful art be known in Jambudvipa, he determined to detain him 
for ever in the island by depriving him of the enchanted leaf. To effect 
this, he said that he could teach the art of alchemy provided Nagarjuna 
consented to part with his leaf. Nagdrjuna consented, and was taught the 
art. When it was fully mastered he flew towards the Indian Continent by 
the help of the remaining leaf, lie turning to Nalendra, by means of his 
easily acquired wealth he supported the whole body of monks. By his 
religions practices he obtained siddhi (perfection). He refuted the theo- 
ries of Sankaracharya and imparted religious instruction to the monks 
of Nalendra. The Nagas used to attend his sermons in the shape of 
young boys. They were so much interested in his teaching that they 
invited him to their abode where he spent three months. They entreated 
him to settle permanently in Naga land (the nether world) which offer 
he declined on the ground of his being required to. preach the sacred 
religion in Jambudvipa, and erect religious edifices for the good of living 

1L3 Sarat Chandra Das— Z*/* and [No. 2, 

beings. At the time of his departure he promised to return there some 
time in future. He returned to N&lendra loaded with costly presents and 
gems of inestimable value and also with the religious volume called Naga- 
sahasrika. It was for this connection with the Nagas that he obtained 
the name of Nagarjuna. 

In the country of Radha he erected many chapels and chaityas. On 
bis way to Uttarakuru, in the city of Sal am a or Salamana, he met with 
a boy named Jetaka, by examining the marks of whose palms, he predicted 
that the boy would one day become a king. Arrived in Uttarakuru he 
went to bathe in a river after placing his raiments on a tree. As he was 
making his ablutions be saw a native taking his clothes away, at which he 
stopped him begging him not to remove his raiments. The native greatly 
wondered that Nagarjuna should claim his clothes. For in Uttarakuru 
there is no distinction of individual property. There all property is 
common. In Uttarakuru Nagarjuna stayed for three months and 
instructed the people in the sacred religion. On his return he found 
that the boy Jetaka had become a king as he had predicted. Jetaka, having 
great faith in bis saintly character, presented him with costly treasures. 
Nagarjuna returned to his country and erected many chaityas and temples, 
composed many works on science, medicine, astronomy and alchemy. After 
the death of Saraha Bhadra, the office of high priest fell upon Nagarjuna 
which he managed with great ability and indefatigable zeal. He matured 
the Madhyamika philosophy which was only conceived by his illustrious 
teacher Saralia. 

Although he was the head of the now wide-spreading faction, of the 
Mahay ana school, yet he did not fail to exert himself for the well-being 
of the Sr&vakas or the followers of the Hinayana school, by which 
name the Sravakas henceforth came to be distinguished. They equally 
enjoyed the bounties of his saintly character. He established discipline 
among his own congregation by expelling eight thousand monks whose 
character, nay purity of morals, was open to suspicion. By these acts 
he became the recognized head of the whole Buddhist church. About 
this time the germ of a third schism was manifested among his followers 
which eventually developed itself as the Yoga chary a school. 

During the presidency of Nagarjuna, Vajrasana (Buddha Gay£) was 
the head quarter of the Sravakas or the followers of the Hinay&na (little 
vehicle) school, but having fallen into decay, Nalendra in wealth and 
splendour eclipsed the seat of Buddha's hermitage. Once a wild elephant 
was found to damage the sacred Bodhi-druma (tree of wisdom), when Nagar- 
juna caused two stone pillars to be erected for its support. This expedient 
answered well for several years, when, on the repetition of a similar injury, 
Nagarjuna surrounded the great temple Mahagandhola or the mansion of 

2882 } Sarat Chandra Das— Legend of Nagarjuna. 119 

fragrance with a stone railing which he furnished with Vajragavaksha or 
the precious niches, and outside of which he erected 108 smaller chapels. 
He also surrounded the great shrine of Sfridhanyakataka with railings. 

Again, there having occurred an encroachment of the river Nairanjana 
on the east of Yajrasana which threatened the safety, of the most holy 
spot, Nagarjuna constructed seven huge images of Buddha hewn from 
rocks, and placed them facing the river in order to make the river, out 
ef fear, change its devastating course. During this period, Manja king of 
Ojisba (Orisha) with one thousand of his subjects embraced Buddhism. 
In the west, in the country of Malva in the city of Dhara, king Bhojadeva 
with many hundreds of his subjects embraced Buddhism. These conversions 
are attributed to the saintly influence of Nag&rjuna who wrote many 
volumes on the Madbyamika philosophy, such as Mula Jriana, sixth 
assemblage of Vidja, Dharma dhatu strotra, Sutra sangraha, &c. He 
erected many vih&ras in Pratapesa, Otisha, Bangala, and the country 
of Ikshuvardhana. In the latter part of his life Nagarjuna visited 
Dakshina (Southern India), where he did many things for the preserva- 
tion of the Southern congregation (of Buddhists). In the country of 
Dravida there lived two Brahmans of the name of Madhu and Supra- 
madhu, the fame of whose opulence had startled even the kings and 
princes of the day. They held a series of discussions with Nagarjuna 
on the four Vedas and the eighteen sciences of the Brahmans, in all of 
which they found themselves infinitely inferior to the Buddhist disputants* 
At the end they remarked that they really wondered how a gframana 
of &akya Sirpha could possess such profound knowledge in the Vedas and 
S'astras. Nagarjuna replied — It was very easy to master the Brahmanical 
S'astras, but the sacred Dharma was too profound to be comprehended. He 
at last succeeded in converting them to Buddhism. Madhu having pro- 
pitiated the goddess Sarasvati, acquired great knowledge in the sacred 
literature of the Brahmans and Buddhists ; Supramadhu by propitiating 
Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth, obtained immense wealth with which he fed 
the Buddhist congregation. The former prepared many copies of Prajfhi 
Pfiramita. One hundred and fifty monks conducted religious service in 
their chapels. Thus the great teacher Nagarjuna being eminently versed in 
all the classes of sciences and the S'astras, filled Jambudvipa with trophies 
of his pious deeds. His assiduity in asceticism, erudition in science, faith 
in Dharma, profundity in Yoga, acuteness in disputation, liberality in 
giving alms, constructing shrines and chaityas, and furnishing of food to 
the congregations were all incomparable. He is given the appellation of a 
second Buddha ; for he consolidated what Buddha had only commenced. 

Nagarjuna is said to have been a great friend ofjting De-chye (Sankara) 
of Southern India, whom he had converted to Buddhism. Both the friend* 

120 Sarat Chandra Das — Life of Nagarjuna, [No. 2, 

took vows of meeting a common lot, «'. e. 9 to live and die together. N&g&r- 
juna being % saint, no messenger of death ever ventured to approach him. 
The friends therefore attained to unusual longevity, during which time the 
king witnessed successively the death of his many wives, children and grand- 
children. In his old age the king got a son who alone fortunately survived 
him. Once the mother of this prince (named in Tibetan Zon-nu-den-chye, t . e., 
" the throat-cutting young prince") prepared a handsome robe which she de- 
sired him to wear. The prince did not use it, saying, that he would use the 
robe when he became a king. The mother, with a deep sigh, exclaimed — 
"Son, how vain is that hope ! Thinkest thou, my darling, that the king 
thy father will ever die. He has obtained immunity from death, which awaits 
all mortal beings but himself." The prince replied, — " Mother, must I not 
rule as a king since I am born as a prince ? Live or die, I shall be a 
king." Seeing the son's resolution, the mother revealed to him the secret 
of her husband's death and said, — " Qo and beg Nagarjuna's head, and that 
shall quicken thy succession to the throne." The prince accordingly 
went off at once in search of Nagarjuna and found him on the top of 
Sriparvata. Approaching the venerable Sramana, he asked him to present 
him with' his head. Nagarjuna, knowing what brought him there, con- 

The prince tried several strokes of his sword to cut the saint's throat, 
but in vain. Nagarjuna, seeing the ignorance of the prince, shewed him 
the secret which could effect the cutting off of his head, by saying, — " Prince, 
hundreds of such swords would not sever my head from the body, but go 
and bring that kuSa grass, which alone will effect it." In one of his 
former births N&gdrjuna is said to have killed a worm by cutting its 
throat with a kuSa grass. On account of the inevitable consequences 
of Karma in this life, that very worm was born as the prince who severed 
his head from his trunk with the kuia grass. At the time of death 
Nag&rjuna told the prince that he would rise again in a future time and 
his head would again be one with his body. As the prince was carrying off 
the head, it was snatched away by a Taksha who threw it to a distance of 
five miles, where the saint's remains turned to stone. It is mentioned in the 
Book of Prophecies that the head is now in the course of drawing every day 
nearer the trunk to effect its junction. Verily it may be said of Nagarjuna 
that when the junction takes place, the city of Gay£ will be blown up by 
Gayasura or the demon of Gay&. It is said that NagaVjuna will again 
appear in India, and live one hundred years, to teach the sacred Dharma to 
men and gods. 


Sarat Chandra Das— Buddhist Schools of Tibet. 




All the Buddhist Tantras that were translated into Tibetan under the 
auspices of king Khrisron-^de &tsan and his successors till the advent of 
Pandit Smriti into Tibet, were designated gS&h-sha,go *iia-£gyur of 
rNyin mahi-rgyuJ or " the anciently translated Tantras." All the Tantras 
translated by Jtinchhen-ssanpo and the generations of translators who 
followed him, were called ySaii-*nag* phyi-Agyur or Sar mafci rgyxid. 
For this reason it will be evident that the difference of rSfih-ma and 
ySarma schools lies in the Tantras only, while the Sutras are the same in 

The Tantras of the ySarma school are clearly analysed in the ftKafe- 
Agyur, and the original of the rff inma Tantras composed in Aryavarta were 
rendered into Tibetan purely and faithfully. They are the following : 
(I.) Rig* pahi-Khu-Vyug. 



rDo-la-yser-shun-rgyal mahi-rgyud. 

Mi-nule-rgyal-ftttshan-gyi „ 


5De-va-Aphrul-&kod rzogs pa-*pyi-Chhin*. 

Byan-chhub-Sem* tig. 



Thig-le-drug-pa rzog* pa-*pyi-ycho<?. 


Kun-Adu* rig-pa. 
(14.) rJe 6tsun dam pa. 
(15.) dKon bye J rgy alpo. 

rMaJ byun rgyalpo. 


Bya bral-me<Jpai-rgyu^. 

Nam-mkhah-i-£lon-yan* kyi rgyuJ. 



Yid-bshin-tog gi-rgyud. 

The following are the Tantras which appertain to the rTsog* pa- 
chhen-po in general. * 

Sem* njid bya-rtson-las Ada* pa-nam-ff»khah-chhi-vai-rgyu<7. 

De-nid nam* su-Man* pa-nam wkhah-chhe-phyi-mai. 












These sixteen be- 
long to the Sem*- 
*de or Yoga class. 

These three belong 
to the £Len-*de 

These three belong 
to the Man-nag 
or Upadesa class. 

122 Sarat Chandra Via— Detached Notices of [No. 2, 

(25.) De-nid yon* rzog* Abra* len-nam-wkhah-chhe-phyimai rgjxxd 

yon* su-*gro-va. 
{26.) Sem* md Apbo-Agyur-merf pa chho* md rgyalpoi-rgyurf. 
(27.) Sem* md thig-l&n^g-^chig-*ton-pa-byun-sem* thig lei rgyud. 
(28.) Sem* md ran-byun gi-ye she* su-*ton-pa yeshe* tbig lei rgyud. 
(29.) Sem* md tham* Chad kyi-rtsa var fcstan pa-man-nag phren 

(30.) Sem* nii-kun-kbyab-cbbenpor ftstan pa-san* va-rgyal po-rgyud. 
(31.) Sem* ni^ ran rig-tu-fatan pa-ye-she* dam pai rgyud. 
(32.) Sem* md kun-tu ftssan poi rol-par *ton pa nam-mkhahi dwyiha 

mam dag-gi-rgyurf. 
(33.) Sem* iiuJ-kun-gi-*nin por-*ton pa-man nag ,vnin poi rgyud. 
(34.) Sem* ni^ ran-rig-tu zid chhe* pa «nin po-ysan vai rgyud. 
(35.) Sem* md kun-gi-rtsa-va nam-mkhah cbbe rtsa va cban gi-rgyu<J. 
(36.) Sem* iiirf ^chig tu Adu* pa nag ychig dgous pai rgyud. 
(37.) Sem* ji-fohin par-Jshag-pa-Jsam-^tan chben poi-rgyud. 
(38.) Sem* md rgyun chhag* su gom* pa 6sam ytan rgyun chhag* 

(39.) Sem* ni^ tham* ehad du ^sun* pa *go man rodoi rgyud, 
(40.) Sem* nii dvafi dan *byar va chhe-dvafi gi-rgyud. 
(41.) Sem* nii (/van *gra tsbig la* Ada* pa nam-mkhah-chhe meJ 

pai -rgyud. 
(42.) Sem* md y&od mai-^na* su *ton pa nam-ffikhah-chhe ^shi hi 

(43.) Sem* md hod ysal da ftstan pa rincbben Alear vai rgyud. 
(44.) Sem* nid yontan lhur grub-tu-istan pa rinchben pbren vai- 

(45.) Sem* md kbam* ^sum du ysal va kbam* ^sum *grol mai rgyud. 
(46.) Sem* md *pan Man la* Ma* pa-*ton pa nas pa-*nin poi-rgyud. 
(47.) Sem* md Apho-Agyur me d par-*ton pa rdorje-^san vai-rgyud. 
(48.) Sem* iiid yi-na* san* rgya* par *ton pa-ye-Ban* rgya* par *ton 
pai rgyud. 
Besides these 48 Tantras there are others which claim an indigenous 
growth. They are the following : 

(I.) *Ku-^sun-thug* yon-tan Aphrin-la* kyi-rgyud. 
(2. ) rDor je-phur-pai-rgy u d. 
(3.) rTa-wgrin-gyi-rgyud. 
Also — 

^Ser-yid-chan ; ^yu-yig-chan ; dun-yig-chan, &c. of modern origin, 
make up thirty-five in number. Six volumes of &Kah-Agyur treating of 
Tantras are also claim eH by the Kinmapas. 

Besides the above-mentioned there are said to be other Tantras which 
being concealed by ancient sages, are not known at present. 

1382.] Sarat Chandra Via— Buddhist Schools in Tibet. 123 

All these Tantras are said to have been delivered by Dharma Kay a, 
Euntu-ssangpo (Buddha Samanta bhadra), Yajra Sattva, and Vajradhara, 

The fiinmapas who all belong to the Yogacharya school of ancient 
India observe Tantrik ceremonies exclusively. They have nine series of 
Jnana, and speak of thirteen Bhumis or stages of sainthood, while the 
Gelugpa (or the reformed sect) speak only of ten Bhumis. 

The Kinmapas have various ceremonies for propitiating their tute- 
lary deities who are divided into two classes called &i (the mild) and Fhro 
(the wrathful) Yi-dam-kyi-Lha. They have various other kinds of rules 
and ways of asceticism. All the ffinma Tantras being based upon the 
Man-nag scriptures, by their means numberless Indian and Tibetan (male 
and female) saints are said to have obtained the lowest class of perfection 
called " Thun-mon-gi-<ftio* grub." 

In ancient India Acharya Kama Yajra, Buddha Guhya, Sfri-siddha, 
Padma-sambhava, Yimala-mitra, &c., many Pandits, many kings headed by 
Indra Bhuti, and many fairies were the most important personages ; and in 
Tibet, king Sron-fttsan *Gampo, Khri sron-ede-Atsan, together with his 
25 saintly subjects, 108 yter-ston or discoverers of sacred treasures, Bah 
ibyami pa the professor of ArLofi- scriptures, Dharma gri the great trans- 
lator, yYun-*ton-rDorje-Jpal, *Le-lun bsha,d pai-rDorje, mQ on po rdorje 
of Yu-thog, Ka-thog rig-Azin-chhen mo, rDor-brag-Rig Azin, Lha-Jtsun- 
cbhenpo, and others. Many sages of the Sarma school also had turned 
Kinma religionists. 

The Sinma sages, who had fully studied the above mentioned Tan- 
tras, had prepared commentaries on them and left their own observations 
in works written by them for the benefit of coming generations. It was 
the sage of Orgyan 1 who wrote volumes on the rZog* chhen or Atiyoga 
sect of the Sinma school. It is mentioned in the histories of religion 
that that sage, having written his profound interpretation of the Buddhist 
Tantras, in a kind of fairy language, unintelligible to man, had concealed 
these books securely under rocks and pillars for the benefit of future genera- 
tions of Buddhists. He had also left predictions, respecting the name and 
date of birth of the man by whom those books were to be discovered. After 
completing all that was necessary for the continuance of the Sifima 
school, he retired to the land of cannibals on the south-west. Afterwards 
in regular succession, as was predicted by him, a host of ^Ter-*tons appeared 
and greatly contributed to the propagation of his school and the swelling 
of the fiinma scriptures, which altogether exceed five hundred volumes 
in number* 

1 Padma Sambhava. 

124 Sarat Chandra Das — Detached Notices of [No. 2, 

For these reasons it is believed that the rest of the Sfinma school is 
extremely pure. But latterly some persons, calling themselves ^Ter-*ton 
to gain notoriety and to be called sages, mixed many spurious and false 
theories with the ancient ones. Those pretended yTer-«tons not agreeing 
among themselves, out of envy and enmity to each other, enjoined many 
obscene observances under the garb of religion. They gave out that the 
Tantras prescribed unrestrained libertinism as the easiest and surest mode 
of salvation. Female modesty was no consideration to them at all. For a 
time, by their influence, the teachings of the Sutras ( A mdo -scriptures) were 
set aside in preference to those diabolical Tantras which were considered to 
be the direct means of Nirvana. For this reason the monks gave up 
taking the vows of celebacy and moral discipline. The laws of Dulva 
were entirely neglected. Particularly after Lan-darma's persecution of 
the Buddhists of Tibet, some Tantriks, in the heat of debauchery and 
drunkenness, had composed many spurious Tantras, putting into writing 
the ravings of their intoxicated brains. Again during the revival of Bud- 
dhism, when the Sarma system of schools was about to be diffused in Tibet, 
certain Tantriks composed several works in which many strange elements 
were introduced. In them the Thin-rje-chhenpo of the f»$ftnmapas, 
the Brahma Tantras of the Brahmans, the mysticism of the Bonpo were 
mixed together, in consequence of which those works no longer resembled 
the ancient works on Tantras. From these sprung the ceremonies of 
Khregs chho<Z and Mun khrtf, &c. Those who practised the magical sorceries 
founded on them were notorious for their arrogance and wicked impositions . 
When their wickedness was exposed by the great Reformer, the two 
Si rim a Lamas, named Pesna Linpa and Shakya-mchhog <?Dan, jointly 
conspiring against him, gave out to the world that Tsohkhapa was a real 
demon incarnate, whose sworn mission was the working of the downfall 
of Buddhism in Tibet. 

The same two Lamas also wrote a volume of about 500 leaves about 
the reformations, charging Tsonkhapa with many kinds of blasphemies. 
They even went so far as to say that the crown which he put on the 
image of Jovo (Lord) Sakya Muni, was rivetted on its head with copper- 
nails, that the flowers that were daily showered on it fell owing to the 
sorceries, as so many thorns. They predicted that on account of these 
impious acts, the Buddhist religion was destined to collapse after 500 years 
from that date, and that shortly the sun, moon and stars would fall a 
hundred (Tibetan) miles below their ordinary paths. To this work they 
gave sanctity by declaring that it was discovered to be a book of ancient 
prophecy, classed under RitLma Terma scripture. Many right-thinking 
and honest Smma Lamas question the validity of this work, although 
the uninformed and the ignorant Ninma followers believe in its pre* 

1882.] Sarat Chandra Das— Buddhist Schools in Tibet. 125 

dictions and do not hesitate to slander the Gelugpa school. The Gelugpa, 
writers successfully refuted all the charges contained in that work and 
exposed the malice of its blasphemous authors. 

From that time, on account of the doctrinal differences between the 
ffroma and Sarma schools, especially between the former and the re- 
formed school (Gelugpa), disputes and controversies commenced. Most 
of the eminent writers of Tibet are of opinion that the great. body of 
Ninraa scriptures were alloyed with strange and spurious writings, and 
there are very few books which have any pretensions to originality o^ 
antiquity. Among those which are said to be very pure may be classed 
the following : 

(I.) <JKon-*»Chhog-*pyi hDus, 6 vols. 

(2.) mKhah-AGro *Nyin-thig. 

(3.) Lbo-^Ter. 

(4.) Bima «5!in-thig. 

(5.) Hxm-Chhen-*$in-thig. 

(6.) ^Yu-thog *fiin-thig. 

(7.) Byan-yTer-gyi Chho* *kor. 

(8.) yTer-ftDag-yLiii pahi-chho« *kor. 

(9.) Nam-chho* kyi-skor. 

(10 ) rGyal-va-eNa vahi-rSfin-vahi-chbo* kyi skor. 
(11.) rTa-mgrin chho*-«kor &c, and many others. 

The study of the above-mentioned books is believed to be very effica- 
cious to ascetics, in obtaining sainthood. In profundity of import these books 
are unrivalled by other religious works of the same school. Among the best 
and purest of Smma monasteries are (1) *Min-grol ^Lin, (2) rDorje- 
brag* (3) Kham-ka-thog, (4) Sfoi-chhen-rtsog* chhen, &c. and many others 
of less fame. In these monasteries, moral discipline and religious strict- 
ness are greatly observed, in consequence of which their resident monks are 
said to have great pretensions to purity of life. 

The Nyingmas schools have voluminous works called Upaneshas on 
the subtlety of rites. 

In the Sarma or modern school are included the following sects, 6Kah- 
yDams pa, 5Kab-&rGyurf pa, Sakya-pa, Karma pa, Jonan pa, rfGelug- 
pa, Ac. The principal theories and rules of these sects are : 
(1.) Constant meditation about the attainment of Bodhisattva-hood 

(2.) Uninterrupted attention to compassion towards all living beings. 
(3.) Reverence and adoration to the great and precious Holy Being, 

called dKoTt-mCnnoQ. 
{4) The renouncing of worldly enjoyments and business, and residence 

in solitude to limit the sphere of doing and desires. 

126 Sarat Chandra Via— Detached Notices of [No. 2, 

.(5.) The external observance and conduct of life to accord with the law* 

of Dulva (Vinaya teachings.) 
(6.) Internally, the full comprehension of the metaphysical portion of 

the Tantras called bskjed rim and rtsogf rim. 
(7.) The practice of the meditative science or yoga, holding the theories 

of universal illusiveness and voidity (S'unyatA). 
(8.) TJie comprehension of the essence of the M&dhyamika philosophy 

by which the attainment of sainthood is ensured. 

5Kah-^Dam* pa Sect. 

This sect was founded by the great Indian Pandit Dipankara Sfri 
Jn&na (Jova-rje-iPal-edan AtiSa of the Tibetans). TJ>ere are records 
of over three thousand Lamas of eminence and learning in the annals 
of this sect. Among them ABrom-«ton-rgyai-vai-Abyun-yna Potopa the 
philosopher, and *Pyan-9»ftah-va, Ac. were very celebrated. 

IKah brorvd pa Sect. 

Of this sect, the sages rDoje-AChhah-chhen, Tclopa, Naropa, Marpa f 
Mela Dvag* po Lha-rje, &c. were the successive presidents. Marpa having 
obtained a good deal of religious instruction from Ati&a, mixed the 6Kah- 
brGyud theories with those of the 5Kah-^Dams sect. 

The Darsana of this sect is called Maha-mudra (Phyag-rgya-chhenpo;. 
This is divided into two classes called Sontri-Mahamudra and Tantri- 
Mahamudra, the latter of which they reject. On the whole the significa- 
tions of the Mahamudra resemble those of the Sunyata theories. 

Its meditative science is similar to those of the Prasanga M&dhyamika 
school of ancient India. 

The chief Yedam or tutelary deities of this sect are the Lord of Gubya 
Sam&ja-«&Demchhog (Sambhara) and rDorje-Phagmo, &c. 

Its guiding instructions called Man-nag were drawn up by the sage 
Naropa, for which they are called Naro-chlios- Jrug. Anciently this sect 
possessed the greater number of sages, ascetics and scholars, many of whom 
had obtained sainthood. At one time its monks numbered several 
hundreds of thousands. The Lamas of this sect pay more attention now 
to the meditative science, and less to Vy&karana and other branches of 
sacred literature. Although at one time bK&h-brgyud pa Lamas were 
eminently famous for their knowledge of metaphysics and Darsana, yet 
now-a-days there are not many who can fairly claim the distinction of 
sages. In fact they more resemble the shadows of their predecessors. They 
generally mix with the fiifima Lamas in perverse and forbidden con- 
duct, such as female company, drinking intoxicating liquors, <fcc. 

1882.] Buddhist Schools in Tibet. 127 

Sasta Sect. 

This sect derives its name from the name of the place of its origin. 
It is an oJmhoot of the bKak-brgjud pa sect in a reformed state. 

The tutelary deities, generally invoked by the followers of this sect, 
are Kye-rdorje (H6 Vajra), Fhyagna rDorje (Vajra Pani) &c. 

That rotatory existence and emancipation from it are inseparable, is 
its chief theory. Leading instructions are taken from the works called 
ySer-chho*-&Chuy«sum. The Lamas of this sect are tolerably learned in 
sacred literature. The ancient monks of this sect are said to have 
obtained sainthood by propitiating the fairy Naro-/nkhah «phyo<?ma. The 
monks in general are known to be little strict in the observance of the laws 
of Dulva. They drink, and mix and live with women. 

Qelugpa School. 

This is at present the dominant school of the Buddhists in Tibet. It 
was founded by the celebrated reformer Tsonkhapa and obtained great 
diffusion under his chief disciples, one hundred and fifty in number, among 
whom the Regent Darma Binchhen, the sage Gelegpalssan, Gedundub, Ac., 
were most eminent. Tsonkhapa found that by the eccentricities of the 
Tantrik (Smma), Buddhism in Tibet had greatly degenerated, so much 
so that it could hardly claim the name of Buddhism at all. Its divergence 
from the tenets of Buddha was too wide to enable any student of Buddhism 
to reconcile it with any sort of Buddhism that then prevailed in the north. 
"With great pains he succeeded in organizing a reformation which struck 
the older schools by the root. His works on the different branches of the 
sacred literature were in accordance with the Kahgyur and Tanyur. 

The Lamas and monks of his school were very accomplished in 
tenets, the observance of ceremonies and the science of meditation. Their 
moral discipline, behaviour and attention to study were exemplary.' They 
were also experts in argumentative philosophy. Under Tsonkhapa's 
direction they made new annotations on the important portions of Kahgyur 
and Tanyur and the various works on Tantras. The great monasteries 
of Tibet, Sera dapunj, Guhdan Tashilhumpo, and those of Kham, Amdo- 
Mongolia and China, altogether numbering more than one thousand, adopted 
the reformed creed. Under his disciples and their disciples within a few 
years, more than 10,000 monasteries adopted the reformed tenets. The 
largest of these monasteries contained 10,000 monks, the smallest respect- 
able ones not less than 800. In these Gelugpa monasteries, the study of 
Tantras, Mantras, Kalachakra, medicine, Ac. was greatly encouraged. 
The Gelugpa religious ceremonies were conducted according to the prescrib- 
ed directions of the sacred books. Such extraordinary success as attended 

128 Sarat Chandra Das — Ancient China, 

Tsonkhapa's reformation was not known, not to speak of Tibet, in the annals 
of Ancient India since the Nirvana of Buddha. 

The Emperor of China, Princes of Mongolia, and other great patrons 
of Buddhism paid tribute to his honour. Tsonkhapa is said to have ap- 
pointed under a solemn covenant a great number of gods, demons, demi. 
gods and fairies to defend the sacred religion. In the other sects, when 
an enemy invaded the sacred precincts, the monks generally used to escape 
by flight. Some of these sometimes killed their enemies by propitiating 
demons and evil spirits, and by the praotioe of sorceries and the black art 
But such proceedings being contrary to the precepts of Buddha, the 
cursed perpetrators eventually had to go to hell. 

The followers of the Sakya sect and the Gelugpas were free from 
the guilt of such infernal practices. 

28S2.] 6. A. Grferson— ManlodV* Hariban*. 129 

Manbodh's Haribans* — By G. A. Gbierson, C. S. 

PAKT I.—Text. 

The following poem is in the Maithili dialect of the Bihari Language-. 
It was written by a poet named Man'bodh, or Bholan Jh£, the four- 
teenth and last of his race. He lived at Jam'sam, close to the well-known 
Tillage of Pandaul in the Madhubani subdivision of the Darbhangfr 
Diatrict. He married a daughter of one Bhikhari Jhd, and died without 
issue about the year 1195 F. S. (circ. A. D. 1788). This date is borne 
out by the fact that a grandson of this same Bhikharf Jhd died only four 
years ago, a very old man. Beyond the details of the names of his 
ancestors, which are kept by the Maithil genealogists, I have obtained no 
farther information concerning him. He is said by tradition, to have 
translated tbe whole of the Harivamsa into Maithil verse, and extracts 
from the translation are current and extremely popular throughout north- 
ern Mithila. I have never met with a complete copy of the whole work, 
and I fear the latter portion of it is lost beyond recovery. After some 
years' search I have been able, through the kind assistance of Babu Sri 
Karayana Simba of Jogiyara, to obtain accurate copies of two MSS., 
which I shall designate as A and B. A, which I have taken as the 
foundation of my text, is much the more correct of the two, and contains 
the first ten adhydyas. B is not so carefully written, haa one or two 
lacuna, and only contains nine adhydyas, the tenth being missing. A is 
therefore, my only authority for that portion of the text. With the 
exception of the laeunoe above-mentioned, the two MSS. agree very closely. 
Any important differences will, however, be duly noted. 

The poem is deserving of special attention, as an example of the 
Maithili of the last century, affording a connecting link between the old 
Maithili of Vidyapati, and the modern Maithili of Harkh'nath and other 
writers of the present day. It contains some forms which have survived 
from times prior even to Vidyapati, and which hence have especial interest. 
I purpose at an early date to publish a translation, with notes illustra- 
ting and explaining the many grammatical difficulties which, are found in 
it. I shall, therefore, not deal with the subject of Manbodh's Grammar at 
present, and, with regard to the subject matter of the text, it will be 
sufficient now to say that it contains the usual familiar legends of the 
incarnation and life of Krishna, from the first promise of Vishnu to be- 
come incarnate, to the first defeat of Jarasandha. It thus corresponds 
roughly with a little more than the first half of the tenth book of the 
Bbagavata, or with chapters 57 to 93 of the Harivamla. 


130 G. A. Grierson — ManlodVs Raribant. [No. 2, 

The metre of the poem is uniform throughout. It is a variety of the 
Chaupdi Chhand, containing fifteen instants in each half line, with a break 
after the sixth. The last three instants in each half rhyme with each other, 
and usually take the form of one long syllable, and one short, thus — U. 
Sometimes, however they take the form of three short syllables, thus 
\j \j \j : but in every case the last syllable must be short. Usually but not 
always, the eleventh and twelfth instants also consist of two short syllables. 

I have used the signs 3*, ?£, ^, and ^, for the short vowels £, at, 6 
M, peculiar to Eastern Gaucjian languages. Their non-initial forms are 
** £ * iit, ^ #, and J du respectively. These signs have already been used by 
me in my grammars of the Bihar dialects now being published by the 
Government of Bengal, and are not new, having (with the exception of 5) 
been used by Dr. Hoernle for similar purposes in his Gaudian Grammar. 

The use of the sibilants was very uncertain in the copies of the 
poem which were available ; K and ^, and again w and * being freely 
interchangeable without any system. I have therefore in every case taken 
customary pronunciation as the surest guide : — always altering uncom- 
pounded f to 9, and unoompounded w to *. In a few foreign words 
like iftK * outcry/ K has been retained ; and, out of deference to strong 
prejudice, I have allowed the customary spelling of the words qfc> and 
mr to remain, though the present Maithil pronunciation, is certainly W*Q, 
and furor respectively. 

The vowel *m is never pronounced in Maithili, the sound ft being used 
instead ; in fact, ^sr is, as often as not, not only pronounced but written ft. 
Under these circumstances, I have adopted the less pedantic, and more 
rational spelling. 

As regards the quantity of vowels for the purposes of scansion, with 
the exception of *CT, they all tell their own tale when before a single con- 
sonant. ^T may be either long or short for metrio purposes, but in the 
termination <^nr of the preterite it is always short.* There are many 
examples of short *TT throughout the poem : an example of the 1st class is 
*Nn?r (i, 10), in which the <WT is short : an example of the second class 
**T1T (n, 2). 

Short vowels can become long by position, but this is not an invariable 
rule. They are always short before the compounds «w/ (e. g. 9 q^^fal 
in, 8) and n (e. g. y ^tki n, 32J. Before the nexus of a nasal and 
another class-consonant, they are common, — Example, ^f, long in vn, 42, 
but short in vn, 53. Examples of vowels short before this kind of nexus 
are very common ; and, in order to help the reader, when the preceding 
syllable is short I have denoted it by anus war a, and when it is long by the 
class nasal. Thus in q% the first syllable will be read long, but in ^ it 
will be read short. So, l^x: will be read with the first syllable long, but 

* So also in Vidyapati. 

* 1882.] G. A. GnersoTi—Manbodh's Raribam. 181 

lfc with it short. Of course, it must be understood that this anmwdra 
is merely a compendium scriptures, and that whichever way the word is 
spelt, the pronunciation is the same. Vowels before a nexus of the semi- 
vowel ^ and a consonant may also be short, — example, *p*w (i, 24). 

Before other conjuncts the vowel is generally long, but I have noted 
the words ^rft (i, 35), filft (v, 51), TOT* (vx, 25), and *** (vn, 26) as 
exceptions, and there are not impossibly others which have escaped my 

Anun&sika never affects either metre or rhyme. For an example of 
the latter, see vrn, 41. 

The first syllable in the word qrn is always long. As already men- 
tioned it should be spelt 7*9. 

The word ^ft * any,' is frequently written l&T. 
The verbal termination of the third person fa, is frequently written. 
^f*f as a separate word ; e. ^., (n, 53) ^^fW d&khala anhi for ^nrfa 
dikhalanhi (d£khalanh y ). This termination can also be used with the 1st 
or 2nd person ; e. y., *HWp3 (vm, 45). 

With the aid of the above remarks I hope that no difficulty will be 
found in reading and scanning the poem. 

I ^*rei *ro *if^ tot V9 lite i wu vw ift*i:p ifti ^te i 

*MMfc y*r iwrc flmn i 3H3* *nt^rf?s *nra *rorc i 

(3b^ ff^J ?ito qfTjp ^t ifa 1 trcfiTO WW <&W Wf JW I 

^r%T^r tow Sfr *m*r I *rfa v m^\<v sft*^ t*«t i 
sup ^* «khw wr ^n^ 1 cif^f in^f ^jSt *n^T q 
<k«itH ^fc: to* 5ta 1 wmftr to *Nnr uft %«r 1 v 1 

qw«rui4 fw| ^wit ,8 nro 1 trtfirt *w*k tnrft 5ftr *itjj 1 
wrc: 5** *rar trc:^ qrhr 1 wsnefer ^ic *rjnr 5* Hrfat 1 

«Ulfa TCP *TCpr *ft %ft I TPT ** TOR X^TTcf^f ^fft 1 

• B. lift I f B. Wtf% I t B. omits this line I 

132 Q. A. Grierson— ManbodV* Hariban*. [No. 2, • 

whirr? pfa* ^w %T ^w i *nro qcft^i **r ^owras *n* i 
mro tf vm fen fc* w» «tpi*f *r i 

w3t fa^ f^f W^f WaT I ** 4M4U WK WW TK* I R* I 

**rcr TOt ^rf% m^r i ufaw wit spra ^*? %^ | 

t fjfa *IWR spruit WT I ^TKftci ifcl 4|WNH | 

i? nft§ fw 5f?r % %tn i inrc^ «wrct *rwf*r wr i 

«*ft; *pnro ^t^rwri tot vrc: w<wfa Star i 

qn^rfHs w^ mif s^t ircrra i wiwt wg^T Jtht ^ttt tfc i 
?ft ift: ^rfa iin t* sra i *rtf* ^frtr wf ** wftrcw i 

ijto wcm msr ^^rt I *fr*^ **fii ww ^wttc i 
*ii<w qp v? vprf^ *n*rta i 'PPT fRT ijt t^pt T*rrot«r i 
sr*rtafcT wr srw 5f* tta i *JtiT v? *tce*t qrcsr *qfa i 
^kt ?jjPr ^^ % ^pt i ^rnnr ^T5 ihtt «nf vf?r i 

*f^rarfr ^rf? *ftfa *k*t *wrra 1 fc mfy ^: wr ^rt *ra I 
*r w^fhi imt ft^ ^i*r 1 mm iwrjp ^inr tpt itv 1 ^4 1 

• B. omits jrf* I t B - ^TTPRr 1 t B - wfw 1 § B. * ^ft I 
II B. *WI tB.tfi •* B. wftl ttB.^| 

- 1382.] G. A. Grierson—Manbodh's Haribam. 133 

^ftc «*f % ^wi *w i % w*( to fo[K farc war n 
ifro* to *wra* mfk i % far crhK g*rowr «nf*T 1 * 1 
I Trf* to ^^c *r zuj i fa* ftr* ^*fic fir* to jiti? I 
*ift Ptcito to :ro *re I tor to s^ifT *rat ^rar i 

TC aftft fiwfd «RiJ*| HH\<4 I t«I«U^ ft*TOt TO *TO*T %* I 
*ITOT fa* ^TT TOP TOT* I % TO % fa«R % *fif 5fT* I 

5iPe sfas* ^fa ^prTO *n*r i *rfa**ft*iTO*msn*r i v I 

to qowi* *i^* r«t*u< I *TCTO f^TO^f ??33* % l?TC | 

*^ w*f *i*r qffa ^*T | §?^t «U<*1* *lFTO *fa Wf I 

siro jto* *ra wr *tte I % *iro Srer rifafa ^ft^c i 
sffor fa^ fa^ to tottc: i *nro gro ww <mi< l \* i 
«tto wq *retft *nfa i *nfa tot ws toto ^nfa i 
to* tot to *rtfin* ^ j ^fa $*fa to ^M*m *a^ r 
to «w«w TOfa to sftft i to *re vt ^fi>f| ^ftft o 

TO ^g*3W ^ ^J *>lfa I ITC^ ^ JtPf <3*P$t *nft Q 

ft*m toj *j*ito *re I *nro **ro to^t 5* vro i ^« 1 
^fa 5ft tor tot snj *ta 1 *nro *p*rc ;ro* toJ wt i 
^rnr^r Mi^t ^^ra^w t%"r 1 to **^t to ifot *jf%*r 1 
TO *tp 3T*ro riffroi *rnr 1 ^TO^frorsfr^TOf^isrnri 
to* arcfa to «iR*u> *ifa 1 ^ **faMfcj f*r tot mniR 1 
wro to i w^ 5 i , K *rcfai wt jw *J ^ft ^^ttt Pmf^ i ^ t 

*ltll**fct ^Pfftl sftTT fTO ^T^T I ^R^T TO*J W ^iftlfTf ?^fif 1 

f; *wr t? ^n $Pff 1 % %5T *rf^*t *rfr 5r ftr 1 
% f^tf Hnw *rc* ijjf* 1 to*i vtff ^5^rr % ^jfif ti 

fTO W^ft TOT %^T ^Wlft I *f%*lTOfijTOf JTOTTtft |^«| 

^w^§^ftTO^Hif^ 1 *n$m mm ^froi «r* ^Tfe 1 
^31 h? to^* *nnc *rn* 1 T^f* ^pfnew ^f^ ifif t? i 


134 Gk A. Qnerson—ManbodVi Haribans. [No. 2, 

i^'ew to? jf* wn*r i *r?r ^rr*w *rrii w jpt ^f* i 
f$m *pprc sw wni* twtc i wi wtn ifa 4 r wire i ^l l 
% **£* ^ftim ^rftc we?* I whs w tptc fw^WT ^w I 
wprafr «i*w*i % ^w * isw i fiwT wre st*: wot $5 1 

*RR TOfafif *RT fwW &SQ I Wf «ft *T *7TW Vf TO* R 8* | 
WTCWW T 5 ^ ^T W WRO^ • WPOTWI 1 ftT W1*W WfOTTCPj 1 

5wr ftwpc w? wwrf*w wftwnft i wrft **fc vc *rwi§ <rwft vlwuR i 

wift wc *htwt wiwiwft ^jwnft: i wi 3th *)*ws ini iftvfc i «U 
fftm ww ww wwrrat i wfwwfr wu ww wftwtV *nwft i 
wro wto *gw tctr iw i *rw www w: wi wift ifa I 

Wl *K WSlfa W3* I WSlfWT fiR§ 5H ^srfiw 

T^fl? I %TfWcT ^fipT 

WU<<N WTW W3S<T W^I? | WZ*n *TW 9IWC ?§*J ^?^TP 1 
SHOT ^*3WWf»W %t $*! *IIJI 41 | ??TCW[ c!W Slfif *prft wn 

*S)w* wffc *ft ww 'ww* i ^rftra t *ft fire? «rar 

• B. ^t \ t B. * wrpw « J B. fife *njw I § B. yr 1 1 
|| B. omits this line I % B. ^xfw ^n Jvt I 

1882.] G. A. Grierson — Manbodh's Haribans. 135 

VI m itt ZT*G WR 2JCTT I STO^T *ITO ^2 *W ^ffi^* 1 

*3 ^ ^jfir ** v? «tt wrota I *rfr*rfif srara ^ *rrt ^rrcwfaK ! 
ftfyjH tod* ww tpt qrft*i i ftp* ^nsn^N Tfocrfii <fa*i n 
*ra *n* *nm htz ^np ifcr i fc qfa srerfaflT fir* ^cr^Wt i 

mt ?* f&* *tm frflr 3« i *fi: ipr **ura: Jrt^iR: iwi\i 

*rc ^tc *ff t*ft **ft ^rPr i ^f^cr ^srfa *reffafcr ^rfH I 
i ift *ito w:? *i ^nfsi I q* ift ^ ^ft ^ *3ifa n 
*ra*r *rof%r <Rift ^s ^ro i sreffafct qfr iw f^mc «Nrw hi 
ii ift infJr ^ro *rr ^fa i ^ wft iwrr* crow ^fa n 
ir**rf*s ftniw^ t^KFt mf* i 3i^ cvtft^ tf ** wfr «nf^ I 

* ifil W*5*Tp5 ^f< TOTT3* I *TC*lf*5 *J*J ft**J STFST cff to? Q 

Hftm troy ** *ft wvt* \ *ft wft qm ^roft ^irN i 
fl^qw 3j*qi«i fiiw* an? I 5i?r? t^r* 5* fir^ ^nn? i ^ n 
sprar ^rcspr vw ire i s^gf^f ^qrc*r ^**r * *t*t i 
*sra 5Rm ?ni w«r ipnft I iw wnn spra M<^ift i 

*NW *R^ Eft ^H"^ «P^ | if fif $*T JTT5 w TO W^[ i 

<t 'w *3^r*r Pwft t *«T3 i *om Tt^cT iilr: wrcrr tot i 
«il^ip viYPf ?m Hi4flf< I ifi ^ ; 3raft: TfT tfe iTft i 

^ww WfPr wrt ^ 5tf^ f ii3w TCftr ^rw: ct^ Jqf% i 
*im ^m m^>w< S* i *nrai w§t ftff ^ipn wll 1 *• I 

* B. *V?T* ^W ^rf» ^«f W?^ I t B. *!?)■* I 1 B. omits this line 1 
§ B ^*T m l || B. omits w. 18—20, and substitutes areTlfif ^5 

136 G. A. Grierson — Manbodh's Haribans. [No 2; 

wr write v? *hh Snwr i w*?ro mm 3 ftf«K* *Ninr i ^ i 

iw f^r *fe fsro wsr *iffe i *nnr «*f\ 5i%t^t sifjp i \ i 
aftgw % ^crirm ftnnft: i g* ^ro w* *fto vinf*: i 
*re fHftr w^r w^ *fa I inc iifow *nn*ft& iRnifa I 
WTO q^ fafir <F«m Prerc I %rcfis* *31W *rc*w: i 
wr irfr 3th ^fwr i f* wet i ^niffe *ftro ftp^nr ure i * i 

*ftf* 3T* frft JtfaWT W I TORT TO % SFfif* W 1 

fqft^ifl fS^r w* ^trersr wife I srfr ^if j\i% w&t Urn sjmRt t 
W*T TO3 Tfft ^ws w* i to wr wr ifii i§f^R %*r | 

j^ff far ^fi: t*w< ^ wy I w^ *hft *nr ^roPs wwr* t 
wtwt Tfr^ft ^fa? *Ste I ^fcfrr fws '^nfr *r*te I 
^qfert w^wt fwc 5? snf*<i flOrarr *r^ *ate*i ^*?nfij I 

«?; iiwft rftgro wwcftr I wr wr *ra:fa ^ *fo jrcfa n u t 
%to wr ^t wm ^tsifa I w*i i^r wc toct vtnfa I 
wt ifti w*i5 ircsra ^fctt i wwr ww i ^fa %t ^ertst i 



*5 ^fe iwp^ fire? finirc i jfa *ift? q*rot vtf*i %<*{< i 


•B. hae^rfwi f B. i^rff i 

1882.] Q. A. Qrierson—Manbodh's Haribans. 137 

*ffa **ii(V *tsra ^ ^nr I *ranc ^nz ^fW ^w^n? i 

TCTcl *rt vslfo mx W%*UK I jhw< sfar ^rf^f $*[ qf<«R I 

*f^s ^i wd ^% 5^5 irrafa i sw x.m w$ ^& srtwN I 
?n^f *f% «f%roft *t*t i tohj^ ifi tx*i to i 
3^OTf ii^ *ro* 3*§ <tto i fara f*u§*r srf5f jeffa t ^to i 
wi grew ^fa ^ror infr i f^RRl" «j ip§ ^fa iwr **iTf*r u ^ i 

f?T Hf*l fw fw ^ft fiR TTft | Tfft ft*T 1W cffc 3*fi *tff*T I 

f%7 ^Rifa: % *w wo* ! fw fw ctcr: *m ^t *rr3* I 
^rar mR*i *hj«u ire wp i irf^t *n* ?P3^ wn to *3i3* i 
*ri 3*g fa^ ircrosi ifii ^jtst i sf^ 3** *i^u vycr xjct a 

ifVTT *PJT ^cil^hPr «TO | *rft cn§T <*nH ^ft w | 

*f* ^rt sra ^bra ^f* i ire* fSnna *ra w surf* i 
ktto S «w iftro nxv i ^ rfte *rf*r ?T5f ^ rffe w^g I 

*f<«ift 'n^r inrir «r ^^w i iff* ^f ^i^f %cftcr , w i 

t ^r ^ft: »t«t w ^i^<ur i ino* ^n^ra fti^ ^n^t ^nr n 
^firo ifiro ^tuft ^Sr: ^ i tr ^rto ^t «rfc^ra i 

* H>UJIfl ?rfcf TR ^T ^ft^l I TcT fro wra ^Pw ^ *fe* » 

Tpnc ^r^r wnrtcf §lf ^r I U*<4 ** w *& ^^ > n » 
vr vfw 3m ir %np: f^m^ i f^<ir ^fw ^t€* ^tir: ^ani i 

133 G. A Griergon— Manbodh'* Haribans. [No. 2, 

ftra *ft*T *rlfir smra: in* i ?«* wsv* *ft W* *w » 
^ a n ^mft *r ^rouft: i *ft sft**t sfa ^rra s*rft i 
*rrat ^m ijot %l ^nr i si sro * ft*r to * irar i 30 | 
nfk: ^tro wraro* ftrore i ^Prf w*r ^gpsfii tot i 
*h A*pfoi sn* **ftpr wr i after ftw *fe*fir sra ita i <* I 

p* far *ft ^<wc ?« toi shr ft« *pr <rc *w ** ^tjf i \ i 
citctc sfaw uii^nr 'JP i iw srot ^ *ift*i3* l 
qrarcai wt*t vtob v? I arc t *?re n§ i|i %q i 

% $f*3 T[*& *TJU» *W*m5 I ^WC tlT ft*TTOfa K\W I 

(j«pn qftprf^i *njwi ft^nft i *sra: ^q a*: wt **?: *js*ifi: 1 il 1 
w: w: *ift wi vkb Ssnjwi I ^cf^raf^ srofr iJrftgfa *rcjra a 

TOT HP ^*1* *fT*T *TOT3* I VTO* ^T WI4UW TOT3* I 

sift tpi^l **ft i^ifii tpn3* I itct * *J1 arc *nnp i 
5R 5* cftft «T «*ral thi i t TO cTTC* wtt wr i v | 

tHF[ WW ftft W9*i cTTC I W^ff WIF* JWJ * HRI I 

3** ftr iwjJTf «ts wr wnt I *m croc ft* ^ott irsr* i 
^rft sftft *rtf* ^tefw ft^r i % fipr tro: «tc % ot* n 
5ft trow wr ^ mum I *^r %T w^r ^ §ft i§*raw B 
mfs* ^3i5 ^3T ^t 5Nr i wnf^r era* *$* affe wri \i 1 

• B. nft irfMr i 

1882.] G. A. Qnerson—Manbodh's Earibam. 139 

% ?ftr &?* *fhro w* I m to wl to ww: tc^to l v I 

wat jwr fore *raw ftfir ita i *** ijwt ftw ^«ww 5* « 

TOW tm qv*fr *ffl ^ I f«KTO sro* Tjts fiewi *fw *gp I 

rs $wt ww ^nwfa *fw I fwsi wi *nw^ *fw i 

rfhr anft *t wra: wftr ^w I htw wrfer stt fiiftw* *iw I *1 1 
%ifaw m«M wrc: <3wircw i wro ftrj ww wft inc wrw i 

tot ^^ ww faftr to*i i ijto to i?h J*i 'W I 
3wr ^icrrc wisw *iwwro i ^facifii ircww %f w^T ^^ ' 
ww wt*(fa itoPw wc to i wtaw * wnrwfa q^ro^i i v i 
tc *r ^ft *wrpcfiiw to i wan ^fww sra *wwr to i . 
«raw 5?w qmft *w *tw i ^ft to *rrf3r *rwfi: to vif i 

1 TOW^TO^TOOH WPf 3 ***(>* vtjm WRP I 


mwC wsr: twtor: TWTC I «rw WHM *t 

ato fiepr *ptcto wt*i i m\T4 wi wi *rro tww i 

^KfW %rflf *Nr TO Wl I 3W*T 3TO WWC 533 wito i 

qfirqfr ot $*w trft i ww Hffa 3fPr ww w£ft i 
*w *row wtwt ft?j wife i wtoj* wnnf *ni wfa wife i 
jfHft *ftw irfwrf^ ww irn*l *rr^ iw *w* ftrwrcsH *° I 

HUTS. W*ITO wtww ^fte I sw(% wf3r 5CT ^| rfts I 

*rf% iwi ^iftp 'trf^f wr *nw i t%i| ^w ^rr* wiifij ww I 

^PWTC WTO <w ^3 ItT? I ^ WW 3^nf 3Twf 3Tf I 

ftf^c ^r %T3 wr wft i wifir ^p^c ^rfi: Jw mfe i 

^twt wttPe *raw tot wfT?fir i ^ $fe ww ^W^ iitrrsrf^ n « 

*iwf fe w^bw ^r ^rf^F I wpw Jil^jir ^mPw ^nfc I 

m<4« wbw wwwc <re mfw i ^t iw t^ w& mm wnft I 

• B. *^% ^M I 

140 G. A. Qriemn—Manbodh't Haribans. [No. 2, 

Start 5tm **ftft* 5i tip I ^fi§3 iw firfr it ?rc *n& 1 1° i 

w?r f?*ra ^iii«^i *nr i iicrs ^nrs ctiw< *ffi vm q 
«u<w f^T $gt *rf* *fa I ^nir ^ *w *ro: iw i 

tJcRT <HWK qRI^ft TPT I 3RJ fc*T 3F* ^ ^H^fcT ^JTJT | 

pfa 5ft sw *mr frofis i wm ^m ^m^ §fe i 
%^j ftrar* tow: *rc<rrc: I sro *ftr iw tot jftare i 
smj *ro qfaw ffif m^N i ?wiT fro *nr ?rt^Pr *nnil« I 
%l jffanfr ^ t«t *ro* l ot snare; 3ft ^ft ^ sny i <• i 

frrc? fum anrror Tift i ^fti ^ *fars *ftrxx *nf*r i ^ i 
*x*n M^faPi *^r ^rrpf% i ym *jp ?nr ij*n%T *rrcf*r it 


5* jftfira Pr* *nc *j<if< i ^ irore fire jwwfa ^ntr i 
*? nft ^wif *te*r w i wt qrpsft f«fftr spr ftf?r *fa 1 1 1 
tot^c ??et ^ft ^r totopt i ir tw *w* q*3*rarf*5 wit i 
ifare: *rfa snnc *ran?*r I nr to tit? wt firaf* *roro i 

* f^r *j! «pf ^ft ^fffi§ i ^mfa wq ftnr ^? ^rfe i 
•*ft vft «rf?: ^r vro ^wi^ I 5rt^t t^r *rhs*: wit? i 
^i^f^ ^nft ftrjf ^ i nw I ^ ^ *nft ^f^ , 5if»^ am i 

giW *tfV<£ WT siM^K I ^cRlP ^nw ^^ «rc | 

1882.] Q. A. Grierson — ManlodVs Haribans. 141 

ik? if*r *f penty filter | wr* *m;wf wt rc faPa I \i 1 
3Ri far #R ^aftnr *ny i *nwfa otw ^n j* *it3* I 
5 *rfr in* ?jj?r 5*r ?nft I *nrN w^f to^t ^ft wfftr 1 

wi 11 «w*ifa *ift^ ^my 1 ^ fvias far ¥n?*r ^n? 1 

w fawfer flft *iura *ro* I nfvafa iff *vtf* 5*r ^r r«3* 
*ric to ^fto: ciYPf *vte w* 1 *ftft<T %ftr i ^ftr ^n^ 1 
jw fzm *fr* *vte *T*ifa ^re 1 sw cr* «irare: ^fifc wtre 1 

TO ?TOT *WR£? ^fT^t^T l *nf^ ^RT PlidHI *MHffa 1 
TOT SfT^T &<?* ?J*I ^Tff I ft^ 5® <RTfe l 5 ^ *W ^ff% I 

*ro* ?ift1% w^rn: wiifftf 1 *rew ?jto iwto to iiwK I 
Surfer ^rcfar *^r 1 *rc* cn§«r ** to to » 
g*i «w**d to wtro *3*r 1 fur^r ^or *rte 'Rfwm *n*r 11 ^° n 
to* ^nrc to «ft:mfe 1 mwPi *rra *N ^r ^Tfe 1 
to* **<jf^r w^r ^mr 1 *im* tftfer ftroi * *inr 1 
*ra waa H4K4* cR5 1 f**r ^jsr *sr qrorai *fis orap 1 
^nc *jfe toc *ifig *ra 1 fro *?r Jiira vf?r crtoto 1 
*ft to *ifi? irtftr spro 41? 1 to to %t ft* to h^ ^t? 1 ^1 
*4ig^ W5 ^rct in^OT ^i^cr 1 *reni ^h «rf% iwr ^^ wccf i 
^^: ^reT ^r iN totp i ^^t ^ trora 5^w ^htp 1 
»»f^t ?fc 5^ ft^ feft ^^T? 1 m?™* ^ ftT ^ snp g 
?^i ^rffe crtfof qror tc^pt i %^k # ftj?r % ^f^ ^tt 1 * 

w?[ ^3^rc «rf«i^[ ^w tcw 1 wim ^m ^rf^ wtfi w:^ n 81 1 
ism vafk. ^fnm vtcrjt i afroT %f ^?r ^«ftrtt ^iR«r 1 

142 G. A. Qriernon—Manbodh's Haribans. [No. 2, 

*rPr ^*r W^t *nr %TOC I <lfin&TOr ^*r uw ircw i 

3*r far SrTfsr 5* ir*i %ro i t? *ro t uswr *rf wta i \ i 
*rr£ »rr3 ^ffe *ifa *o* ^vs i ?g?r to isrc: *i^Pr *ra i 
wrar qrcr SfTT Jttbt ^fffeff | wrar Srrt ini^f Ar »^ 1 
snwf *w wot vr ^5 i ^r? i ^ tor: 5^ 1 
«ra 5* 5rrc *rt inr lira I *rfa wm hoium tw i * I 
*<*fc *nf^ wo wr *inr i *Wt ^ct ^R3^ *rni i 

Kt^n farw: $t« sift ?nv I *ft ^*r w* *fpr m ifo* I 
$ fitft *fc *tft *jf*r %3T3wt i iranr *if**iT iff* inauM i 


to* ftft irrc? «hhk. i tnwn inn* far? *rarr*: I 

<Svr *rec tfre *ftrafii ^pw i *cnr in^r ww *rc wwi i \t i 
wf* wr w^ W3 g*r to urot* I WW1W **& *n*rfa I 

% Iffa 1TC5 *jf5r fa* TOfa i ira 4HkfrfS ^rom ^*i* I 

*nrcf* *rfa 9orcr *nv? i i?T^r iwro ipTW ^£ i 
5*: sn ^?g*r ip^ 441K I ^tii^ ^B^r ^:to jilwi. I 
mf^ fir^r ^^r ^ipn< '"R^ i «rf«r ^ wr ft^ ij?tt v^ i v i 
^ra ^3^ wf% *u\+w %H^r i ^br: ^er 5*pi ^^ ^rf^ I 

5fB:^ Prae *rat^r i?i% i sre?* iftt^r ^ftr«r ^R ^iif^ I 
*mi finer fnm^r vr I $ wf^r yc iiff wur wn*r i 

^nw *^r irq m ^ ^ftw i *F5W wr f to 4f^«+fi *f**i 

■ m . , , « — *" 

•B. 7«l 

1882.] G. A. Griewon— ManbodV* Kariban*. 143 

qfm *hwfi ^ mi wv i tc m<toP* to wro* i 
«ft mr* *ft hjf 5» *ro l *fa <ftr fwn gro to*ito i 
nfo tow: *fa mrw to i niro ww gfa nnre* to I 
jro $*^w%ot to* l to* TOfronrfro^nTOi v I 
*ro to *n* *iiOi irrPr i % to ^rro ^n?r to *Hf*r I 
nroP* mm to*: ^fa toi i ir to ^Rf fltf*r fro *«i i 
jTlftk jtto ipm to *nft i *3>faTO3iTOfnfTOTifc I 

fTO f^J^ 1W ifif Wl I *U*faf TOT fafa JR3* Prom | 

$nn$ w *f* wrafn toi i TOfa ^rfroi wi to*j mi i ^i i 

sfH Tft 3f *w Tft nj* Wf I fire* nsrte TOT np 3 to | 

3*TO *i%<. 5 MR ifT *jTC I In^T TO *TO 3*TO TO^f I 

5^ irw *rf^ T^f^f m^i i to*: to to wt^; ^ ^*i I 
?Nft TOftsif* nrft $ iiTfr i to fiiflr faro to* mm *ife I 
'ir wit ift nraro far i wurc^wifwi to*N I •• I 
mrofTi *tto goro mm I sPi tPc ww wto fin wnm i 
**r froi Trft TOftr W5 to l iiw to*[ tor:* iiftro I 
*rc fiftr Smcfro mn*u 3iff \ nfiwi % sra nwro f^a miftj I 
to nft: *ITO tfRfll w tow i TOftmPw t»? wtot tow i 
wht to to to* fro ww i Soto *to 5ts fti^ wfli *nw i ei i 
w nft: wito ^rf^r to 4tfii i vw *nw Tfti ^<to ^tfw I 
wtto *o* nroiro w* I wfi? 5* fro nj* Twwr irNrrc i 

toto[ w vm T" ^ify i wipi[ irfr f%5 w=i?[t wrft: i 
^at^fr r** ^t ^rrotw $ft I TO*ifa *iFi Pi^ m*&m ift i i«i 
w^r ^ ^fe^r wft #t% i fVwr MyNi< mifis mi 4tf3 1 
I *ftr Srtt ^f? fiftr 3rt^ i irai wr ii'^mr *^ 5ft wTf? i 
3W nlror ^ft ^ft SrfSr ^ftr i qft ^ *fa w fkixm «?f^ i 
^w jftroT 5trrc w? to i wtos ftjft to %rCT H^r n 

wt wt ^iTO^f wr^: Sifa I misiR ^l^ift wraft: fiftr i yii I 
T5 *Hfcr 5ito hwt ^w iin i *sr nf\ ^hi ^fro Sl*r i 
^^ ^^y ^w y it^r iron i «re m m^fk to^wPt «wi i 

* B. %** i 

144 G. A. Qnerson—Manbodh'i Haribans. [No 2, 

*wpz T&f* *W3 ^ft ^P5ft I Tj<flS3 *RR PlWUW *f*3f*r 1 

* lifil W5P sf*TC5* wr I ^ft ft? inn: to: iw ^?t i 
m +14413 faro ^ ^hpr I bt ^ v^wt sra to S^f i <• i 

^Rrre^T sett* i 

sr^wr fire ct ^BflCTWi an? 1 ^rfc ^r nfH Shirr tot? i \ i 
sft to? 1*1 , ?ft ^fto* ^§*i I ire sifvr *ra ?ra qi *ng*r I 

TO3TO <R«T ftc^ WTp* SR9T | $ gfaj WVT *TOT , ?ft *Wl I 

crater wir ^rutftr wj i ir ironfa ^ft: ^fa *w I i I 

^5*^3*T W tHWT3 53T WT5 I 3Tf* 33? ^3Wf^[ fti$ ^ft STT? I 

*iri *3rc *:*re *^ito fM*u< i tow wrw wro* ^mf wire n 

fc ?rf% 3ifw <33*i firwn? i sftPrfwTOP iros &* ^ wnj^it, R 

t sfw wd ww *m *§fe I TOSl tftfw 3lPlMd *Ni «lfe I 

iftprfw WiWW 3«TOpW 313 I Rf^i. ^fflMp* WTSfa 3TC I 

ftwrc: m4*k ^ft ftft Ita i *gw tow ^rarc wii ^r n 
3i!h*w *$& ^fti aw ^w th*i I % ^ww jew nfH •raw i 

, ?ft to stcftoc *if3* ftfo i ?*9*iPw *nro tou* 5r* i \i i 
*ffcw sro* to5 *nrof*5 *tw i 31 *ftfa *tf*rora ^ *ffr to*j i 

flip* *flfil ^*l y^PR W^T I fe^r fart^C «? Wfiff STTO^J I 
^f^ ^T ^ qft^ iffl ^^JF I ^EPflfH *fNrc; ^«T 3ft TOfP II 

Mfaft ^TW m T!F Tft ^W I WT 3%?Ef I^WT JTTO I 

^ ^r%wt gw«rT 3rf? I ^fe ^fi: ^[ 3hi 5i^r wrfip 1 ^° I 

• B. ^ThPf vrt% ^tt t^ *ny i 

1882.] G. A. Grier*on—Manbodh f s Hariban*. 145 

^npro q\Um ^Pwi* *?rc irr i ww Pwnrw *o* *fa: *ni i 

^r h? ir**ifa ^ipto $* 1 Prow *rr*rfr v* 3" tt i 
**w ircfa Pw| iro* t qrc 1 "jfr ^ 55 fro Pnrnc 1 

fc wp* wn w* * ^ 1 jjsn ^fe *RTTf ^Pf *w 1 

3*fim inftw Tft ww 1 *wwc tot q£n^r 

ptt *wP* *ft*i jwn: 1 ^*lp| 1TOW *rar *B 

«k. _ 


wipr *m5ftr to |pr ihft | Pre farcws* *ro ^ ^ ?uft i 
to* fnre *wj* mPlm^ii 1 9 ^jft qnrcs Pii^ ifif ^ro i 
*wrro ipf Piro*r $» won tofw *nro qfa * *tcjf i 
*WRF?* **3Wfa[ J*Pf tow 1 vj^ wip ^fe *ro *ro spto 1 
^tjpt ^rr *pt *itto if tot*: i tot *hsto *w^ *wi< i 

^ft MJMlfil *TO* *K VJK I ^ft TO ift*RF ^fflff IJTOTC I 

ww» totto tto tott* 1 to ~~ * to own ^nttw I 

'^TK ^iiii«A1 PlTOP TO* 1 ~ pre: 3TTO WTO TOTJF I 

wrap* wl vrc *irt *ro l ~ *pRfir ftr ~ p to uRmw 1 1 
iw vtac'v* MfXmft 1 «wPi ^ira ^w $w *tfe 1 

**** $w ttc w m*fa 1 fiRw ^sn? wit ifii m^rhr 

wwP^ |[W? Pit * *nPr 1 ^r: hw^iP^ fiwrorc «rrPr 1 s 1 
itPwi *rn tot ^wtrw 1 ^»wp *(H itwj fr i rcw 1 

• b. *v* 1 t B - vi i t b. <**T* 1 §b. mw 1 

146 G. A. QnerBotk—ManhodVt Hariban*. [No. 2, 

%i* # inrf iw innc furc i *wrt ifti wti* ^i*t i*rc: i 

*lfan *TO 3*TT3* 1W I fk*R WAtHliM irft <WI I 

*l 3W Wft JIT *lf*3TJ ^TO I fl^TC ^TRTl ^«v W» II 

*iFi3fa iw ^Btfir irc^ng i ^Pw wot *3*8 ihpb I y» I 
*o* 5? *ftPr tt *tsi ^m i sro thr ^ifiwiT to *fni i 
*inra: i^i ^fa sr Shfj i ?itti mx<m *wfct iv I 
*wf On wr $twt an? I *npr ftr^t fa$ *r w^ Jnjf i 
*iref *w to ^N *? re i ^nwif tto "iraw TOJt wn i 

3PW5 4t? tffe ^rarc *rc*i I $ ^% **¥ TO* «PI HTC*I I 

13R fTCpS «TW %* WB I *TT iW TO* WC«T WIT* II 

fspiw rw sw fps vN i iw: *j?*t *r *n? vra tN i 
ysnj *ip i£*fa «ftr ait? i hir *ft« *to* fri wrf$ n 
vr f« $M i^iw: »wr i *igm izm *ifi fa^ ^n nm i^* i 
^nRCvy ^ 3Hf ^s^w I vm^ wiy ^pr vtslw i 
^r ^tjf slip inc ^ift i *T*ifa wi wit irctnft i 

«i^r «mt wr wi^t tnw 1 ilvi **: «Sr f*ng *H m i 


1882.] G. A. Qrienon—Xanboih't Earibom. 147 

ins* *** y* fwfn mfa I fire? finrtt *vr w *iflr i ^i i 
stout *rw «ftw t* nw i $ ^wtfli $ *iw*ft , *iw i 


iw ir: %Wf irng * ti* I iw §sr *nft *iritT $tr i 

wtffe *ftft *hf* *uu*ft*i wrfir i fwwnwpl ^r iPi tnffe i 
5*r TO*r*r ^tft *ifli ^fe i *fV 5* ^y *wr *j?et ^jfiE I 

to wtit iw Trtt tffar i %f^v ^rY ftraW* ^sffa i ^i i 
^at *rc ^r^t fwi ^fa wiry i *nf% ^w mr *e? wf$ i 

WH HTfa *JW *fhlT *T*TW I if ^fe^VPR firepan I 

^nftii*fT«m*f%wn *«r tto «raft v$ TT*I <IHT I 
trai^tir i<5 tc^t $ifV trod** tfc&re wife m^iP? i 
sftflra ^rr tnwr if* in i h iNr qjfk fro wfit if w i •• I 

^ nft?»ft ^ifjt: W[ WW | $ nft ^jfe* TW*K VWT I 

fire?o* *?fare: fRjfnr (Uiftwij* I3rt%i™f^5ft^(%ftpqr?i 
S ^fti^r^^CT^T^ i fw ircraT tow wry i 
fipjfa Hwffe toj ^rorc; w i ^ftrafir *rf*r 55 wrH* qft tot g 
*pw ^ «pt *itot *ipt 1 ** *if* *w **fir wraur 1 *• 1 

TOW *TT IV WIS *lOrf*l 1 * TOTT TOT vffb Sh^Tyflj II 

to* ifta *rc 3ttror %*: i *Rwt *frfo wzm *ift %r: r 
^ww iw ij3 iwf^w 'w? t ^w 51ft: irf^f TNf iftft »ny 1111 


148 G. A. QrierBon—Manhoik't Saribani. [No. 2, 

fang 5ft *ipj it? , fft: *cro 1 *nw *nPi ire iw m?iw i 
3Rf far ^r ott ^ to 1 **n *rc* £ ifr*: wto i 

%^f ^rf3T^WTWT UPT I 1W TTO VTC 1KJ *RT I 

jfiff *hk* ww jrt jitoto 1 tot vn 33 *nrfH **ro* I 

§t* ;«*?£** «*« i <***** ate W* «*n I 

srjg^r srarat totA * mm \ *mk *rftw *ny *w *prcrnr 1 <* 1 

vm *s*n *ctr: *rro 1 #n eft TO #cw 1 

wr tm wpt ram? 1 aw wi 535 irarafor to* 1 
wp irptc ^r viwft to? 1 sr ^pr rac t wi r?? 1 

ftf?* TC*T tffc *Fra iff 1 5$Tfaj*ipiiTOrc« **T| 

siftr *§ftr rcfa srg* ^p§rfa 1 %* 3W itfsr vra? srrt^r 1 * 1 
*ra %ro %w? ra vjk. 1 ^ifew: JWTC i^Rftr <rtc 1 

wferor fircsrfH *rta: $ f* 1 faqfir w*sr *rra «i^r 1 ^ 1 
^s^r i q&n %r^ w^t 5i?i» 1 *nr* ^r^r iiftf r?% ^^ g 

* B. •$»! 1 

1882.] O. A. Qrierwon—ManbodVt Haribans. 149 

*car wft: f^wrc 40M i^r i tos* *W3 to ifi vfn i 

^far *rop irewrc sra toe i $ ^Pi Tfao* ftrofir wr *pe[ i \t> i 

iTif m %re ^ft *ft i ^f% HM<j*mfa wn «*2R i 

Tft %T YKW4 11^1 *STC* | IITC* pRIS iiihn JPCT I 

*rgrrc *tct yho* it urc I 9*1(9 yjdwt ^ifis 9if«r U«W< I 


p tot firo* ^pRiPr i ft? at? *1iHr oty ** *nf 


*ff*T *nTC*: WTO CTT 4fc I ^^R fR TW ^Tf^Rr 

%*rPs jt 

Ft ^f 'ROT $« *TC WT I ?P[ **TCT % 1RI *PJ*TR I ^ 

*<jm m m^w m *n*j I iwre **fnrar ^itc winr i 
%i*fit «n^ *nfir 3wr *jfa i % % lit? Pr^ to? Prefti 

ftmfcf *c^t *ro ji^t ^ptfnc I *r ^wig* 3 wr tzzuz i 

*f*ro^ vwc *rc**T5 1 anww ^rci *cro giro* i 
?jPr *rf% ??tt *Pnsi 9 3hn i w^pw wi jw^f* $*r i 
*?* aftr *rcnfir ^wwr top I *?*f 3*inrer ^wr inyip i 


irfir ; 3^ftr ^pr npnn 

qj^wt to; ^?trj mr? I iPc «ra tpr ?m jRiit 

150 G. A. Qrienon—Menbodk'i Earihm$> 

frww WT ifif wtf ^ft *hr I bitw *nr iw w^w Sta i 
fiiftSNi *fw %w %l *Tf l ftaj* fttjt fiftwr % vi*i i 


^ftt%c wpr * *w ^w inj* i sieiPi ?swift: trafff *r wo* i 

JOURNAL p i0MAY S3 '" 

OP THE \ - V a t. v -' // 


Nos. Ill & IV.— 1882. 

Some Hindu Folksongs from the Panjdb. — By Lieut. R. C. Temple, 

B. S. C, F. R. G. S., M. R. A. S., &e. 

I have a small collection of 64 songs and catches popularly sung in 
the Panjab, especially in the Hill District of Kangra and in the neighbour- 
ing small Hill State of Chamba. They are, as far as 1 can gather, genuine 
Panjabi Folklore and have not been previously reduced to writing. As 
they contain many strange idioms and apparently hitherto unrecorded 
phrases and words they appear to be worthy of a place in the pages of this 

The language in some of them is Hindi, but many of them are in the 
current village Panjabi of the day. Those from Kangra and Chamba, 
though containing dialectic words and forms, do not differ in the main in 
language from those from the plains of the Panjdb. 

In the " Calcutta Review" for the present year I have treated these songs 
from a sociological point of view, giving metrical renderings of them all 
and endeavouring to show how they explain the manners, customs and 
thoughts of those who composed and sing them. I will therefore here 
confine myself to viewing them as specimens of language. 

I give them here in the Roman character, being that in which they 
were recorded. I have been moved, moreover, to this course because of 
the unsatisfactory nature of '* munshis' " ideas regarding the " improve- 
ment" of the vulgarisms of folklore, which render it unsafe to entrust any 
of them, even natives of the neighbourhood, with the task of recording 
songs in Nagari, Gurmukhi, or Persian characters.* 

* In this paper adjunct consonants are distinguished from conjunct consonants by 
being divided by an apostrophe, thus nuTna =fa^pn, but unha» — ^njV. [See 
Hoernle's Gaudian Grammar, §{ 3-6. Ed.] 

152 R. C. Temple — Some Hindu Folksongs from the Panjdb. [No. 3, 

These catches and songs refer to the following subjects, (1) religion, 
(2) religious customs, (3) love, (4) marriage customs, (5) home customs, 
(6) nursery rhymes, (7) localities, (8) riddles and facetia, (9) politics. I 
have divided them for convenience into the above heads, merely signifying 
at the foot of each song where I got it from. 

Circumstances have obliged me to rest content with this small collec- 
tion for the present, but I hope some day to be able to send the Societj 
the fruits of extended researches in this direction. 

To each song is attached a rendering and as full notes grammatical and 
linguistic as I am able to give ; but before giving the songs themselves, I 
will add a few words on the more prominent points in grammar that occur. 
A short vocabulary also of the more important words to be found in the 
songs will be added. With regard to the grammatical peculiarities, how- 
ever, I will not do much more than merely collect them and point tbem 
out. The numbers which will be found attached to the quotations refer 
to the numbers of the songs whence they are gathered, and will enable the 
reader to read the context at once. 

A few quotations in their appropriate places will also be found marked 
R. B., which I have added from a MS. lately placed at my disposal, 
through the kindness of Mr. Delmerick of the Pan jab Commission. This 
MS. relates, in a series of disconnected tales, the legendary sayings and 
doings of Kaja Rasalu (R. R), son of Raja S&livahan of Sialkot and brother 
of Puran Bhagat, a personage of wide renown in Panjabi legends. The 
tales purport to have been taken down direct from the lips of Pan jab 
peasants, unfortunately by an ignorant munshi. They consist of prose 
stories interspersed with bits of village Panjabi verse. These last luckily 
the munshi could not mar and they are of great linguistic value, but the 
prose he has so injured with attempts at Urdu, very much Persian ised, 
with which language he was apparently not very familiar, that it is useless 
for any scientific purpose. My notes were taken from the verses as my 
reading of the MS. proceeded. 

Also a small tract on Panjabi grammar by a member of the Lddiani 
Mission, 1851, will be quoted occasionally as the Panj. Oram. 

Grammatical Notes, 

(a) The following pronominal forms occur : 

Asan, we, I. 18, 60, etc , etc., this is ordinary Panjabi. 

Appti, thou, you. 20 : for ap. 

Mora, my. 36 : also found in Hindi. 

Tun, thou, passim : this is ordinary Panjabi. 

Tain, thou, passim. According to the Panj. Gram, tain is the inflec- 
ted form of the case of the agent and = tti ne ; thus, 

1882.] R C. Temple— Some Hindu Folksongs from the Panjdb. 153 

main, I. Ag. main, by me : asin, by us. 

tin, thou. Ag. tain, by thee : tusin, by you. 

uh, oh, he. Ag. un, on, by him : unhin, onhin, by them. 

ih, eh, this. Ag. in, en, ain, by this : inin, inhin, enhin, ainhin, 

by these, 
jo, who. Ag. jin, by whom, (see also song No. 11). jinin, jinhin, 

by whom, 
so, correl. Ag. tin : tinin, tinhin. 

'kaun, who ? Ag. kin, by whom ? kin bin, by whom ? Cf. also 
Kellogg's paradigms : Hindi Oram. pp. 126 — 135. 
«&da, our, my, 48 : eommon Panjabi. 
uh, he. 11. ordinary Panjabi. 
unhan, those, them. 45. Panjabi. 
eh, this. 9, 56. Panjabi. 
tinhin, correl 45, these, those, the. Panjabi. 
seh ( = uh) that, he. 19, 45. There is also a Panjabi dialectio form so. 
kuni (= kaun), who.? 56. 
Of the above, tain, unhin, tinhan, mora should probably be looked on as 
inflections. The following are instances of inflected forms :* 

maite, from me, 56: the Panj. Gram, gives mete and maithon as the 

regular inflections, 
mainun, to me, 50. ordinary Panjibi. 
min'jo, (main + jo). See below (*), to me. 56. 
os, that, 29: according to the Panj. Gram, us and oh are the ordinary 

inflected forms, 
jit, which, 25, 60. Similarly it, ut, kit ? in the Kangr* Hills, 
jih'te, from which, 50: ordinary Panjabi: Of. Kellogg. Hind. 

Grant, p. 132. 
kit, which ? 25. See above jit. 
kus, which ? 56 : for Iris ? 
kusi, any one, 56 : for kisi. 
Examples of pronominal adverbs are — 
jahlu — tahlu, 15 : when — then, 
kihan ? how? 21, 56, etc., ordinary Panjabi. 
kudhi, whence ? 23. 
kuthu, whither ? 27. 
kithe, where ? 51 : Panjabi. 
tithu, there, 59. 
kityo, wherever, 25 : = kiti, Panjabi. 

* [Divide tnaute, me~t*, mai-thon, mat-nun, jih-te; these are not inflected forma 
but contain the ordinary postpositions te, Men, nim ; see Hoernle's Gauolan Grammar, 
§374. Ed.] 

154 R. C. Temple — Some Hindu Folksongs from the Punjab. [No. 3, 

kajo, why? 34: = (?) Hindi kaheko? Thus, Hindi kya in infl. 

becomes kahe: ky& Hindi = Panj. ki or kia, which in infl* 

becomes kah or kas. Then kajo = kah + jo (see below 

(c) = Panj. k&h'nuft, = Hind, kaheko. 

The change of i to u in the words kus ? kusi ? kuni ? kudhi ? kuthu P 

is noticeable. 

(b) The forms which occur in the songs of the inflectional postpositions of 
the genitive for the da, de, di, dian and dian of Panjabi are : 
masc. da, de, passim : den, 21, 45, 59: diye, 22 : diyan, 23. 
fern, di, passim: diya, 18 : dyan 38 : diyan, 40. 
These do not differ essentially from the usual custom, which is this : 
Masc. sing, da : obliq. de : voc. de, dia : plu. de, dian : voc. dio. Fern* 
sing, di : voc. di, die : plu. dian : voc. dio. 

(c) A remarkable inflectional postposition of the dative and objective 

cases is jo, perhaps connected with da, de of Panj. through the forms dia, 

die. It has been already seen in min'jo, to me, occurring thus in song 56.* 

Hun minjo kihan miPne ? How can they meet me now ? Also in 

kajo, why ? occurring in song 34, thus 

tain kajo lai thi is kane prit ? why did you bring your love to this one ? 
1 collect every other instance that occurs. Thus — 

(1) tots jo main dudh-bhat din'nin, mainanjo ghyo churiyan : I give 
milk-and-rice to the parrot, (and) ghi and crumbs to the maina. 5. 

(2) Sadasibe jo munai lah: bring blandishments to the Eternal 
Sfiva 15. 

(3) Asan Gugge diya jktrijo jana, we must make a pilgrimage to 
Guggd. 18. 

(4) Amman jo puchhani : asking my mother. 23. 

(5) Sassu^'o puchhani : asking my mother-in-law. 23. 

(6) Jawghan^'o jikk : shampoo my thighs. 23. 

(7) Asinjo kusi diyan nahin gar'jan ? There is no necessity (oir*) 
of any one to me (I love nobody) 31. 

(8) Kuttyanj'o panghi churi : I will throw cakes to the dogs. 45. 

(9) Ha.\a.njo daury& : ran to the shops. 46. 

(10) Aggijo daurya : ran to the 6re. 46. 

(11) Unhan jo pai-gai ap'ni: to them had befallen their own (trou- 
bles). 47. 

(d) The postpositions of inflection are used, but are as frequently 
dropped : see Kellogg, sec. 152, pp. 78, 79. I am assured that in the 
Kangra Hills this is as common in every day speech as in the poetry. The 
agent with ne is by many ordinarily omitted, as ghoren khadha, the horse eat : 

* [Compare the Sindhf genitive postposition jo masc.,,;? fern. On their derivation 
see Hoerale's Gaugian Grammar, § 377, p. 239. Ed.] 

1882.] R C. Temple— Some Hindu Folksongs from the Panjdb. 155 

ghorian khadha, the mare eat. The Panj. Gram, says that the agent with 
ne and the postpos. of inflection are frequently omitted in ordinary Panj£bi. 
(e) The following cases of nominal singular inflection are worthy of 
record : 

Mate, in e. 

bapue puchhani, asking father : 23. 
ghare bich, in the house : 22, 38, 59. 
bage diyan, of the garden : 23. 

nimbue da char, pickle of limes : 40 ; (but cf. nimbui,, 46). 
ghiue da, of ghi (ghiti), 47. 
rukkhe par, on a tree (rukkh), 63. 
masc. in {ye and ye. 

pansariye* den hat, the shop of the druggist : 21. 
dariiye diyan katoriyan, cups of wine : 41. 
but compare here bhaiya, brother, 48 and chirebalia, gaily-tur- 
baned, 60. 
fern, in tyd. 

daliya, in the hedge, 5. 
thaliya, on the plate, 23. 
pag'riya, 20. objective : turban* 
barya, of a year, 32. 

goriya" den hath, the hand of the beauty, 21. 
pakhiyA, on the fan, 31. 
chhamaya, of six months, 32. 
Urhia satyd, threw it into the field, 47. 
Voc. masc in iyd 9 and Jem. in e. 

The masc. occurs in 35 and the fern, in 23, 25, 32, 45, 48, 49, 58. 
They are all ordinary Panjabi forms and require no further remark 

(/) The ordinary Panj 4b i plural inflection of masc. nouns ending in 
a consonant in the oblique cases is an or ian ; for those ending in a vowel 
it is an and for those ending in u it is wan. Of. the M&rwaji, Mewari 
and Kumaoni custom : Kellogg, p. 80. 

This custom is borne out by the plu. forms occurring in the songs, 
even in those cases where the agent with ne and the appropriate postposi- 
tions are omitted as above noted. See 22, 23, 39, 43, 44, 45, 46, 60. 

As in standard Hindi, Panjabi nouns ending in nasalized vowels pre- 
serve the annswara throughout the declension : otherwise masc. nom. and 
objective plural usually end in e. This is an exception. 

khay&n, be bird, bare bare grahen, eat, O brother, large, large 
mouthfuls, 44. 
It is probably, however, to be referred to the nasalized declension 
noticed below. 

156 R. 0. Temple— Some Hindu Folksongs from the Punjab. [No. 3, 

(g) The ordinary Panjabi plural inflection of fern, nouns ending in 
d in the oblique cases is ian : for those ending in u it is wan, and for all 
others it is in. In the songs the fern. plu. forms are usually regular, even 
when the inflectional postpos. are dropped. See 5, 20, 23, 41. Here is an 

ratin bariyan, (the) nights (are) long 5. 
But like gr&hen above, this should probably be referred to the nasaliz- 
ed declension. 

(A) The usual rule of declension appears to be in Hindi and the 
allied tongues that anuswdra is preserved in the singular inflected forms 
only when it is present in the nominative. In the Kangra Hills, however, 
there appears to be a regular form of nasalized declension. We have seen 
signs already of it in ghoren khadha = ghore ne khaya, masc. and in 
ghorian khadha = ghori ne khaya, fern. ; also in den = Panj. de, of : and 
in ratifi, nights, fern, and grahen, mouthfuls, masc. 

All the instances of masc. nasalized inflection are in en, perhaps a 
form connected with the infl. in e, above noted ;* and it is to be noted that 
in nearly every case of it the agent with ne or the inflectional postpos. has 
been omitted. 

bahi-ja pinj'ren, sit in the cage, 15. 

jayan tun panien, go thou for water, 23. 

tero munhen dikhi-kari, seeing thy face, 26. 

chacharuen ditta tak, the tick gave a bite, 38. 

bagen g&jar muli, carrots and radishes of the garden, 39. 

Ramen dari, Rama's wife, 39. 

peten tumb hoi, there has been a pain in (her) stomach, 40. 

bharo {hand'ren panien ! fill with cold water ! 44. 

mule* liya, ordinary Hill expression for mol li&, = Panj. mul 114, 
(I) bought, 46. 

kothen charhi, climbing on to the roof (ko^ha = b&la khana), 46. 

soh'ren pak'ri 4 ai *& je{hen mung'ri, father-in-law seized a stick, 
brother-in-law a mallet, 47. 

cbalya muno^ben sab'j kuman, walked with a green bow on (his) 
shoulder, 48. 

Gaddien anda air, the flock of the shepherd came, or (?) the 
shepherd brought his flock, 56. 

Anjaniyan den melen, at Anjan&'s fair, 59. 

khinnuen di, of the ball, 60. 

Bhaunen diyan, of Bhaun (Kangrd), 60. 

hathen so^hi, a stick in (your) hand, 60. 

* [The so-called nasalised inflection in e», as well as the inflection in d, are simply 
relics of ancient case-terminations : so also the ablative inflection on (p. 157) j see 
Hoernle's Gau^ian Grammar, pp. 230, 242, also p. 208, et passim, Ed.] 

1882.] B. C. Temple— Some Hindu Folfaonys from the Panjdb. 167 

The ordinary masc. voc. in Panjalri ends in id or d, but in the gongs 
in the case of an imported Arabic corruption anuswdra is added* 
muhimiyan be ! O my brave one, 23. 
The fern, nasalized infl. end in an, in and ian, perhaps connected with 
the iya above noted. Thus, 

mainan jo, to the maind, 5. 
amman jo, to (my) mother, 23. 
amman den pas, near { my) mother, 45. 
of in. 

galin ka<J<jhe, should they cast out abuse, 22. 
sar'kin sar'kin jana, going along the road, 60. 
of tan, tyan, iydn, etc, 

lary&n man mirk, the wife made a sign, 38. 
lariyan khada, the wife eat, 40 (khadha, kah'da and khada are 
common Panj. forms of the perf. indef. of khauna, to eat), 
billian chhikkya, the cat sneezed, 47. 
* Anjaniyan den melen, at Anjana's fair, 59. 
The following are instances of similar nasalization of fern. voc. inflec- 
tions. The usual rule is in Panjdbi that the voc. infl. has no anuswdra 
unless it occurs in the nominative also. The fern. voc. sing, usually ends 
in e : the plu. in o. 

soh'nien ni, O beauty, 15, 18. 
bo bhainen, O sister, 45. 
tun najo yanien, thou young beauty, 23. 
bhainon, O sisters, 46. 
(*) The Panjabi ablative inflection on is well known and is well 
exhibited in song No 46. 

dhuron Lahoron nimbu ay a, the limes came from Lahore from 


It is commonly added to postpositional forms in an abl. sense ; e. g. y 

andaron, from within; uppuron, from above; sah'm'nion (^TWf*T*f), 

from in front of, <fec. In song No. 68 it occurs in a very notable word as 

an intensive termination, nahinon, altogether not. 

Gaddi ter& ajj marhe bich nahinon, to-day thy husband (shepherd) 
is altogether not in the house, 58. 
(j) A connected nasalization of postpositional forms (Kellogg's 
prepositions, pp. 272-274) is exhibited in kanen, with, 22 : agen, in front, 
45 : pichhen, behind, 60. 

And of enclitics and conjunctions in mhin (^f = bhi), also, 20 : 
akhen, indeed, 59. 

(k) The ordinary adjectival inflections in Panjabi, where they occur, 

158 R. C. Temple— Some Hindu Folksong* from the Panjab. [fro. 3, 

are masc. sing, e ; fern., 4 : maac. phi., ia» ; fern., ian. But in these songs 
the fern. infl. in ija above noted in the nouns is found in the adj. as well 

bariya parati, a large plate, 44. 

merya nimbu&, my little lime, 46. 
Nasalized forms of this inflection are 

fern. sing, bhukiyan, hungry and nangiyan, naked, 22. 

ap'niyan sassti, thy own mother-in-law, 45. 
In song No. 25 two remarkable nasalized adjectival forms occur, 
gher'wan and pher'wan, which appear from the context to be indeclinable j 
as also perhaps garib'nait, meek, 48, should be considered. Thand're» 
panien, with cold water, 44, is a clear case of masc. nasalized inflection. 

The ordinary infl. in Panjabi for numeral adjectives is n and an, as 
usually in Hindi. Thus, 

baran barhiyan, twelve years, 23. 
(I) Mr. Kellogg, sec. 473, pp. 253-254, derives the modern Hindi 
diminutives in ak, ka, ika, ki ; iya, i ; va, wa ; from the Sanskrit affix aka.* 
In the songs gad'wa, a little pot, 41, and nimbua, a little lime, 46, occur, 
but also several undoubted diminutives occur ending in it, which are (?) 
probably connected with the above. 

chhok'ru (a little son) a widow's son, an orphan : used also in 
depreciation, 15. 

gadokh'ru, a little goat, a kid, 15. 

cholu, a little cloak, 19. 

topu, a little cap, 19. 

khinnu, a little ball, 51. 
To this class also should probably be referred 

chacharu, a tick or flea, 38. 

mauttg'nii, a bug, 38. 

bhandorti, a bee, 59. 
Perhaps in the same connection should be classed the nouns denoting 
familiarity or terms of affection, such as the names Ramii, Par'su, Chhajju, 
Ac., &c., and the Panjabi words piu, father ; matin, mother ; bharau, 
brother, &c. In these songs occur — 

man-rakhii, keeper of the heart, lover, 25. 

chit-rakhu, keeper of the heart, lover, 27. 

appu, thou, 23. 

sassti, mother-in-law, 23. 

bapii, father, 23. 

* Many of Mr. Kellogg'e statements are due to Dr. Hoernle's discovories. I quote 
Mr. Kellogg because I have not Dr. Hoernle's works by me to refer to. [See his 
Gau<Jian Grammar, {§ 195-206, pp. 97-104. Ed.] 

1882.] E. C. Temple— Some Hindu Folksongs from the Panjab. 159 

In the Panj&b there is a tendency to change nouns ending i to iu or 
k>. Thus, 

ghi to gbiti, gheu and ghyo, 5. 
ji, life, to jili, 25. 

In B. B. occurs ghiu for ghi : guru jiu for guru ji : dhiu, daughter, 
for dbi. Piti, father, in ordinary Panjabi is sometimes also pe or pi, as 
mape, mapi and m&pian, parents. 

In song No. 25 there is also a similar remarkable change in a pro- 
nominal adverb. 

kit jo for kiti, wherever, 25. 

(m) The dialectic verb must always be difficult of treatment. The 
following are attempts at solving some of the forms that occur in these 

Mr. Piatt, Hindustani Grammar, p. 329, remarks that Panjabi regular- 
ly uses the gerund or verbal noun, (practically the infinitive in the modern 
Aryan languages of India), as a gerundive or verbal adjective, and that 
8indhi has a distinct gerundive. Mr. Kellogg, pp. 308-310, sec. 595 (1) (2), 
shows the infin. being used both as a gerund and as a gerundive. In both 
works the infin. is the only form of gerund or gerundive.* The Panj. Gram, 
gives two distinct forms of gerund, (or gerundive according to syntactical 
use): one following the form of the infin. and the other usually that of 
the perf. participle. IB. y., root, ghall, send ; infin. or gerund, ghalPnd, to 
send ; gerund, ghallid, sending, to send. The two forms of gerund proba- 
bly really exist, and for the present purpose I will call them the gerund in 
nd and the gerund in id. 

As instances of the use of the gerund in nd the Panj. Gram, gives— 
kachichian lainisjt hon'gisjt, lit, gnashings of teeth will be (to be) 

khabar kar'nl, to make news (announce), 
dux ho j&ni, to be removed {lit., to become far). 

All of which show its use as a gerundive and curiously enough the Panj. 
Gram, gives no instances of its use as a pure gerund, though this is as 
common as in Hindi. 

Of the use of the gerund in id it quotes 

nier& bharau meri jamin utte haweli pai ch&h'ndd hai, my brother 
wishes a house to be built (pai, gerund in ia, fern, form from 
pauni, Panj., to place, build) on my ground. 

• [See Hoernle's Gaugian Grammar, §§ 308-814, 316-321, pp. 145-154, where the 
identity of the so-called infinitive, gerund, gerundive and verbal noun in the Northern 
Indian languages is fully shown. Ed.] 


160 K. C. Temple— Some Hindu Folksongs from the Panjdb. [No. 3, 

asan pothiaji parhi& kar'de h£f», we are in the habit of reading 

Id the former it is apparently used as a gerundive, in the latter as a 
gerund. An example of the gerund in td in the songs is 

main puri chhaki lia, I took the cake to taste, (eat) 47. 

Here chhaki agrees with puri as a gerundive. 

The above analyses may be thought wrong and the verbs merely look- 
ed on as compounds, like pay& chaVta hai, parba kar'te hain and chhak li, 
as they would appear in Hindi. But see Keliogg's doubts on the partici- 
pial nature of the first terms of such compounds at p. 192, note, where he 
inclines to the belief that there is a gerund in d as well as in nd in Hindi.* 
His observation (c) on the next page 193, that chah'n& and kar'na with 
j&na take jay& in place of gay4 and with mar'na take mara in place of mui, 
exactly bears out the analysis of the Panj. Gram, which makes j&i& the 
gerund and giA the perf. part, of j£un& and maria the gerund and muii, the 
perf . part, of mar'mi. However, below will be exhibited many instances of 
a conjunctive participle in { in these songs and perhaps the above forms 
p&i chah'nda hai and chhaki Ha should be looked upon as instances of it. 

Lastly I would quote the following every day idioms, which exist also 
in Hindi and Urdu, from the Panj. Gram, in support of the argument of 
the existence of the gerunds in nd and id. 

mete khar& hona nahin j&nd&, I cannot stop ; lit. to stand still 

does not go (is not) by me. 
mete kh&i& nahin janda, I cannot eat, lit. eating does not go 

(is not) by me; 

(n) The usual terminations of the perf. and imperf . participles in 
Panj&bi are imperf. dd or ndd and perf. id, but the imperf. has also a form 
ft<f,t which, according to the Panj. "Gram, differs so far from the in fin. in 
that it is always nd, whereas the iufin. is nd and alternatively nd. 18. g,, 
imperf. ghall'da or ghall'n&, sending : perf. ghalli&, sent : whence present 
imperf. tense, main ghall'dA ban or main ghaU'n& h&n, I am sending and 
present perf. tense, main (or main ne) ghalliA h&n, I have sent. A good 
instance of the imperf. part in nd is in song No. 60, where the same word 
occurs three times. 

* [These doubts are unfounded, the participial nature of the first term of suck 
compounds, being clearly shown by the Prakrit ; see Hoernle's Gaug. Grammar, § 639, 
p. 889. Ed.] 

f [These forms in nd (or and) are probably nouns of agency. They occur in the 
Apabhramsa Prakrit (H. 0. IV, 443). See also Hoernle's Gauo% Grammar, § 321, 
p. 163. Ed.] 

1882.] R. C. Temple-^Some Hindu Folksong* fmm the Panjdb. 161 

pani ban main ktira, I am throwing rubbish. 
pani han bhamiriyan, I am throwing whirligigs. 
pani han bhuariyan, I am throwing brooms. 

In each of these cases pani is for paundi (= Hind, form pati). 

The usual participial inflection is, nom. sing, d, obi. e, fern. %\ nom. 
plu e, obi. ian, fern. ian. And hence the following otherwise apparently 
inexplicable forms : 

motiyan chog cbuganiya/i, (I) feed with bird's food of pearls, 5. 

(gal law) je kar'nian, (as many words) as I make, (say), 18. 

kothi tin pauiyan, 1 (fern ) indeed build a house, 25. Unless, 
however, wc look on this last as honorifically plural, it should 
be according to strict grammar kothi tan pani. 

(o) A set of very curious forms occurring again and again in song 
19 should probably be referred to the gerundive or participial construction 
in id. They are formed from bigs'na (Hindi bikas'na) to be pleased. Thus, 

mate, in id. 

big'sia seh nai-bhai, pleased (is) the good barber, 
big'sia seh Jas'rat Rae, pleased (is) Jasrat Rai. 
big'sia seh P'rohit, pleased (is) the Parohit. 

fern, in L 

big'si Kausalya, pleased (is) Kausalya. 
big'si seh dai-mai, pleased (>s) the old nurse, 
big'si seh naan, pleased (is) the barber's wife, 
big'si seh bua-rani, pleased (is) the royal aunt.* 

(j>) Kellogg, p. 188, sec. 847 (a), notices the tendency to add y to 
the root in causals in such compounds (P) as phenka dena. In Panjabi in 
the conjunctive participle of such verbs, whose infin. form is auna (not ana 
as in Hindi), thisy or i is regularly alternatively prefixed to ke, the usual 
termination. E. y., auna, to come ; ake or dike, having come : banauna, 
to make ; banake or banaike, having made. In R. B. in one line the ke 
is dropped and we have pai or pae, having obtained. Six instances of this 
form occur in song 19 viz., nahaeke, lagaeke, bulaeke, laeke, lu(aeke, 
paeke: and one instance in song No. 11, banaeke. This ike or eke may, 
however, be a double termination, like the kar'ke or kar'kar of modern 
times, formed of the old con], part, terminations i and ke, of which more 



* In the Hill Districts also thi£=th£ : thi=thf. Also o«hai and ai/»«hain. 

t [The latter explanation is the correct one ; the termination i or 4 being the 
older form of the ending of the conjunctive participle ; see Hoerale's Gau<Jian Gram- 
mar, {{ 490, 491, pp. 328, 329. Ed.] 

162 B. C. Temple— Some Hindi Folksongs from the Panjdb. [No. ft, 

(q) The above forms take us imperceptibly to the conjunctive parti- 
ciple in t, which occurs so often in the songs from Kangra as to show that 
it is dialectic, and indeed, it is as common in every day use as in the songs. 
It is probably nothing more than the old termination t of the conj. part. 
in the Rdmdyan lengthened dialectically just as that used to be metri 
gratis* See Kellogg, p. 217, sec. 415. The Panj. Gram, notices it, but 
wrongly ascribes it to the idiomatic use of the perl part, in the feminine 
form. Thus, 

ikk manukkh bojh lax \wx\k janda sa, a man was going along with 

a load, 
char kuli manja chukki khare se, four coolies stood holding up a 
The following are all the instances that occur in the songs : 

(1) bahi-ja pinj'ren, sit in the cage. 5. Hindi, bai^h jao. 

(2) Mahadeb russi baitha, Mahadeva being angry sits (is angry). 15. 

(3) bahi kare gallan, sitting let us make words, (talk). 18. 

(4) motiyan run-jhun lai, having made (brought) a rattle of pearls 
(rattling pearls). 20. 

(5) chali rah'nge, we will remain going. 21. Hindi, chal raheffge. 

(6) pran taji janan, losing my life I must go. 22. 

(7) andar bahi-kari khanan, continuing to sit inside I must eat. 22. 
Hindi ; bai^h-kar'ke khana. 

(8) tan suni-kari rah 'nan, then continuing to hear I must remain. 22. 

(9) Amb charhi-kari koel bole, the cuckoo sings continuing to sit in 
the mango-tree, 23. 

(10) n'hoi, bo, dboi, sej bichhai, ai-ja, O, having bathed and washed 
and spread the bed, come, 23. 

(11) jalilu soi main jangha, when I shall go to sleep, 23. Hindi, jab 
main so jaunga. 

(12) tere munhen dikbi-kari, continuing to see thy face, 26. 

(13) tun hasi pal (paina, Panj. = par'na, Hindi), you fell a-laugh- 

ing, 26. 

(14) pakhi loch di lai de, having brought the fan of my desire, give 
it, 81. Lai de = Hindi, la do. 

(15) ai mili-ja, come and meet (me), 32. Hindi, akar mil^jao. 

(16) nimbu ai bikya bajar, the lime Jaaving come was sold in the 

bazaar, 46. 

(17) kofhen charhi-kari hakkan maryan, climbing on to the roof he 

called out, 46. 

* [The form i is simply a contraction of the Prakrit termination to, while the 
form i is a curtailment of the same termination ; see Hoerale's GaiuJ. Grammar, 
{ 491. Ed.] 

1882.] R. C. Temple— Some Hindu Folksongs from the Punjab. 163 

(18) sis ai-rahi, tbe mother-in-law bad come, 47. 

(19) nei kune satya, taking it (nena for lena) I threw it into a cor- 
ner, 47. 

(20) 6i-bait;h& $han<}e bag, having come* he sat in a cool garden, 48. 

(21) muri dekh ! having turned look, 60. (Turn round and look !) 
(r) The following forma of the honorific imperative are worthy of 


Kahana, bariyaff lakhan hoydn putra» saheta ! 

Be , O K&han, lakhs of years with thy posterity ! 20. 

Jugan tainjtyan, Kahana! Live, thou O Kahan, for ages ! 20. 

Khdydu be ! O do thou eat I 28, 44. 

Tahiti jdydn tun ! then do thou go ! 23. 

Ghariy&n, lohar&, diura ! make, O blacksmith, a brass-lamp ! 44. 

(«) The contingent future in Panj&bi is thus conjugated. 

root : ghall, send. 

Singular. Plural. 

1st person ghallan ghallye 

2nd person ghallen ghallo or ghalle 

3rd person ghalle ghallan. 

Instances of it occur in songs 25 and 27. 

(t) The plural form of the indef. perfect in Panjabi is well exhibited 
in the following : 

Rupe d&riyan gallifi kftiya*, Rupa's wife made words (spoke) 

4&ruye diyan ka(oriyan pity an, (she) drank cups of wine, 41. 
hakk£n m&riyan, (he) called out, 46. 
ghar ghar d'rekan phuliyan, (where) the drek trees flower at every 

house. This is an instance of the use of the indef. perf. for 

the indef. imperf., which is common. 

(«) Future forms are numerous and very irregular in dialectic Pan- 
jabi. The following are noteworthy specimens from the songs. 

(i) jah'ng (it) will go, 16 : dih'ng, (he) will give, 15. I have 

also met with hog and howag, (he) will be. 
(ii) rah*nge, (we) will remain, 21. 

(iii) jangbd, (I) will go, 23 : pdnghi (I. fem.) will throw, 45. 
(iv) bik'ge, (we) will be sold, 21. 

There is in the Northern Panjab a very common future form sdn ; 
infl., si 9 $an. m IB. y. f hojasan, they will become : hosa», I will be : hosi, he 

• [It also occurs in the old Panjabi and in the Marwari ; see Hoernle'a Gautfian 
Grammar, { 609, p. 866. Ed.] 

164 R. 0. Temple— Some Hindu Folksongs from the Panjdb. [No. 3, 

will be. In the songs occur, baTsan, I will barn, 44 ; ghol'san, I will knead 
or mix, 44 ; awasi, she will come, 44. In R. R. occur the following forms, 
fur'san, I will go ; desan (twice), I will give ; lesan (twice), I will take ; 
kar'san, I will make ; banasan, I will make ; ban'san, I will be made ; kha- 
saw, I will eat. Also laisi, he will take ; mar' si, he will beat ; khar'si, he 
will take ; war'si, he will enter ; awaai, he will come ; asi, he will come. 

(v) The tendency to nasalise final vowels in nominal declension has 
been noticed. Instances are not wanting of it in verbal terminations. 
E. g.> 

je koi sunen, if any one hear, 20. See (s). 

main ghar thamyait, I watched the house, 47. 

awasiri, she will come, 44. 

kar'sin, she will do, 44. 

khinnuen di ram -j ham lain chirebalia, the gaily-turbaned man 

brought the bouncing ball, 60. 
main dudh-bhat din'ni*, 1 (fetn) give rice-and-milk, 5. din'nin is 

for din'ni = dindi, a common form of the imperf . part of 

dena, = deti in Hindi : din'ni is the alternative form ; see 

(n) above. 

A set of curious infinitive forms nasalized occur in song 22 ; janan, 
rah'nan, l&nan, kat'nan, all in the sense of I must go, must stay, must bring, 
must bear with.* A stronger instance is to be found in song 47 : matua 
tek'na*, I had to make my bow. 

(to) The tendency of Panjabi is to nasalize vowels before consonants ; 
e. Q.y aunda = ata; janda = jata. In these songs several instances occur 
of the opposite custom of dropping anuswdra, where it exists in Hindi and 
usually in Panjabi as weli.f 

hasi for hans'kar, laughing, 26. 
has'na for hans'na, 56. 
pakhi for pankhi, a fan, 31, 48. 
khich'da for khainch'ta, drawing, 43. 
uchian for uncha, tall, 44. 

* [These nasalized forms in nan correspond to the forms in naun in the Braj and 
now in Marwari. See Hoernle's Gau^ian Grammar, § 320, p. 153. Ed.] 

f [These two cases are not parallel. The n of the pres. part, is a consonant, and 
it is organic, t . *., it forms an original element of the Sanskrit and Prakrit participial 
suffix anta ; it is preserved in Panj., but dropped in Hindi ; see ibid. }§ 300, 301, 143, 
146. But the n in haws' ixa, etc. is not a consonant, but a mere nasalization of a vowel, 
and it is inorganic, t. *., forming no element of the original Sanskrit or Prakrit word. 
These nasalizations are common to all Gau^ians, and are especially frequent before * 
and h ; see ibid. § 67. Ed.] 

1882.] B. C. Temple— Some Hindu Folksongs from the Panjdb. 165 

dughiya* for dunghiait, deep, 45. 
chhikkja for chhinka, sneezed, 47. 
akhaw for ankhan, 50. 
gawaja, 3, and ganwaya (= $&\&), 5. 

The absence of anuswdra in the above words is very puzzling to the 

In B. B. nagi occurs for nangi, naked : and sas and s'was for sa»s, 

(x) The insertion of r and r after t and % is not uncommon in the 
Panjdb.* In the songs occur 

thand'ri for thandi, 42, 45. 
thancTre» for {bande, 44. 
a^'ra for a{a, flour, 44. 

In B. B. bet'r& for beta, son, occurs several times ; and weh Yri> wedded 
wife, for byah'ta, dialectic beotar. Instances of r after other consonants 

mukh'ra for mukh&, face, 42. 
prahunan and pahunafl, guest, 44. 
In B. R. occurs raj'ra for raja, king. 


Abo ! hill dial, oh ! oh yon ! 

Agetd, Fanj. before the time, prematurely. 

Akh, ( = dnkh) the eye. 

Akken, hill dial, indeed, verily ; (?) connected with Panj. v. dkh'nd, to 

say, tell. 
An, a form of general inflection in the hill dial. 
Anandpdnd, to be paid fees or dues. 
Appu for dp, you. 

'Ami kdpdni, sweet or pure water; (?) corrup. from adrak JcdpdrU. 
Ati, (Skr.), very, very much. 
Afrd for dtd, flour. 
Atoarfn, hill dial fern. fut. form, I will come. 

• [This r or r is the very common pleonastic suffix ra or fd, in Prakrit 4a ; see 
#&, }{ 209, 216, 217. The example prahonan does not belong to this class ; it is a 
ftdmitatsama for Sanskrit prahona, while pahunan is a tadbhava form. Ed.] 

166 B. C. Temple— Sown? Hindu Folksongs from the Panjdb. [No. 3, 


Bdch'nd, Panj. to read. 

Bdh'nd, to put on the fire, to put to bake, to cook. 

BaWnd and bdh'nd for baifh'nd, Panj to sit. 

BdVsdvi, hill dial. masc. f ut. form, I will burn. 

Bdrhi for bdf or bdfi, a fence, hedge. 

Barht, hill dial, a year. 

Bart, hill dial, over again, da capo, as applied to singing. 

Bart, hill dial, an enclitic, indeed, verily, surely, .moreover, also, alto- 

Bari, hill dial, a year. 

Bat for bat, hill dial, a path, road. 

Battd for bdf y hill dial, a path, road. 

Bedan, hill dial. love. 

Be kali, fern, ill at ease. 

Bes, hill dial, best, the best. 

Bhain for bahin, sister. 

Bhatniri, a toy consisting of a small stick with paper fixed round the 
top so as to twirl quickly in the wind, a twirly-whirly ; hill dial 

Bhandoru, hill dial, a bee. 

Bhafnauli, hill dial, a squirrel (P). 

Bhatoi, hill dial. mad. 

Bhudri for buhdri, a broom. 

Bhufkhtnd, to scratch, make a noise, pull at (of a mouse or rat). 

Bibi (?) for English baby ; a baby, male or female, in English nurse- 

Bich (for Panj. vich), hill dial, in, inside. 

Big' si, hill dial. fern, verbal inflect, form, she is pleased. Of. Hind. 

Big'sid, hill dial. masc. form of above big* si. 

Bo I hill dial, oh ! oh you ! 

Bo muiye ! hill dial, oh ! come here ! I say ! oh you ! my dear 1 Also 
sorrowfully, alas ! ah ! 

Brahmanefi. hill dial, female Brahman. 

Bundd, a tassel, silken drop. 


Chacharu, hill dial, tick, flea. 
Chak'chdl, hill dial, clever, sharp, tricky. 
Chamare(i, hill dial, female Chainmar. 
Chdr for achdr, pickle. 

1882.] R. C. Temple— Some Hindu Folk*ong9 from the Panjdb. 167 

Chatord, a libertine. 

Chhamk'nd for chhaunh'nd, to fry spices in butter. 

Chhikk'nd, Panj. (= chhink'nd), to sneeze. 

Ckholcru, hill dial, a widow's son, orphan. Also a term of abuse m 

Of. Hind, mur'ha. 
Chhufa for chhofd, hill dial, small. 
Chhufiyan lar'jdn, hill dial. (lit. small fringes) : the small leaves of a 

young plant. 
Chtrebdlid, hill dial, for chtrewdld, a man with a gay turban. 
Ohtr'nd for chhiVnd, to peel. 
Chit-rakhu y (lit. keeper of the heart), lover. 
Cholu, dim. form, a little cloak. 


Dart, hill dial. wife. See Idri. 

Ddr'nd (= d&Ynd). intensive verb, as in glis-ddro for ghis-ddlo, rub 

Ddru, hill dial, for ddrim, a pomegranate. 
Den, hill dial, of: (for Panj. de). 
Dharydyd, hill dial, thirsty. 
Dhurou y Panj. from afar. 
Dih'ng, fut. form, hill dial, will give. 

DWeh (= bakdyan) the Melia comporita, (?) the Persian lilac. 
Dubh for dub, dub grass. 
Dut Frangi (lit. the English Messenger) the Angel of Death. 


JEfc, general form of masc. inflect., hill dial. 

2tyi, hill dial. fern. term, to proper names of tribes and castes. 


Oaddt t the shepherd caste in Kangrd. 

Qadeft, a female Gaddi. 

QadokVrd, hill dial, the large hill goat. 

Gadolch'ru, hill dial, a kid. 

Gad'tcd, Panj. a small brass drinking vessel, (lota). 

Qajuliy (lit. itching), wanton, hill dial. 

Qdli kaddh'nd, Panj. (lit. to cast out abuse), to abuse. 

Oautodndy Panj. to lose, spend ; also = Hind. 4*l*u* in comp. 

Gar'j, hill dial, for <j£/* gharaz, necessary. 

Ghnodnd, see ganiodnd. 


168 R. C. Temple— Some Hindi Folknong* from the Panjab. [No. 3, 

Ohasutart, hill dial, a slide down the snowolad hillside, a slide in 

the snow : toboganing. 
Gher'wd, hill dial, large, commodious (of a house). 
Gheu, Panj. = gh{. 
Ohiu = ghi. 

GhoVsaxi, masc. fut. form. I will knead, hill dial. 
Ghofd Gft? for *±>y> ghota, a dip, plunge. 
Ghyo 9 hill dial. = ghi. 


HaJck&n mdr'nd, hill dial, to shout out, call out. 
Eastpaind, hill dial, to laugh. 
Has 9 fid for hanind, to laugh. 
Hefh, hill dial. with. 


Hithu, hill dial. here. 


Idn, see *'n. 

Ih'fiyo, in one place, together. 

/n, hill dial, general form of fern, inflect. 

It for w, inflect, form, this. 

Igdn, see in. 


Jahlu, hill dial. when. 

Jah'ng, hill dial. fut. form, will go. 

Jdnghd, hill dial. fut. form. masc. I will go. 

Jhtr, hill dial. (= Panj. jAlnwar) the carrier caste. 

Jhunjd, hill dial, fruit. 

Jhufnd iov jhuVnd t to swing. 

Jih'te, Panj. (szjiste) from which. 

«7»l iovjisy inflect, form, which. 

Jiu for ji, hill dial, life, heart. 

Jo, hill dial. (= ho), to : objective postpos. 


Kachchd dam, hill dial, this world, this life. 

Kag'U % hill dial, turban ornament, aigrette : (for lcalght). 

Kajo ? hill dial, why P 

KdVjd for kalijd, liver, heart. 

Kand for kanth, husband. 

Kar'sin, fern. fut. form, hill dial. I will do. 

1882.] B. C. Temple— Some Hindu Folfaong* from the Panjdb. 169 

Kafndy Panj. to bear with, put up with. 

Kawwd (= dkh), the large swallow- wort, Saoeharum officinarum (?) 

Kharond for khalond, Panj. to stand still. 

Khatretf, hill dial, female Khattri. 

Khieh'nd for khatnch'nd, to draw. 

JEftftittra for Panj. khinnua or khiddu, bouncing ball or plaything, a 

child's ball. 
Kihdn ? Panj. how P 
Kit t for kit T inflect, form, which ? 
Kithu t hill dial, where ? 
Kityo, (for Panj. foW ) ; hill dial anywhere. 
KudH? hill dial, whence? 
Kund, to speak, Panj. 
JTiwuV hill dial, who ? 

Km ? (for #i* ?) hill dial, inflect, form, which ? 
.Etui' (for &i*») hill dial any one. 
Kuthu ? hill dial (for Panj. hithe T) where ? 


Ldh'ri, hill dial, the field adjoining the house, the home paddock. 

Lap lap kar'nd, hill dial, to twist in and out, to wriggle along. 

Ldr for Idd, love, affection, fondness. 

Ldfhi, see WCrt, hill dial. 

Ldrt, hill dial, a wife. 

Ldrt, see Idh'rt, hill dial. 

Zar|/, hill dial, a fringe. 

Loch, Panj. desire, wish. 

Lokdn, the people. 

XwcAt for luchdi, a soft thin cake fried in butter. 


Matte (for Panj. maiton and maithon) from me. 
Majurt for mafduri = mazduri, a labourer's pay. 
JKhfi boVnd, to desire, want. 
Man-rakku (lit, keeper of the heart), lover. 

Marh 9 hill dial, a monument or temple on top of a hill, a house, hill- 
side hut. (= Panj. mark, a Hindu temple.) 
Maun g' nun, hill dial, a bug. 
Mhtn, hill dial, also, too (= bhi). 
Min'jo, for main + jo (q. v.) to me, hill dial. 
Mirk mdr'nd, hill dial, to sign to, beckon. 
Mughaldnt, a nurse. 

170 R* C. Temple— Some Hindu Folksongs from the Panjdb. [No. 3, 

Muhimt, a warrior, brave man. 

Mutye ! Panj. (to women only) oh ! hi ! I say ! oh you! come here ! 

my dear!. 
Muleu (= mol) lend, to buy. 

Munfrt, hill dial, a small- wooden mallet used for patting earth. 
Mufydr, Panj. a fully developed girl, a girl at puberty, a grown-up 



Ndbaj for ndbzy the pulse* 

Ndexa for ndm, name. 

Nend, Panj. (= lend), to take. 

Nindt for nind, sleep : in English nurseries. 

UTir tnohird, unloving, heartless. 


Os y ordinary Panj. pronunciation of us, that. 


Paind t Panj. to fall. 

Pakhi for pankhiy a small fan. 

TdVndy a swing-cradle. 

P&nd, hill dial. (= ddl'nd), to cast, throw : place, put: build. 

Fdnglit, fut. form. fern, hill dial. I will throw. 

Pan'sdr, hill dial, watery, thin. 

Taretfni for parosan, a female neighbour. 

Patr'kd for patri, almanac, scripture, holy book. 

Tdwand for Panj. pdund (=pdnd), to receive. 

Fhafkdr t blame. 

Fher'wd, hill dial, having doors from room to room (of a house). 

PV<frW, hill dial, a paring knife. 


Qflid ITrangt, (lit English imprisonment) complete imprisonment, 
imprisonment from which there is no escape. 


BacTihyd for rakshd, protection. 

Rdiydn, hill dial, for Panj. rain, a market-gardener. 

Ham-jham, hill dial, the bouncing up and down of a ball with the 

Bafnd, hill dial, to fall (of fruit). 

1882.J R. C. Temple— &0i»t Hindu Folksongs from the Panjdb. 171 

Mas' lid for rastld, juicy. 

Riyond, to weep involuntarily. 

Run-jhun, a tinkle. 

Russi for ros or rosd, anger. 

Russi baifh'nd, hill dial, to be angry. 


Saddsibe, bill dial. ( = Sadd Siva) the Eternal Siva. 

Sag'rd for ftfrrf, all, the whole.* 

Sahetd, hill dial. with. 

&aA*', hill dial. like. 

Satnmok-rdti, Panj. all night. 

Bat'nd, hill dial. (= Panj. sitfnd,) to throw. 

£feA, hill dial, he, the (= Panj. so). 

Bhakal for sakal, all, the whole. 

Sodh, Hind, and Panj. news. 

Soya, for *0<f, fennel* 

8und for «m4, gold. 


Tahlu, hill dial. then. 

fdk, hill dial, bite of a flea or tick. 

Tdr'nd for fdPnd, to put off, remove. 

far'nd for faPnd f to vanish, disappear. 

Tar-ttkh 9 nd,+ very hot, burning. 

fhand'rd, cold. 

2¥/[;v for tain 4- jo (q. v.), to thee, hill dial. 

Tinhdn, Panj. they, those, the. 

Tithu, hill dial (for Panj. tithe) these. 

Topu, dim. form, a little cap. 

Tub, Panj. a religious catch or ditty. 

Tumb, Panj. touch, feeling. 


Ut for u#, inflect, form, that. 
Uthv, hill dial, for Panj. uthe, these. 

* [8ag*rd is the Sanskrit mtola ; but sdrd may be derived from it through an 
intermediate Prakrit taara. Ed.] 

f For a good note on this Panj . nominal and adjectival termination na, nf, mW, 
see 8irdar Gnrdial Singh's (C. S.) note in Leitner's Sketch of the Cnangars, Labor, 
1880, pp. 19-21. 

172 B. C. Temple— Some Hindu Folksong t from the Panjdb. [No. 3, 


Vekh'nd, Panj. to see. 


Wadd, Panj. («= Hind, hard) great. 

Wad&ru, Panj. an ancestor, a wise man. 

Waderd, Panj. see waddru. 

We! for be! oh! alas! 

Wekh'nd, Panj. to see. See vehK'nd. 

Wich for Panj. vich, in, inside. See bich. 


Tdd men, in the search after. 



Tdn bhaj-lai Ram da Nam, 

Jithe tain jan& hai. 
Tun kar'ni kar-lai nek, 

Phal hath auna hai. 


Repeat thon the Name of Ram, 

To whom thou hast to go. 
What is to be done do thou well, 

And the fruit will come to thy hand. 


Bdm dd Ndm. Ram represents the deity in the Sikh religion : vide 
Trumpp. Adi Oranth xcviii. Here the expression would be in Christian 
phraseology ' Pray always to God.' 

Jithe. Panj. where : here it means ( to whom. 9 

Tain. Panj. thou. 

2. i 

Tere bin kaun harega meri pir P \ 

Tere bin kaun hareg& meri pir ? 
Main papi din lmn Tere dar ka, 
Nir'dhan aur faqir. 

Without Thee, who will take away my pain P 
Without Thee, who will take away my pain p 
I am a sinful servant at Thy gate, 
Without wealth and poor. 

1882.] R. C. Temple— Some Hindu MVksonos from the Panjdb. 178 


This is an obvious address to the Deity : perhaps traceable to some 
Bhagat. It is in Hindi 

Fbqtr : here in its proper sense of a poor man, a beggar. 


Ram'ji ka bhed kisi ne nahin paya^ 
Sara janam us'ki y£d men ganwaya. 
Ram Ram ke k£ran, sadho, 

phun^at shakal jahan : 
Bishi, muni aise hi hogae, 

Kho diye hain ap'ne pran. 

No one has found the secret of Ram, 
(Though) his whole life be spent in the search. 
For Ram's sake, my friend, 

They search the whole earth : 
Sages and saints have gone thus 

And lost their lives. 


jR&m'ji = Ram, the Sikh name for the Supreme Deity : God. See 
former song. 

Tad, search, lit., remembrance, calling to mind. 

Gamodyd ; ganwana, gawana ; Panj. verb, to lose, to spend ; also used 
as an intensive like 4alna\ 

Sddho> my friend : sadh, a holy man, saint. 

Shakal ^= sakal, all, the whole = (?) Sag'ra, q. v.* 


Dw&re mere ayo bahman'ji, 
Subh bachan sunayo bahman'ji. 
Bahman bache patr'kA, 

Aur subh subh sodh sunae : 
Jo chinta man men rahe, 

So sunte hi mit j ae * 
Bahuti chinta kar gae 

Aur kat gae din rain : 

* [The identification is correct; see footnote on p. 170. Ed.] 

174 B. C. Temple— Some Hindu FolJctongs from the Punjab. [No. 3, 

Dekhat dekhat mar gae, 

Aur andbe kar liye nain. 
Bipr rtip ka bhes kar, 

Jo aya mere pas : 
Main char'non par gir pari, 

Jo puran hogayi 4s. 
Bahman bahman karat hain, 

Jo bahman uttam jat : 
Jo us'ka sim'ran kare, 

To sang rabe din rat. 
All£ Alia karat haifi 

Jo zat us'ki hai p&k : 
Bind prem rijhe nahin, 

Jo.ghis-^aro sab n£k. 
K\ Muhammad hogayi, 

Aur kuchh nabin bui aulad : 
Jo qismat men likh diya, 

So sab pdwen dad. 
Jo likh& hai bhag men, 

So pabile hi pahunch&e : 
Balak rah*ta pe$ men, 

Aur dudh chunchi men ae. 
'Ali Muhammad hogaye 

Jo bahut tha un'se lAr : 
Akhir ko we bbi mare, 

Aur mittf men diye g£r. 

A brahman came to my door, 

Glad tidings the brahman told me. 
The brahman read the scripture, 

And told me good news : 
What care was in my mind 

Disappeared on hearing it. 
Much care have men taken 

And spent their days and nights : 
Watching they have died 

And made their eyes blind. 
He put on a brahman's form 

Who came to me : 
I fell at his feet 

As my desire was fulfilled. 
They call him brahman 


1882.] K. C. Temple— Some Hindu Folksongs from the Panjdb. 175 

Who is brahman of the highest kind : 
Who worships him, 

With him will he remain day and night* 
They call him God (Allah) 
Whose nature is good, 
He is not pleased without love, 

Though you rub away your whole nose. 
Muhammad had female posterity 

And no male posterity. 
What is written in fate 

Will all obtain justly. 
What is written in fate 
Is already arrived : 
(As) the child lies in the womb, 

And the milk comes into the breasts. 
'Ali and Muhammad have been, 

Who were much loved by him (? God) : 
In the end they too died 

And were buried in the earth. 


This is a remarkable song in its way. It came to me as a Brahman 
song and was given me by a Brahman from K&ngra. It is remarkable for 
its cosmopolitan nature and allusions to Muhammadanism. It is in pure 
Hindi excepting the Panj&bi word bdch'nd* to read, and is therefore proba- 
bly a wholesale importation from Hindi literature, perhaps straight from 
the writings of some free-thinking port or Bhagat. 
Bdehe : Panj. bach'na, to read. 
Sodh : Hindi, news : not in the Dictionaries. 
Patr'kd = patri; almanac, scripture, holy book. 
Jdt, zdt. These words are now synonymous in common parlance to 
mean ' caste.' Jat is Sansk. in origin from root jan, to be born, and zat 
is probably a Munshi's corruption of the word to make it fit in with the 
Arabic of i essence, which, however, in Persian also means ' tribe, clan, 
sort.' Here we have both senses : jdt applied to the Brahman and zdt 
applied to Allah, God. 

Jo us' ha simWan hare : (?) ought this to be translated " who worship 
him (Ood) in the Brahman's form." ? 

Bindprem etc., *. *., Allah {Ood) is not pleased with mere outward 


• [The word bdeJCnd or bdncKnd is a very common pure Hindi word ; in fact 
parh'na is more Urdii, than Hindi* Ed.] 

176 R. C. Temple— Some Hindu Folhsonge from the Panjdb. [No. 3, 

Jo ghie-ddro sab ndh is in allusion to the Miualman custom of touch- 
ing the ground with the nose (or forehead) in prayer. Ddro = $&\o. 

Al auldd : progeny. Al y female descendants are not looked upon as 
so honorable as male descendants, hence the point here is — whatever is 
fated will ensue, for even Muhammad left no male line. 

dad, justice. 

Idr = 1&4 ; love ; fondness ; affection. 


Ambe <J£liy& tot& bole ; main* bole b&rhiy&t. 
Bhajo Rdm'ji : din thore, r&tin bariyaji. 
X, mere toto, bahi-ja pinj'ren, motiyan chog chuganiy&t. 
Tote jo main dudh-bhat din'nin ; mainan jo ghyo churiya#». 

The parrot screams on the branch of the mango tree ; the maind 

chatters in the hedge. 
Repeat the name of Rim : the days are short, and the nights long. 
Come, my parrot, sit in the cage, I feed you with pearl-food. 
I will give milk and rice to the parrot ; and crumbs and ghi to the 


bdrhi, fence, hedge, = bar, bari. 

din thore, rdtin bariydn. This may be explained thus. The days 
(time for prayer) are short : the nights (no time for prayer) are long r 
hence utilize the time for prayer. 

bahi-jd, bah'na and bah'na, common Panj. a bai(h'u&, to sit. See song* 
No. 18. ' 

motiydii chog , lit , bird's food of pearls, t. e. 9 the very best of food. 
The superstition is that the hansd swan (mentioned in another song q. v.) 
feeds on pearls by the sea-side, which is therefore considered the very best 
of food. 

Tote jo; maindnjo; jo in the hill dialects of Kangra and Chamba 

ma ko, tO. 

dndh-bhSt : milk-and-rice is the usual food given to caged parrots. 

ghyo churiydw : balls made of bread crumbs and ghi. Churi is the 
broken grain from a mill : crumbs, ghyo = Panj. gheu = Hind. ghi. cf. 
song No. 25. This is the usual food of caged mainas. 

Pinfren, motiydrx, maindn. This nasalisation of such final syllables is 
very common in Panj. village poet : dialects, especially in the hills, en, 
idn or iydn are respectively the masc. and fern, form of general inflection 
common in these songs : in is in main&a another form of iin. 

182.] R C. Temple— Some Rind a Folksongs from the Fanjdb. 177 


Main tan hogai swami ka charan'har : 
Turn pap karo mere sag're par. 

I have become indeed obedient to my lord : 
Save me from all my sin. 


Ihe story goes that a woman went to a temple to pray, but the god 
said she must first learn to obey her husband : whereon she went home and 
presently came back to say she was now very obedient and wished to be 
forgiven ; whence the above song. 

swdmi kd. This makes charan'hdr masc. which as the singer is a 
woman, must be explained by ber being compared to eharan'hdr garland 
of the feet. 

eharan'hdr : obedient. The deriv. given me is charan, the foot + hdr, 
a garland of the feet, sag'rd = sdrd, the whole. 

pdr Jcar'na : the trans, form oipdr hand, to be forgiven ; lit., to be 
across (into the next world). 


Be, kachche dam ka nahin hai bharosA. 
Be, kachche dam ka nahin hai bharosa. 
Aya na aya : aya na aya. 

Be, kachche dam ka ! (bdri) 

Alas, there is no confidence in this life. 
Alas, there. is no confidence in this life. 

It comes and it comes not ; it comes and it comes not. 
Alas, this life ! (da capo) 


Kachchd dam is a very curious expression : lit., it is deficient breath 
or life. It is used in the hills for this life, this world. 

bdri : again, da capo. The word as used in the hills I cannot find in 
the Diets. ; it has two senses, one as an enclitic, indeed, surely, verily and 
one in music, 'sing again from the beginning/ in which it is found 
at the end of verses or songs as here. It differs from our * da capo' which 
is merely a musical direction, whereas ' bari' appears to be actually sung .- 
thus they will sing through the song and then sing * bdri' and commence 
again. The deriv. is obvious, of. bdri, a turn ; bdri- bdri, turn by turn, 
alternately. See song Nos. 24, 59. 

178 R. C. Temple— Some Hindu Folksongs from the Panjdb. [No. 3, 

Karan>gat tari nahin fare : 
Karam-gat tari nahin fare. 
Rawan Kans sab'hi hogie bari, 
Xkhir sab'hi mare. 
Dushf ko mare phir us se tare ; 
Bhagat ki rachhya kare : 
Karam-gat, be, (&ri nahiit (are. 


The decree of fate moves not for putting away : 

The decree of fate moves not for putting away. 

Ravanas and Kansas have all indeed been, 

And in the* end they all died. 

He (? God) kills the wicked and then saves him ; 

The saints he (? God) preserves. 

Oh, the decree of fate moves not for putting away. 


Karam-gat, the decree of fate : the order of fate* gat is lit., state, 

fart, fare = tali, tale, tal'na is to vanish, disappear : (al'na^ to put 
off. remove. 

JEtdwan, Kans : typical tyrants in Hindu mythology. Havana was the 
demon king of Lanka or Ceylon who abducted Sita and was finally killed 
by Rama. Kansa was a tyrannical king of Mathura and was eventually- 
killed by Krishna. He performed Herod's feat of a general massacre of 
male infants. 

bari, enclitic, indeed. See song No. 7. 

tare ; to save, give salvation. 

rachhyd = raksha, preservation. 



Tur'n& hai, rah'ni nahin ; 

Eh jag ktira wekh. 
Bhag da likhya pawana, 

Mite na karam di rekb. 


1882.] B. C. Temple— Some Hindu Folksongs from the Panjdb. 179 

One must go hence, one cannot stay : 

This world appears to be vanity. 
What is written in fate must be received, 

The lines of fate will not be blotted out. 


Welch or vekh, Panj. to see, to seem. Hind, pekh'ni. 
Pdwand or pdund, Panj. form of the in fin. pana, to receive. 
Bekhd, rekh. The lines on the forehead (Fallon's New Rind. Diet. 
says on the palm of the hand) supposed to be the linesof fate (karam). 


Satt Nam ik mantar hai ; 
Jape soe* phal pae : 
J Kot jatan kar'ke mare, 

Likhya bhag da khae. 


The True Name is a charm ; 

Who repeats it will reap the fruit : 
Making innumerable plans they die, 

And obtain (only) what is written in fate. 

Satt Ndm, the True Name : the Name of God. A Sikh expression. 
J£ot = karor, lit., ten millions, innumerable. 


Jin sue hare kite han, 

Ate saunle kite kag, 
Dbaule han a banieke 

Sabh rang mor, ate rag : 
Uh Swami ik satt hai, 

Ate kura* sabh Sansar. 
Jo kar'ni manas kare, 

To par utaran'har. 

He who made the parrot green, 

And made the crow black, 
Made the swan white 

And the peacock many-hued and their song ; 
He is the one true Lord 

And the whole world is vanity. 
If a man do his duty 

Then will he be saved. 

180 R. C. Temple— Some Hindu Folksongs from the Punjab. [No. 3, 


Sdunld, properly dark-brown : dark complexioned : swarthy : here evi- 
dently black. 

Hans : a swan, goose, but with the majority of Panj&bis a mythical 
bird which lives by the sea-side entirely on pearls and on no other kind of 
food. It is said to be the whitest thing known, as we say ' white as snow. 9 
See song No. 5. 

Ate rdg : a very elliptical expression, the verb being left out ; the 
sense is * gave to each bis song.' 

Par utdran'h&r : much used idiomatically in the sense of * will obtain 
salvation', ( will be saved.' 


Hona hai, so ho riha ! 

Ate an 'bona nahin hoe ! 
Watfe va<Jere jatan kar 

Pran gae ban khoe ! 

What is to be, is now going on ! 

What is not to be, could never have been ! 
Great forefathers make plans 

And lose their lives. 


Hond hai etc. Cf. Fallon's New Hind. Diet. art. an, an'honi hot! 
nahin, aur honi howan'har, what is not to be is not, and what will be is 
being. The doctrine of fatalists. 

Wade wadere : Panj. words. Wa$L = bara, great : wa<Jera (also 
wa<Jaru) an ancestor, forefather ; said to mean also * a wise man.' 



Ajji main ne Gang& nahane jana ; 
Suno, main ne Jam'na nahane jan&. 

GaDga nah&n&, 

Jam'nA nahana, 

Sar'ju men glioma lagana. 


1882.] R. C- Temple— Some Hindu Folksong s from the Panjdb. 181 

To-day I must go and bathe in the Ganges ; 
Listen, I must go and bathe in the Jamna. 
Bathe in the Ganges, 
Bathe in the Jamna, 
I must dip in the Sarju. 

This is a pilgrim's song sung in the mornings on the road to the 

sacred rivers. 

The Sar'ju River is in Audh ; but it is here said to be used for the 
Ghag'ra. River in Audh which runs past Faizabad, etc., and is very sacred. 
The song is in Hindi. 

ghofd, $j$ is a corruption of ghota *±>y* Arabic, ghota lagan£ is to 
dip, dive. The usual word in this sense is jhakola. See art. jhakola in 
Fallon's New Hind. Diet. Go{a aiteT is the usual Hindi form of this word, 
but ghofa ^W is what the singer said was correct bere. 

TJd, ud, kiinjariyo ni, ban ! 
Ani Mae, Sawan mahina aya ; 
Ani Mae, Sawan mahina &y&. 

Ani meri Man, ho ! 
TJd, u4, fcunjariyo ! 
Ani Mae, pin gh art jhufan jana ; 
Ani Mae, pinghan jhutan j£na. 

Ani meri Man, ho ! (bdrf) 

Fly, fly, wagtails, yes ! 
O mother, the month of Sawan has come ; 
O mother, the month of Sawan has come. 

my mother, ho ! 
Fly, fly, O wagtails ! 
O mother, we must go and swing ; 
mother, we must go and swing. 

O my mother, ho ! (da capo) 

This song, very popular in Kangra, is only sung during the month of 
Sawan (July- August). The festival of the Doll Fair (minjaron or gur ion 
Jed meld) is held in Sawan throughout Northern India. Local customs re- 
garding it differ. In Kangra, they are as follows : every man, woman and 
child goes to the river-side near the fort at Kangra, at least once during 
Sawan, on a Sunday, Tuesday or Thursday, which must have been previously 
fixed on by a kind of mental vow. On this occasion they must wear a doll 

182 R. C. Temple— Some Hindu Folksongs from the Panjdb. [No. 3, 

at the breast which is thrown into the river while the above song is frequent- 
ly sung. The object of the custom is to procure ease of mind during the 
coming year ; for, as the doll is cooled by going into the water so is the 
mind cooled (eased) by the act. 

The custom of the S&wan swinging, which is done for luck and is 
alluded to in the song is of course well known. One of the signs of S4wan 
or the very wet weather, are the kunjaris, which I believe are our ' water- 

Kunjdriyo ; kunjiri or kunjari, a bird said to appear only in S&wan, the 
rainy season. The word appears to be local in Kangra: cf Hind. Jchan- 
jan, a wagtail, and the wagtails do appear with the rains in the hills. Kunj 
is the coolen goose, but that can hardly be meant 

iv% ant: Panj. vocative exclamations used towards women, = Hind. 

ri, ari. 

Hdn, yes, here apparently merely enclitic. 

Pinghan jhufan, to swing. Hind, ping or pifigh, is the act of swing- 
ing high ; Panj. a swing suspended. Jhu(an, to swing ; cf Hind, jhul'na, 
to swing : jho{, a swing, and Panj. jhul&, the sweep of a swing. The 
festival here alluded to is called the jhuTnd-jdtrd in the North -West 
Provinces and Fallon, t. v., jhul'n&, has a very pretty song about it, (q. v.) 9 
besides others under the same article. Under art, ping, he quotes some 
more something to the same purport as that here given. - 

bdri ; da capo, over again. See note to song No. 7. 


Mahddeb russi bai(h&, 

Mangada gadokh'ru : 
Tahiti rosa mi^i j&h'*ig, 

Jahlti dih'ng chhok'ru. 
Tun tin Sad&sibe jo 
Mundi lah, soh'niea ni. 


Mahadev is angry, 

And demands a kid. 
When his anger has vanished, 

Then he will give you a boy ; 
So do you to the Eternal Siva 
Bring conciliations, beauty. 

russt, rosa, anger : cf Panj. rostd, ros anger : Hind, rot, rd*d ■ 

Sansk. \/ ru$, \/ rush, v *i6, \/ rish, \/ rukh : Hind, and Panj. rus*. 


1882] R. C. Temple— Some Hindu Folksongs from the Punjab. 183 

na ; Hind, ruth'na, to be vexed, angry. Russi baith'na ; hill dialect, to be 

mangadd = mang'ta, desires. 

gadokh'rd, the large hill goat : dim. gadokh'rti, a kid, hill dialect. 

jahkhtahlu, when-then, hill dialect. 

jdh'ng = jahang = jave(is)ga : dih'ng « dihang = deve(n)ga; of. 
Panj. forms such as hosan, jasan, hog, howag, eto. all future forms. See 
song Nos. 23, 44. 

chhok'ru, hill dialect, a widow's son = orphan. It is used as a 

form of abuse among women and children. The hint is that the speaker 

wishes the other's father to die. Ii^is the same as the Hindi mur % hd y about 

i which Fallon quotes ' Mur'ha gari dai gayo, g6iya» ; kaun nate ?* May 

I he become an orphan, my dear ; what relative was he ? i. e., that he should 

!► jest with me. 

Saddsibe = Sada Sfiva, the Eternal Siva. 

jo = ko, the objective case. See song No. 5. 

mundt idh, bring coaxings, conciliate. 


Stri. Andar bahar ek'hi rit, 

Kya jane dtije ki prit ? 
Jogi. Tti hai sundar banki nar, 
i Kyon kar'ti jogi ko khyr&r ? 

T Stri. Main dar'shan tere ko ai : 

! Dtiji bat nahin kachhu chahi 

Jogi. Tti mere karan lai mi(hai, 

Jis se kam merd barb jai. 
Stri. Mujh ko dtija nabin hai kam ; 

Eaho, to ltw Bhag'wan ka nam. 
Jogi. Baifho yahan, karo bis'ram, 

Sim'ro nit Bhag'wan ka nam. 
Stri. Yehi to hai is jagat ki riti : 

Koi kisi se kare nahiit priti. 
Jogi. Jo dekhe, sab hai** matlab ke i 

Koi nahift kam awe sab ke. 

Dhiraj kar, turn karo yeh kam, 

Japa karo Bhag'wan ka nam. 

Orak us'ke nikat hi jana, 

Kisi ne nahia is jag men bachan&. 

Mat bhulo, turn kar lo sudh, 

Is'hi ke karan mill hai budb. 
▲ A 

184 R. C. Temple — Some Hindu Folksongs from the Panjdb. [No. 3, 

Sab beg&ne, koi nahin ap'na ; 
Teh jag sdr& rain ka sap'n&. 
Jo kar'ni kar lo, hai sangi, 
IMfc jab a pak'rega Frangi. 

His mind and bodj are the same : 
What does he know of other's love P 
Ton are a skittish beauty : 
Why do you disgrace the Jogi P 
I (only) came to see you, 
I do not wish for anything else. 
You brought sweets for me, 
That my lust might increase. 
I have no second object ; 
Say and I will take the name of Bhag'w&n. 
Sit down here and take your rest, 
Call always on the name of Bhag'wan. 
This is the custom of this world : 
No one has love for any one. 
Every one desires what he sees, 
No one is of benefit to all. 
Have patience and do you thus, 
Repeat the name of Bhag'win. 
In the end you must go to him, 
No one can be saved in this world. 
Forget not, keep him in remembrance, 
For this you have reason. 
All are strangers, no one is a friend ; 
This world is all a dream of the night. 
Tour duty is your companion, 
When the Angel of Death takes you. 


This song is purely Hindi, but is known everywhere in the Panjdb. 

Andar bdhar ek'hi rxt : lit., inside and outside he is one custom : his 
mind and body are the same. 

Khwdr kar'nd, to disgrace ; bring into disrepute. 

Jis se ham merd barhjdi : that my lust might be increased. k£m, 
lust : Kama, Cupid, the Hindu god of love. . 

jBhag'wdn, the Blest : the Supreme Being : God. 

TTs'ke nikaf : lit., near him. 









1882.] R. C. Temple— Some Hinau Folksongs from the Fanjdb. 185 

Jo kar'ni kar lo (yeh) hat sangi : elliptic construction and therefore 
difficult to analyse. Do what you have to do (this) is your companion. 
The first sentence is treated as a noun in apposition to the last words hoi 
savgi. Jo Icar'ni kar lo, is now always almost a noun in the sense of * duty, 
but more especially 'charity.' The idea of the sentence is 'your charity is 
your companion, when' etc. 

Dut Frangi, lit, the English messenger : a curious and notable phrase. 
4 Frangi' here means ' the all-powerful/ a metaphorical sense given the 
word in allusion to the overwhelming power of the British : the ' all- 
powerful messenger' is the ' Angel of Death.' Frangi or English is now . 
constantly used in common current phrase for what is irresistible, all- 
powerful. Angrez Bahadur di dohdi ! the protection of the all-powerful. 
Qaid Farangi, imprisonment from which there is no escape. 

Chhama chhama pnjan chali Mahadeb ko ; 
Chhama chhama pujan chali Mahadeb ko : 
Tel ki kachauri charhai Mahadeb ko ; 
Tel ki kachauri charhai Mahadeb ko : 
Ghi ki kachauri khilai banke yar ko ! 

Tinkling she went to worship Mah&dev ; 
Tinkling she went to worship Mahadev : 
Cakes of oil she offered Mahadev ; 
Cakes of oil she offered Mah&dev : 
Cakes of ghi she offered to her lover. 


The point is that the girl goes with her offering of cakes to the tem- 
ple, but the choicest she offers to her lover. 

The song is purely Hindi. 

tel ki kachauri ; ghi ki kachauri : kachauri* made with oil are indi- 
gestible and unpalatable, whereas those made of ghi are the reverse and 
much more choice. 

Ohham chham is the noise made by anklet-bells of the women in full 
holiday dress. 

Asaw Gugge diya jatra jo jana, soh'nien ni 1 
Asan Gugge diya jatra jo jana, bo ! 
Batta bich bahi kare gallan, bo, je kar'niaft, 
Sara dukh chite da miftana, soh'nien ni. 
Asan Gugge diya jatra jo jana, bo ! 


186 R. C. Temple— Some Hindu Folksongs from the Panj ah. [No. 3, 

I must make a pilgrimage to Gugga, my beauty ! 
I must make a pilgrimage to Gugga. 
Sitting by tbe roadside I will talk, and while I talk, 
All the sorrow of my heart will disappear, my beauty ! 
I must make a pilgrimage to Gugg&. 

Not 68. 

The jdtrd or pilgrimage to Gugga* is performed only in honour of some 
vow being fulfilled and not otherwise. The successful suppliant collects as 
many people as he can afford and takes them on a pilgrimage to one of the 
numerous shrines to Gugga 1 in the Kangrd valley, where he entertains them 
at his own cost for some days. As may be readily imagined the more 
frolicsome of the women, when tired of the monotony of home life, 
invent a fulfilled vow for the sake of the outing. Guru Gugga" or Gog& 
seems to have been a Rajput hero who died in his attempts to stem the 
last invasion of Mahmud of Ghazni in 1026 A. D. He is now a sort of 
saint with miraculous powers over snakes and able to give sons to the 
barren, and is much believed in by the lower orders of the Panjdbis. (See 
my notes to ' Folklore in the Pan jab' — No. XII, Indian Antiquary, 1882.) 

Asdu, Panj. we, used like the Hindi ham, for I. 

jo = ko, to, also the sign of the objective case. 

bo and abo, hill dialect = Panj. vo, an exclamation ; oh ! you ! my 
dear, my friend. 

battd =3 Hind, bat and b&t, a road, path, hill dialect. 

Inch =« Panj. vich, in, ef. Hind, bich, between. 

gallon kar'nd, lit, to make words, to talk, gall, Panj. a word = 
Hind. bdt y in all its numerous idiomatic senses. 

bahi, sitting. Of. Hind, baith'ni, bifh&na, bais'na, baisana, baisaeb, 
to sit, set. See song No. 5. To sit by the roadside and talk to passers by 
is about the most outrageous thing a native woman can do. See song 
No. 41. 


Aj to badhai baji Jas'rat R6e ke ! 
Aj to badhai baji Jas'rat Rae ke ! 
Big'si Kusalja Mai Ram Chandar jao ke. 
Big'si eeh d&msi lalan nahaeke. 

Aj to badhai baji Jas'rat B&e ke ! « 
Aj to badhai baji Jas'rat Eae ke ! 
Big'sia seh nai-bhai dubh lagaeke. 
Big'si seh naan nagar bulaeke. 

1882.] E. C. Temple— Some Hindu Folktongs from the Panjdb. 187 

Aj to badhai baji J as Vat Rae ke ! 
Aj to badhai baji Jas'rat Rae ke. ! 
Big'si seh bua-rani cholti fopti laeke. 
Big'si Subhadra bahin kanfh lagaeke. 

A] to badhai baji Jas'rat Rae ke ! 
A] to badhai baji Jas'rat Rae ke ! 
Big'sia seh Ja'srat bap lank a lufaeke. 
Big'sia seb P'rohit gbar da an and paeke. 
A} to badhai baji Jas'rat Rae ke ! 
A\ to badhai baji Jas'rat Rae ke ! 


To-day are sung congratulations for Jas'rat Rae ! 
To-day are sung congratulations for Jas'rat Rae ! 
Kausalya mother of Ram Chandar is pleased ; 
The nurse is pleased to wasb the child. 

To-day are sung congratulations for Jas'rat Rae ! 
To-day are sung congratulations for Jas'rat Rae ! 
The barber is pleased to plant the dub grass : 
The barber's wife is pleased to call the city. 

To-day are sung congratulations for Jas'rat Rae ! 
To-day are sung congratulations for Jas'rat Rae ! 
The royal aunt is pleased to bring the little coat and cap : 
Sister Subhadra is pleased to embrace him. 

To-day are sung congratulations for Jas'rat Rae ! 
To-day are sung congratulations for Jas'rat Rae ! 
Jas'rat the father is pleased to distribute to the poor : 
The family-priest is pleased to be paid his dues. 
To-day are sung congratulations for Jas'rat Rae ! 
To-day are sung congratulations for Jas'rat Rae ! 


This song or hymn is sung at births by Dom$ and also by ffi;ras y a 
class of eunuchs, who dress up as old women and obtain a living by singing 
such songs at births and marriages. They are I think dying out. They 
go about generally three together with a drum. 

The song purports to congratulate Jas'rat Rae, t. e , king Dasaratha 
on the birth of Rama Chandra ; there is, however, a mixture of mythology 
in it, as Subhadra was not the sister of Rama but of Krishna. But the 
legends of Rama and Krishna are often mixed up in popular song. 

188 R. C. Temple— Some Hindu Folksong from the Panjdb. [No. 3, 

Badhdi bafnd, to make congratulatory music : to congratulate. 

Big'sid, big* si: Cf. Hindi bikas'nd, to be pleased. Observe peculiar 
masculine form big'sid, and tbe peculiar fern, big' si. 

Kausalyd was tbe motber of Rama Chandra. 

sek, bill dialect, be, tbe = Hindi took, Panj. so. See song No. 45. 

dubh = dub, tbe dub grass, synoda dactylus. Cf. sab and sabh y all. 
Dub grass, is presented at weddings and auspicious occasions by the lower 
orders for luck. 

bud-rdni, tbe royal aunt, father's sister. 

cholu, t°P u > dim. forms ; the little cloak and cap. Friends or rela- 
tives always present and put the first clothes on to a baby. Parents never 
do so, as it would be unlucky. 

Kanfh lagdeke, embrace, lit., apply the throat or neck. 

lankd lufdeke : lit., rob the store : distribute gifts among the poor. 

dnand jvdeke, lit., receive pleasure; to be paid fees or dues. 


Pahila phul'ji tun Nae* ka ! 

Duja* nam Nar&yana. 
Pahila Chait suhauna, 

Je koi suneft nget&. 
Appu siye, Kahana, pag'riyfc 

Motiyan run-jhun lai, 
Jugan tain jivan, Kahana ; banyan lakh&n 

Hoy an put ran sahet&. 


The first flower is thine, Name. 

The second name Na ray ana. 
The first of Chait is lucky 

If any one hear it first. 
Do thou, O Krishna, with turban sewn 

With rattling pearls, 
Live on, O Krishna, for ages and thousands of years 

With thy posterity. 


This is a notable song as illustrative of the worship of ' The Name'. 
Narayana or Rama is here used for the deity as is usual in Sikh countries. 
Nam, Ram Nam, Bam dd Nam, the name of God is generally held to be 
greater than Rama (God) himself. 

1882.] E. C. Temple— Some Hindu Folksongs from the Panjdb. 189 

The custom is to dedicate the first spring flower seen on a tree to 
Nam, and the second to Ram, thus giving Nam the first place. Observe 
the canonized form phul-jt for this first flower. 

This song is sang by Poms, as they wander from house to house on 
the first of Chait (March- April), which in many parts is considered New 
Year's Bay in the place of the first of Baisakh (April- May). It is con- 
sidered very unlucky to mention the name Chait on this day, until one has 
heard it from the Pom. 

The worship of Rama and Krishna is again mixed up in this song. 

N6en = nam = Panj. nan. The Name : the Name of God. 

Ageid, Panj. before the time, prematurely. If he hear it before (he 
speaks it) : if he hear it first. 

Appu — ap, mayest thou. 

Run-jhun, rattle, tinkle. Cf. Panj. run-run, tinkling, rattling : 
jhon'jhandnd, Hind, and Panj. to rattle. 

Bariydn, year, bari, vare, barhi, Panj. hill. dial. = Hind, baras a 
year. See song Nos. 23 and 82. 

Sahetd, with ; also heth, Panj. hill. dial. = Hind. sath. Sansk. 


Dhnp pai tar-tikh'ni, 

Rae Mam<51uw& bo, 
Kihan kari han<Jani bat ? 

Mera man tain liya bo. 

Tom ghora, ham pal'ki ; 

Rae Mamoluwa bo, 
Chali rah'nge ik'tiyo sath : 

Mera man tain liya bo. 

Turn sisa, ham ar'si ; 

Rae Manioluwa bo, 
Bani rah'ndi goriya den hath : 

Mera man tain liya bo. 

Turn champa, ham maTti ; 

Hie Mamdluwa bo, 
Khare rah'nge ik'tiyo ba^A ( p sath) 

Mera man tain liya bo. 

190 R. C. Temple— Some Hindu Folksongs from the Panjdb. [No. 8 f 

Turn l<5ng, ham ilayachi ; 

Rae Mamdluwa bo, 
Bik'ge pansariye den hat *• 

Mera man tain liya bo. 


The sunshine is growing hot ; 

Rai Mamolu. 
How shall we go along the road ? 

you have captured my heart. 

You be the horse, I the carriage ; 

Rai Mamdlu, 
We will go along together : 

O you have captured my heart. 

You be the looking-glass, I the looking-glass ring ; 

Rai Mamtflu, 
Looking pretty on beauty's hand : 

you have captured my heart. 

You be the cJumpd, I the tndVti flower ; 

O Rai Mamolu, 
Standing together in the garden ( ? only together) 

you have captured my heart. 

You be the clove, I the cardamom ; 

Rai Mam<51u, 
We will be sold in the druggists' shop, 

O you have captured my heart. 


The point of this song lies in the antithesis of the masculine and 
feminine terms used by the girl to herself and her lover. This is 
very finely worked out ; thus, ghord is . masc. and pdVJci, fern. : sud, 
masc, and dr'si fern. : champd, masc. and m&Vti, fern. : I6ng, masc, and 
ildyacht, fern. 

pat = pari, fell : common Panj. form. See song Nos. 26, 47. 

tar-tikh'nt, very hot, burning ; used of spices. It probably means 
fresh and hot ; tar, fresh, + ttkh'nd, Panj., hot, pungent. Cf. Panj. and 
Hind, tikhd. Here it is applied to sunshine (dhup). 

1882.] R 0. Temple— Some Hindu Iblktongs from the Panjdb. 191 

Ede Mamdlu, apparently a fanciful name attached only to this song. 
Perhaps for the common name M61u(Mall). Mamdld is the pied wagtail. 

bo : see song No. 18. 

rah'nge, rah'ndt; ef.jdk'ng, dik'ng ; see song No. 15. 

ik'fiyo, in one place, together. Cf. Panj. ik'fhaur, ik'nafta, ikattar : 
Hind, ik'hafta, ik'thi, ik'thauri, ek'tho. The deriv. is ek, one + ihawt or 
fhdon, place. 

dr'st, the ring worn by women on the thumb containing a small 

bant rah'ndt: ban rah'n&, to look pretty, to be nice, to look well. 
San'nd can itself have this sense. See Fallon, art. ban'nd, 17. 

den = de, Panj. ; cf nasalized inflection. See song No. 5. 

gorigd, a beauty, belle. Poet., lit. fair. 

champd, a shrub with yellow-scented flowers: Miehelia champaea, 
(P) yellow oleander. 

m&Vtiy a white highly- scented flower. Aganosma roxburghii, (?) f ran- 

ik'fiyo bdgfi, I am nearly certain from the rhyme of the song that this 
is wrong, and that the line should run Jckare raVnge ik'fiyo sdth. 


Piya mera baid, sard jag rogi ; 
Na jane nabaj, kihan jfye rogi P 

Lag rahi cho{, 
Sajan, mere man men 

Lag rahi cho{. 

Piy4 mera chalya, main mhin kanen janan, 
Ea44h kaleje, pr&n taji janan. 

Lag rahi chot, 
Sajan, mere man men 

Lag rahi chot. 

Mah'nga bike, tan bhukhyan nahin rah'nan ; 
Missa-kis8& andar bahi kari kh&nan. 
Lag rahi chot, 
Sajan, mere man men 
Lag rahi cho(. 

B B 

192 K. C. Temple— Same Hindu Folhsongt from the Punjab. [No. 8, 

Mah'ngl bike, tan nangiyan nahi» rah'n&n ; 
MotA-sofa andar bahi kari lfaan. 

Lag rahi chot, 
Sajan, mere man men 

Lag rahi chot. 

G&lin kag^he, tan suni kari rah'nin, 
Chup-chap ghare bich bahi kari kat'na*. 
Lag rahi chot, 
Sajan, mere man men 
Lag rahi chot. 


My love is a physician, all the world is sick ; 
He knows not the pulse, how will the siek live P 

I am wounded, 
My friend, in my heart 

I am wounded. 

My love goes away, I too go with him : 
Casting out my heart, giving up my life. 

I am wounded, 
My friend, in my heart 

I am wounded. 

If (food) be dear, I will not remain hungry ; 
Sitting in the house I will eat leavings. 

1 am wounded, 
My friend, in my heart 

I am wounded. 

If (clothes) be dear, I will not remain naked ; 
Sitting in the house I will wear coarse cloths. 

I am wounded, 
My friend, in my heart 

I am wounded. 

If they abuse I will remain listening ; 
Sitting silently in the house I will bear it 

I am wounded, 
My friend, in my heart 

I am wounded. 

1882.] R. C Temple— Some Hindu Folksongs from the Panjab. 193 


ndbaj = nabz, the pulse : it is a curious word to use here when ndri 
and ndryd laid, a pulse-doctor, are available terms. 

mhin, hill dialect = bhi, also, too, = Sansk. apt : Panj. vi. 

mhin, kanen,jdndn, bhukhydn, rah 1 nan, etc. All specimens of the 
nasalized inflection. See song No. 5, etc. 

kaddh'nd, Panj. to cast out. See song No. 33. 

tafndj Panj. to give up. 

musd-kistd, lit. mixed, food made from the leavings of various 
grains : frugal diet : coarse food. 

bahiy sitting, see song No. 18. 

gdli kaddh'nd, Panj. to abuse : lit. to cast out abuse. 

to f nan, to bear with: put up with: Panj. Of. the expressions, 
din kafnd, to pass the day : kaid kafnd, to bear imprisonment. 

bieh = Panj. vich, inside. See song No. 18. 


Amb charhi kari koel bole, bol'da sabad suhauni. 

" Bagan diye koele, 
Baran tan barhiyan gori da kand ghar aya, 

Mang'da soyan da sag, asan kudhi dliye P 
Amman jo puchhani, bapue puchhani, jani han 

Baiyan de bag, bage diyan Baiyan, be. 
Sassu jo puchhani, main soh're jo puchhani, jani bin 

Baiyan de bag, bage dfyan Baiyan, be." 
" Bahe the soe, goriye, chhutiya* lar' jan lage the, 

Motiyan de jhunje, asan kihan toriye ?" 
" Luchiyan pakauoi, thaliya pauui, upar s<5yin da sag, 

Khayan be, muhimiyan be." 
" N'hoi, bo, dhoi, sej bichhai, ai-ja, tun najo yanien ! 
Janghan jo jikk, jahlu soi main jangha, tahlu jay an tun panien." 


The cuokoo called, sitting in the mango tree, making a sweet call. 

" cuckoo of the gardens, 
The beauty's husband has returned home after twelve years ; 

He asks for fennel ; whence shall I give it ? 
Asking my mother, asking my father, I will go 

To the market-gardener's garden ; O to the market-gar- 
dener's garden. 

194 B. C. Temple— Some Hindu Folksongs from the Punjab. [No. 3, 

Asking mother-in-law, asking father-in law, I will go' 

To the market-gardener's garden j to the market-garden- 
er's garden." 
" The fennel is sown, my beauty, the leaves are small, 

The fruit is like pearls ; how can I cut it ?" 
" The thin cakes are cooked and placed on the plate, the fennel 
on the top : 
O eat them, O my brave one !" 
" Bathe, my dear, and wash, spread the bed, and come, thou 

young and graceful one ! 
Shampoo my thighs : when I go to sleep, then go you for water/* 


This is a difficult song to follow, owing to the confused way in which 
it is put together. The woman first addresses the cuckoo about her hus- 
band's return : the market -gardener then addresses her, then she her 
husband, and lastly her husband answers her. 

Sabad, scib'd, Panj., a word, speech. 

bdgdn, bdg % bdge, common corruptions of high, a garden. 

diye, dtyd, diydn, Panj. inflected forms of da, di, de = ka, ki, ke ; of. 

bdrdn, soydn, ammdn etc.,. all specimens of the nasalized inflection 
above noted. See song No. 5, etc. 

bdrdn barhiydn, this term of twelve years is a sort of conventional 
expression to mean ( a long while.' It had its origin in the twelve years 
apprenticeship supposed to be undergone by saints and jogis. barht, Panj. 
a year. See song Nos. 20 and 32. 

hand = kanth, a husband. 

soydn dd sdg = soa, fennel, anethum sowa, a much-valued relish 

Jcudhi ? hill dialect : whence ? See song No. 27. 

ammdn jo, sassu jo, soh're jo t janghdn jo, in all these cases jo = 
ho, to. See song No. 5. 

rddydn = rain = ardin, Panj. a caste of Muhammadans who are 
market- gardeners. 

chhufiydn lar'jdn, lit, small fringes (chhutiyi = chhot£), used for 
small leaves of a young plant. 

motvydn dejhunje ; jhunjd or jhunjd, dialectic = fruit. ' Fruit like 
pearls', means that the fruit or flower is still white and beaded, looking like 
beads on the plant, i. e., the plant is still very young. 

kihdn? Panj. how? 

luchiydn = Hind, luchai, a soft thin cake fried in butter. 

1882.] E. C. Temple— Some Hindi Folksongs from the Panjdb. 195 

pdunt (also pdnd) in Panj. = commonly Hind.*pana to get j but also 
frequently in these songs = (JaTna, to place, pnt, cast, throw. 

muhimigdn, muhtmt, a brave man, a warrior ; a village word corrupted 
from muhimm, Arab., a difficult thing. In Hind, it means a military ex- 
ploit, a brave and difficult accomplishment. 

bo, my dear, my love. See song No. 18. 

ndjo gdnien, young and delicate beauty ; nqjo is a Hind. poet, cor* 
raption of ndzuk, Pers. delicate. 

jahlu-tahlu, when-then. See song No. 15. 

jdnghd, fut. form ; I will go, cf. pdnght, I will throw (pana) in song 
No. 45. See also songs Nos. 15, 21. sot main jdnghd, I will go to sleep. 
Of. song 44. 

di t sot, seems here, as in several other places, to be a termination of 
the conjunctive participle. 

The address to the cuckoo commences with " bag&» diye koele" : the 
market-gardener speaks at " babe the soe" : the woman addresses her 
husband at " luchiyan pakauni ;" and the husband answers at " n'hoi, bo, 


Pan' gha( k° jal bharan jat thi 

Bat men man-rakhu in mild : 
Dukh mera sara janda riha bari, 

Kal'ja phule sahi bahot kbila. 


I was going to the watering-place to draw water, 

And my lover met me on the road : 
All my trouble went away altogether, . 

And my heart blossomed greatly like a flower. 


Pan' ghat = pani-gbat, the place by the river or well side, where women 
go for water. 

jdt, common vulgar Hindi form = jata, jati. 

bat = baf = Hind, bit a road, see song No. 18. 

man-rakhu, lit., keeper of the heart, lover : cf. chit-rakhli son* No 

bdri, enclitio, indeed, altogether : see song No. 7. 

k&Tjd = kalija, the heart (liver). 

sahi, hill dialect = sa, like. 

196 B. C. Temple— Sbm* Hindu Folksongs from the Panjdb [No. 3, 


Ko(hi tan paniyan gher'wan, bo, 

Jit pher'w&fi rakhan diwar, piyare. 
Kit baran, kit nikalaw, bo muiye, 

Kityo nahin lag'da jiu, pijare. 

The house I have built is large, my dear, 

In it I have built walls with doors all round, my love. 
Wherever I enter, wherever I go out ; ah, my dear, 

Nowhere is any one for me to love, my love. 


tdn a ta, Panj. = to, Hind, indeed. 

tdn, pdniydn, gher'todn, pher'wdn, etc., observe the nasalization. Of. 
song No. 5, etc. 

pdniydn ; kofhi pana (or pauna), hill dialect, to build a house : qf. 
Panj. word pana and pauna, to place, put, throw. See song No. 23, etc. 

gher'wan, pher'wdn. Qher'todn = ghera, gher'w& or gher'dar, in Panj. 
and Hind, lit , surrounding, enclosing, as applied to a dress means large, 
ample, full ; in the hill dialect it is applied, as here, to a house or dwelling, 
to mean large, commodious. Pher'wdn, lit., surrounding, hill dialect, is 
applied to a house whose doors open from room to room all round. Thus 
a European bungalow in India would be described by a KangrA hill-man 
as gher 9 wd t '\Mge and pher'wd, with doors to every room. The point here is 
that " the house I have built is large and comfortable." 

bo, my dear, see song No. 18. 

jit -hit, inflected pron. forms Panj. = j is -his : it and ut = is and us 
are similar ones. 

bo muiye, also muiye bo and muiye. In the hill dialect used by 
women as an exclamation, hi ! come here ! I say ! oh you ! Also used 
sorrowfully, ah, my dear ! alas, my dear ! The Ludiana Panj. Diet, gives 
the following curious explanation of this word : " mutye, O dead one ! 
spoken to a woman chidingly." 

hityo = Panj. kiti, anywhere. 

jiu = ji, life, the heart. Of. Panj. forms ghyo and gheti = ghi (see 
song No. 5) and kityo = kiti, above. Ji lag'nd is an idiom, to be fond 
of, to be enamoured of, to love. 


Tere munhen dikhi kari 

Main bhatoi gaya. 
Tdn tin hasi, bo, pai 

Maite riyoi gaya. 


1882.] B. C. Temple— Some Hindi Folkeong* from the Panjdb. 197 

Seeing your face 

I became mad. 
Then you laughed, my dear, 

And tears fell from me. 

munheuy a strong example of the final nasalization frequently noted 


bhatot, mad. (?) = Hind, bhutaha, possessed of a deviL 

Jumpat = hansi pari, laughed. See song Nos. 21, 47. 

rUfoiy it is said that there are two verbs : rond, to weep, rlyona, to 
weep involuntarily. 

maiie = maiton and maithoit: Panj. from me. 


Kya karan ! Jan main kuthti ? 

Mera dhag'ra mil'dfi hai nahi*. 
phund'kar sare hi dekha ; 

Chit-rakhu miTda hai nahin. 


What shall I do P Whither shall I go ? 

I cannot find my love. 
Searching everywhere I have seen, 

(That) the keeper of my heart is not found. 


Jin, a notable form =jd nasalized. 

Kuthti? = kithu? hill dialect, whither? cf huiht? where? in 
song No. 23. In the hills tithu is in that place ; uthu, in that place ; 
kithu ? in what place ? etc. The Panj. forms are ethe, kithe, etc. Of. 
also the form kuei (hill dial.) = kisi, any one : song No. 81 : and hue ? 

song No. 53. 

Chit-ralcku, lib, keeper of the heart, a lover. See song No. 24 where 
the expression is man-rakhu, with precisely the same meaning. 


Be jadu kar'ke mera man mohy& : 
Be jaclu kar'ke mera man mohya : 
He jadu kar'ke mera man mohya, 
Ap'ne begane se khoya. 
Be jadu kar'ke mera man mohya : 
Be jadu kar'ke mera man mohya* 


198 R. C. Temple— Some Hindu Folksong* from the Panjdb. [No. 8, 

O with bewitchment my heart he fascinated : 

with bewitchment my heart he fascinated : 
Ah with bewitchment my heart he fascinated. 

1 have lost my friends and acquaintances. 

O with bewitchment my heart he fascinated, 

O with bewitchment my heart he fascinated. * 


Ap'ne begdne : ap'ne, one's own people ; begdne, people of other castes r 
the expression means 'friends and acquaintances.' Of. song Nos. IS 
and 36. 


Os papi ne mujhe dekha ek najar : 

Tan man ki rahi nahin kuchh bhi Arnabar. 

That wicked one gave me but one look : 

And no recollection even of myself remained. 


Os, common Panj. pronunciation of us. 
Tan man, lit., body and mind, i. e., one's self. 


Nir'moMj-a, turn se kabbi na bolungi ; 
Shake ka(&ra, main ap marungi 
Nir'mohir&, turn se kabhi na bolungi ; 
Khake ka^ara, main ap marungi. 


You heartless wretch, I will never speak to you ; 
Stabbing myself with a dagger, I will kill myself. 
You heartless wretch, I will never speak to you ; 
Stabbing myself with a dagger, I will kill myself. 

Nir'mohtrd = Hind, nir'mohi, heartless, unloving : the root is mo^ 
Sansk. and Hind., love : Panj., mohur. 


Pakhiya lagiyan sune diyan lar'jan ; 
Pakhiyd lagiyan sune diyan lar'jan : 
Asan jo'kusi diyan nahin gar'jan. 
Pakhi loch di lai-de. 

1882. J B. 0. Temple— Some Hindu Iblktong* from the Panjdb. 109 

Pakhiy& lage sune de btinde ; 
Pakhiya* lage sune de btinde : 
Asa* ban kusf kane nahin kAnde. 
Pakhi loch di lai-de. 


The fan with the golden fringes ; 
The fan with the golden fringes : 
No one (else) is loved by me. 

Bring me the fan of my desire. 

The fan with the golden tassels ; 
The fan with the golden tassels : 
Indeed I will speak to no one (else) . 
Bring me the fan of my desire. 


pakhi, pakhiyd y Pan]., pakkhi s pankhi, a small fan. Of. Sansk. 
ftaksha, a wing, side of anything. 

lagiydn, diydn, lar'jdn, gar'jdn, strong specimens of nasalised infleo* 
tion. See song No. 5, etc. 

eune, sand, hill dialect, gold. Of. Hindi forms son*, saun&, sunua, 
•on, gold. 

dit/dn, see song No. 23 : of. 

Asdnjo. Aedn, Panj. (we) I. jo 9 to. See song No. 5. 

kusi =k\si, inflected form, any one. See songs Nos. 23, 27 and 84. 

lar'jdn, hill dialect, fringes = jhdlar. 

gar'jdn: corruption of u*r* gharax, necessary. Lit., no one is 
necessary to me ; I love no one else. 

loch, Panj., desire, wish. 

lai-de, hit, conj. part. See song No. 23. 

btinde, a tassel, silken drop hanging from a fan ; properly an earring, 
ear-drop Of. Hind, blind, (a drop of water) a drop ; Panj. btin<Ja, a 
drop : Hind. phund'r&, a tassel. Sansk. vindu, a drop of anything. 

bdri, enclitic, indeed. See song Nos. 7 and 24. 

kunde, kuni, Panj. to speak : also kahina = Hind., kah'ni. 


Asa*, bo, sunya 
Tera byah, bo, kit* : 
Jani, kja, bo, kit* P 

Moiye bo, Phulamibi. 
c c 

200 K. C. Temple— Some Hindu Folksongs from the Panjdb. [No. 8, 

Barya chhamaya di ph£ri ; 
BeMan hundi teri ; 
Ai mili-ja, bo. 

Muiye bo, Phulamun. 

My dear, I bave beard 
They bave married you off, dear : 
My love, O wbat bave tbey done P 

Come to me, Phulamun. 

There is the return after the year and the six months : 
My love is for you : 
Come and meet me, my dear, 
Come to me, Phulamun. 


The custom in the Panjab is for the bride to return home to her 
parents awhile, after she has been married six months, and again after a 
year. The lover here reminds Phulamun (a common hill name for girls) 
of this custom, and says it is nothing to him that they have married her 
to another, if she will come to him when she comes borne again. 

bo, my dear. See song No. 18. 

Icttd, common form of the past tense of karn& in Panj. 

muvye bo, come here. See song No. 25. 

baryd, of a year. See song Nos. 20 and 23. bari and barhi, a year = 
Hind, baras, Panj. var, vare. Cf. Sansk. varsha, Prak. variso, varihu* 
Panj. variba. 

bSdan, love, bill dialect. Of. Sansk. root vid, to perceive, feel, 
possess, acquire, marry. Panj. vedhna, to contract an amorous friendship. 
Hind, bedna and bedhnfi, to ache, pain. 

hundi, Panj. form of hoti, is. 

di, milt, conj. parts. See song No. 23. 


Main tere nal bhulke nihora laya. 

Lay&, tan janam ganwaya. 

Main tere n&l bbulke nihor& laya. 

Ea<Jdh be kaleje main hajar karni ; 

Akhir putar paraya. 

Main tere nal bhulke nihor& laya. 

Chun chun kaliyan main sej bichh&na ; 

• [Varihu is a conjectural Prakrit form. Ed.] 

1882.] B. C. Temple— Some Hindu Folksongs from the Panjab. 201 

Khol tani gal Idya* 

Main tere nil bhulke nihor& laya. 

Panj 6b. 

I was mistaken in bringing favours to you. 

I brought tbem and I was ruined. 

I was mistaken in bringing favours to you. 

I took out my heart and I gave it you : 

In the end you were a stranger. 

I was mistaken in bringing favours to you. 

Taking young flowers I spread a soft bed ; 

I opened my dress and I fell on your neck. 

I was mistaken in bringing favours to you. 


ndl, Panj. with = se. 

nihord, Panj. and Hind. nihor&, favour, kindness. 

ganw&nd, gaw&und, Panj. to lose, waste. Janam ganwdnd sa Hind, 
janam big&rna', to spoil one's life, to be ruined for life. See song No. 3. 

Kaddh haleje, Panj. lit., casting out my heart, giving up my heart. 
See song No. 22. 

hdjar karni, (hazar == haxir, present) to make present ; give up. 

putarpardyd, lit., a stranger's son, a stranger, estranged. 

chun ehun kaliydn, etc. It is not uncommon for the rich to have 
beli (jasmine) flowers picked and spread into a bed, over which they spread 
a sheet. This is done in S&wan (July- Aug.) when these flowers are plenti- 
ful. Similarly rose leaves are used in Phagun (March- April.) Fallon 
New Hind. Diet. art. sej, gives a riddle which commences exactly as this 

Chun chun kaliyaVt sej bichave, 
Kadhi na pi ke nere ive ; 
Jab dekhe pi ankh ugh&r, 
Chaochla chili, a*chl& jh&r. 

gal 16yd, idiom, I fell on your neck : I embraced you. 


Tain kajo l&i thi is kane prit ? 
Eh tin hai sire jag da* chatori : 
Kusi d& nahin hoya* mit. 

"Why did you give your love to him P 
He is indeed a world-wide libertine : 
He was never a friend to any one. 


202 R. G. Temple— Some Hindu Folksongs from the Panjdb. [No. 3, 

hajo t hill dialect, why P 

chaford, a libertine, properly an epicure, one who lives on the best 
of things. 

kusi = kissi. See song Nos. 28, 27, 81. 


Be mun<Jiy&, tain nun 
Chira rangawan gule nar da * 
Teri kagli di ajab bahar, we ! 

Be larke, be larke, 
Kanjar*M&ne d£ jana chhor de ! 
I Xdngrd. 

Ah my boy, for thee 
I will dye a turban like a pomegranate flower : 
Ah ! the wondrous beauty of thy aigrette ! 

Ah my boy, ah my boy, 
Leave off going to the prostitute's quarter ! 


This sopg is sung by the young women attending the bardt or mar- 
riage procession, and is addressed by way of chaff to any man, young or 
old, they may happen to meet. It is said that the use of such children's 
terms as be, mundiyd, and larkd to grown men is a severe hit. 

be, Panj. women's expression used to young children — Ah ! Oh you, O. 

chird, a fine turban of many colours. 

gule ndr 9 gulnar, pomegranate colour, is a favourite dye — see Leit- 
ner, Linguistic Fragments, Panj. Secretariat Press, 1882. 

kagliy hill dialect, the brush-like ornament used in turbans, an 
aigrette. It is a corruption of the Turki word kalghi. Kagli is used to 
mean also a reward of honour from the old practise of giving aigrettes as 
a military reward : in this sense too it is used ironically, thus ; tijju bari 
kagli lagi gayi ! (hill diaL) a fine reward you have got ; a fine thing you 
have made qi it. 

kanjar, kanjar, a mat- weaver ; in the Panj., however, the prostitute 
class (kanchan). Kanjri, Panj. a prostitute ; this sense is said to have 
arisen from the very loose character of the Kanjar women. 

1882.] B. C. Temple— &*» JZtit J« Folksong from the Panjab. 208 


B£bal mora re, naiyar chhu^a jae ; 
Char kabar mori ji, cloliya le-ao, re : 
Apna begana chhu(£ jae. 


Ah my father, I must leave my house ; 

Four bearers, dear, have brought my palanquin ; alas ! 

I must leave my friends and acquaintances. 


This song is sung when the bride leaves for her husband's house. 
Fallon New Hind. Diet. art. apnd quotes from the North-West Provinces 
this song in words almost identical with the above. He calls it the 
Departure Song or chdli kd git. 

Apna bigdna chhuta* jae ! 

Babal re, mora naiyar chhu{£ jae ! 

naiyar. Hind. poet, for naihar, the father's or parent's house, one's 

apnd begdnd, friends and acquaintances. See song No. 28. 


Bedardi sw&mi ne mujhko 

Phulchhariyon se mari, re : 
Cbhariyoft se mari na marungi ; 

Bolan se ati mara, re. 

My bard-hearted husband 

Beat me with flower-sticks, alas ! 
Beaten with flower-sticks I will not die ; 

(But) he beat me much with words, alas ! 


On the 4th day after the marriage it is the custom for the bride and 
bridegroom to fight a duel with light sticks covered with flowers. 

Pliulchhari, ehhari, a light stick covered with flowers used for the 
purpose of this duel. The duel is of course a sham one and has led to a 
proverb quoted by Fallon, New Hind. Diet. art. chharu Main ne is ke 
phul ki chhari bhi nahin mari, I never touched him at all. 

ati is pure Sansk. very much, much, = Hind, atka, atki. 

201 R. C. Temple— Some Hindi Folksongs from the Panjdb. [No. 3, 

Chacharuen ditto t&k, 

Ki maungnfai khub laryi ; 
Sube dyan laryan mari mirk, 

Keh y4r ghare bich baryi. 

The tick gave a bite, 

At the same time the bug bit well ; 

(So) Siiba's wife made a sign, 

So that her friend entered the house. 


In the Eangra District, when the bridegroom goes to claim his bride, 
it is nearly a universal custom for his bride's female relatives to sit him 
down to a dinner. They then sit round him and proceed to chaff him 
about his relatives. Among the rich nothing that is considered indecent 
is allowed ; among the poor the songs are so broad as to be untranslatable. 
The above and the three next songs are those sung on such occasions in. 
rich and well-to-do houses. 

Suba" is here merely a generic name and represents any relative of 
the bridegroom who may happen to be married. Any other name caa 
be inserted. 

The point of this song is that Sdb&'s wife makes the bites of the 
ticks and bugs which infest her person the excuse for letting her lover 
into the house. The song is valuable as expressing what the rich in 
Kangra consider inoffensive chaff, and as showing their excessively dirty 
personal habits. 

chacharuen : chacharu, hill dial., a tick, flea = Hind, and Panj. 
chichr&, chichri. en, nasalized inflect. See song No. 5. 

dittd, Panj. = diya, gave. 

fdk, hill dial., bite of flea or tick. 

fa, explained to mean in the hill dial. ' usst waktj at that very mo- 
ment.* I am inclined, however, to consider it is connected with or 
represents the Panj. conjunction Ice, or. 

maungnun, hill dial., a bug. 

Idrydn, hill dial., a wife, cf. Hind, and Panj. Ud, Idr, love, endear- 
ment : Hind, and Panj. Iddld, Iddli, darling, dear ; Hind., Udo, pet ; 
Panj. Iddu, love ; laduld, darling ; Iddo, favourite daughter ; Hind, and 
Panj. girl's name, Lddo : Panj. Idri, bride. 

mirk mdrndj to sign to, beckon, hill dial. 

bich, inside, into. See song No. 18. 

• [ki in this sense, "when," "just when," is a wellknown idiomatic expression 
in Hindi. Ed.] 

1882.] B. C. Temple— Some Hindu Folksongs from the Panjdb. 205 


Bagen gajar muli, 

Mera man bolda : 
Bamen dari nmnghan di gajuli, 

Mera man bolda. 

The carrot and radish of the garden 

My heart desires : 
Kama's wife, wanton from the beginning. 

My heart desires. 


This is the second of the four chaffy marriage songs. See song 
No. 88. 

bdgeu, Bdmen, good instances of the nasalized inflect. See songs 
38 and 5, etc. 

gajar mult is a common idiom to signify anything worthless ; hence 
the sting of this song. 

man boldd, idiom, lit., my heart speaks ; I desire, wish for, want. 

Bdmen, as Stiba in song 38, this is merely a generic name, any other 
would do. 

dart, hill dial., wife. Of. Hind., dara, a woman ; dari, slave-girl, 
concubine ; whence Hind, and Panj. daridar, a bastard. The Ludiana 
Fanj. Diet, says dirt is a female slave taken in war, but is used as a term 
of sportive abuse. Perhaps ' Kama's woman' would be the best rendering 


mvndhdn, Panj. tnundh, muddh, the beginning. Of. Panj. and Hind, 
mungy the head : Hind. mungh, mu44°, chief, head. 

mundhdn di, from the beginning. 

gajuli, hill dial, (lit., itching) wanton. 


Bamen diya*» lajiyan khada nimbwe da char. 
Pe(en tumb hoi. 

Kama's wife eats lime pickle, 
And has a feeling in her stomach. 


This is the third of the chaffy marriage songs. See song No. 88. It 
is a double entendre. 

206 B. 0. Temple— Some Hindu Iblksongs from the Panjdb [No. 8, 

Bdmen, pefen, nasalized inflect., see previous song. 
Idrfydn, wife. See song No. 88. 
char = dchdr or aehckdr, pickle. 
$umb, Panj. touch, feeling. 


Bupe dariyan 
Batte bich gallon kitiyan ; 

Sun, kitiyan, ji ! 
Dardye diyan katoriy&n pitiyan ; 

Sun, pitiyan, ji ! 

Bupa?s wife 

Sits by the roadside talking, 

Listen, talking, Sir ! 
Drinking cups of wine, 

Listen, drinking, Sir ! 

This is the last of the chaffy marriage songs. 8ee song No. 88. To 
tit by the roadside and to talk to the passers by is considered the height 
of impropriety in a woman (see song No. 18), and here it is added to by 
drinking wine. 

ddriydn, wife. See song No. 89. 

batte bich galldn kitiyan. See song No, 18, where almost the same 
expression occurs in the same sense. 

Home Custom*. 


Ajji main ne jand ho ap'ne des : 
Sundar kar'ke bhes, bank 4 kar'ke bhes. 
Nir'mnl jal, b&ri thand'ri pawan hai, 
Mukh'ra dekh'na bes. 
Ajji main ne jana ho ap'ne des. 

To-day I must go to my own country : 

Making myself handsome, making myself smart. 
(There) the water is pure, and the wind is cool, 
And the faces beautiful to look upon. 
To-day 1 must go to my own country. 

W* = *j> to-day. 
bdrt, also, moreover. See song No. 7. 

1882.] R. C. Temple— Some Hindu Volkeongn from the Panjdb. 207 

fhand'rt = (han^i, cold. The insertion of r and r in such words 

is not uncommon. See song Nos. 44, 45. 
bes, (a curious word) the best. Fallon, New Hind. Diet, has 
Mr, adj., better, more excellent. 


" Ni kurye*, ja tu» sauh'ria* ping !" 

" Diingi khui te ghara nahin khich'da." 
"Lai, lai hath wich ting • 
Ni kury£, ja sauh'rian de pind !" 

"My daughter, go you to your husband's village !" 

" The well is deep and the water-pot does not draw." 
" Take a small water-pot in your hand ! 
My daughter, go to your husband's village !" 


This song is a hit at the hard work, young wives are made to do in 
their husband's houses, and their unwillingness to leave their own homes. 

ft*, vocative exclamation used towards women. Fanj. 

Jcuri, Panj., a virgin ; but used by parents to their daughters, 
married or unmarried. 

sauh'rian pind, sauh'rd, father-in-law, sauh'ridn, Panj. parents-in- 

pind, Panj. a village. Sauh'rian. de pind, Panj. parents-in-law's 
village = husband's home. 

te = ate, Panj. and. 

ghard, find ; ghard, the ordinary earthen pot for water ; find, Panj. 
the small earthen water-pot used with a Persian-wheel in wells ; here obvi- 
ously used for the dim. ofghard. 

wich = pick = bich ; inside, in. See song No. 18. 

khich'da = khainch'ta, draws. Gf. uchiaa, next song. 


Gharyan, be tu* chhail lohara, 

U'chia* $an$i&n diura, be. 
Diuri bal'san sammak-rati, 
Xt'r» ghol'safl bariya parati : 

Main ghar bir prahunao, be. 

208 R. C. Temple— Some Hindu Folksongs from the Punjab. [No. 3, 

Bh'ro, bh'ro, be ga<JVd, thang'ren panien ; 

Bir dharydyd ghar gayd, be. 
Khdydn, be bird, bare bare g'rdhen, 

Sas'ri dwasi karkasa, be. 
Awasirt, dwasin, merd kyd kar'sin P 

Ik ghari pal pdhundn, be. 

Forge me, oh thou good blacksmith, 

A lamp with a tall stem, O. 
I will burn the lamp all night, 
And I will mix flour on a large plate ; 

I entertain my brother in my house, O. 
Fill, fill, O cup, with cold water ; 

My brother goes thirsty to the house, O. 
Eat, O brother, large mouthfuls, 

Mother-in-law will come scolding, O. 
She will come, she will come : what will she do to me ? 

I am only entertained an hour, O. 


The nasalized inflect, so often above noted is very strongly marked 
here. Qharydn and Jchdydn are imperatives ; again in uchidn dandidn we 
have the fern, form of it, and in fhand'ren jpdnien the masc. form. See song 
No. 47. 

uchd = unchd, tall. Cf. songs Nos. 31, 45, 50, 47,43. 

dandi, the beam of a pair of scales : the stem of the tall kind of 
Indian brass lamp. 

diufd = dturd = did, a lamp. 

bdVsdn, ghoVsdn ; f ut. forms masc. : dwasxw, dwasi, kar'stn ; fat. forms 
masc. Of. song Nos. 15, 21, 23. 

sammak-rdti, Panj., all night, saw male, all, the whole, is only found 
in this phrase : (P) connected with sab, sabh, all.* 

dfrd = &\& : thandWen = than<Je : prdhundn = pdhundn. All in- 
stances of the insertion of r and r. See song No. 42. 

prdhundn, pdhundn, to entertain : pdhu, a guest. 

Ih'ro, bh'ro = bharo, bharo ; fill, fill. 

gad'wd, Panj., a small brass drinking vessel (lo^d). 

dharydyd, hill dial., thirsty. Of. Panj. tie, tih and treh, thirst •' 
1ihai, thirst and tih did, thirsty. (?) dharydyd = trehdid, thirsty. 

g'rdhen, mouthfuls : gardh or gards, a handful of food as eaten by the 
hand, a mouthful. 

[• It is a scmitatsama word, for Sanskrit satnyak. Ed.] 

1882.] R. C. Temple— Some Hindu Folksongs from the Panjdb. 209 


" Ghar ghar d'rekan phuliyan ; 
Tinhan d'rekan di thancj'ri chhaun, 

Bo bhiiya, lai-chal." 
" A gen seb naoViyan <jlughiyan : 
Tun tan rab ap'niy&n sasstf. den pas, 

Bo bbainen, rab gbar. 
Agen seb kutte bbaunk'de ; 
Tan rab ap'niyan sassu den kol, 

Bo bbainen, rab gbar." 
" Kuttyan jo panghi churi, 

Bo bbaiya, lai-chal. 
Lai-chal amman den pas, 

Bo bbaiya, lai-cbal. 

* (Wbere) tbe lilacs flower at every bouse ; 
(Where) tbe shade of the lilacs is cool, 

O brother, take me." 
" In front the rivers are deep : 
Do you then remain with your mother-in-law ; 

O sister, remain at home. 
" In front the dogs bark ; 
Remain with your mother-in-law ; 

sister, remain at home." 
" I will throw cakes to the dogs ; 

O brother, take me. 
Take me to my mother : 

O brother, take me. 


(Trek = bakayan ; the Persian lilac, melia composita. It is almost 
the shadiest tree in India, better even than the nim, its relative. It is also 
related to the tun and the mahogany. It bears large bunches of lilac 
flowers, and may be seen along the roadsides in several Panjab districts. 
Fallon, New Hind. Diet, wrongly calls it the oleander (see art. ^H&) the 
proper name for which is kaner or kanail and the scientific name nerium 
odorum. Fallon by tbe way (&rt. j#S) renders kaner, too, by oleander. 

tinhdn, Panj., those, they, the. 

fhand'rt; see song Nob. 42, 44. 

chh&un, Fanj. = Sansk. and Hind, chhaya, shade. 

seh, he, she, it, that, the. See song No. 19. 


210 R. C. Temple— Some Hindu Folksong* from the Panjab. [No. 8, 

bhainen, en is a curious inflect, here, as bahin is fern., see song No. 44. 
bhainon for bahino, occurs in song No. 47, q. v. 
kuttydn jo t jo = ko, to. See song No. 5. 
panghi fut. form of pani, to throw. See songs Nos. 23, 25. 
den = de, of, Panj. ; see song No. 21. den pas = ke pas : den. 
Icol = de kol, Panj., = ke pas, Hind. 


Dhuron Lahoron nimbu aja, £i-bf ky£ bajar ; 

Merya ras'li& nimbua mulen liyd. 
Laikar paisa, hat&n jo daury& nimbu ande char ; 

Merya ras'li& nimbua mulen liya. 
Laikar p'rdt'ri chiran bai^hi, {uk're kite char ; 

Merja ras'li& nimbua mulen liya. 
Laikar nimbu chhamke pay&, musak gayi bajar ; 

Merya ras'lia nimbua mulen liya. 
Laikar nandan bhai aikha-liya, ' bhabo ka^4 n buhe baVr ; 

Merya ras'lia nimbua mulen liyi. 
Laikar sotha maran lagyd, ; bhabo nun kaddhya bah'r ; 

Merya ras'li& nimbu& mulen liya. 
Laikar i\& gundhan bai^ha, kar-ditta pan's&r. 

Merya ras'lia nimbua mulen liya. 
Kojben charhi kari hakkan maryan, ' &-j& ghar di nar* ; 

Merya ras'lia nimbu& mulen liya". 
Laikar kar'chhi aggi jo daurya : lokan ditti phafk&r ; 

Merya ras'liA nimbua mulen liya 1 . 

From far Lahor limes came and were sold in the bazaar ; 

I bought juicy limes. 
Taking money I ran to the shops and bought four limes : 

I bought juicy limes. 
Taking a knife I sat down to peal them ; I cut them in four ; 

I bought juicy limes, 
Taking the limes I made a relish (with them) ; the smell reached the 

I bought juicy limes. 
Taking him my husband's sister taught her brother, ' Turn my bro- 
ther's wife out of the house. 9 

I bought juicy limes. 
Taking a stick he began to beat me : he turned the brother's wife out. 
I bought juicy limes* 

1882.] R. C. Temple— Some Hindu Folksongs from the Panjdb. 211 

Taking flour he sat down to knead, and he made it watery. 

I bought juicy limes. 
Getting on to the roof he shouted out, ' oome, my house- wife.' 

I bought juicy limes. 
Taking the ladle he ran to the fire : the people cried shame ; 

I bought juicy limes. 


dhuron Ldhoron, Pan], inflect, from & for, from Labor. 

di-bikyd, di conj. part. ; see songs Nos. 32, 23. 

ras'lia = rasila, juicy. 

mulen liyd> common hill phrase, bought, mulen, inflected nasally 
from Panj. mull or mul, price (= Hind. mdl). 

dnde, Panj. form of ate = lit. came. Here used idiomatically for ' to 
get.' See song No. 56. 

hafdn jo = ha^on ko, to the shops. 

p'rdfri, in the hill dialect, a paring knife or instrument, pardti and 
pardt is a large dish usually, and Panj. pardfrd is a wooden kneading 
trough. See song No. 44. This word p'rdfrt is a curious one. 

chtr'nd, to peal = Hind. chhtPnd. 

chhamk'nd, Panj. = Hind, chhaunk'nd, to fry spices in butter. Hind. 
bagkdr'nd, = Panj. tur'kh'nd, means to pour hot butter on to spices. All 
these words have the sense of to season. The seasoning here referred to, 
called in Panj. neurd, is thus made. Chillis or spices are mixed with oil 
or gh% and fried till the mixture burns, slices of lime are then thrown in. 
While cooking the smell is so pungent as to make all near it cough and 
sneeze, and so penetrating as to make the neighbours unpleasantly aware of 
what is going on. 

musak = mushk, smell, odour. 

kaddh buhe bdh'r, cast her beyond the threshold ; Panj. kaddh'nd, 
Panj. to cast, throw, buhd, Panj. threshold. bdhW = bahir, outside, 

nun, Panj. (= ko) to. 

pan'sdr, watery, thin. (?) Fdnt, water, (in Panj. in composition, pan) 
+ Bar, all. 

kofhd (kofhen, masc. nasal, inflect, see above, passim) the upper story 
(bdld khdna) of a house, the roof. 

hakkda mar'nd, hill dial., to shout out, call out. 

kafchht = kar'chhi, a brass ladle. 

aggi jo = ag ko, to the fire, jo, see song No. 5. 

lokdn = logon (log), people, (they). 

phafkdr, blame ; usually a curse, malediction, phafkdr dend, to cry 
fie or shame on, to blame. 

212 R. C. Temple— Some Hindu Folksongs from the Panjdb. [No. 3, 


Bhainon ! sis gayi Labor : main gbar thamy&n, bhainon ! 
Bhainon ! pahil& hath pay£ kothi &\e di, bhainon ! 
D&yi hath pay 4 kiipd ghfue da, bhainon ! 
Tija hath paja chd^a gure da, bhainon ! 
Bhainon ! pahil& pura bahyd, billian chhikkyA, bhainon ! 
Bhainon ! duy4 pura b&hya, pares'ni puchhy&, bhainon ! 
Bhainon ! tri& pur& bahyd, sas ai-rahi, bhainon ! 
Tawe heth lukay&, rotf pakawani, bhainon ! 


jhun^e hefh lukayd, matha {ek'n&n, bhainon ! 

pirhiya hefh lukayd, pirhi sas di, bhainon ! 

ne*i kune satyd, chuha bhur'ky&j bhainon ! 

nei larhia satya, sihi tapy&, bhainon ! 

soh'ren pak'ri dang, jethen mung'ri, bhainon ! 

soh're di bhaji-gai jangh, jejhe di ung'lf, bhainon ! 

unhan jo pai-gai ap'ni, main piira chhaki-li&, bhainon ! 

Sisters, mother-in-law went to L&hor : I had charge of the house, sisters ! 
Sisters, first my hand found the fiour-binn, sisters ! 
Secondly my hand found the ghi-bag, sisters ! 
Thirdly my hand found the sugar-pot, sisters ! 
Sisters, I baked the first sweet-cake and the cat sneezed, sisters ! 
Sisters, the second sweet-cake I baked and the neighbour asked ques- 
tions, sisters ! 

Sisters, the third sweet-cake I baked and mother-in-law came, sisters ! 
I hid it under the baking-pan, baking bread, sisters ! 
Sisters, I hid it under my veil, making my obeisance, sisters ! 
Sisters, I hid it under the chair, mother-in-law's chair, sisters ! 
Sisters, taking it I threw it into a corner and a rat snatched at it, 
sisters ! 

Sisters, taking it I threw it into the home-field, a tiger leapt across 
sisters ! 

Sisters, father-in-law seized a stick, brother-in-law a mallet, sisters ! 
Sisters, father-in-law's thigh was broken and brother-in-law's finger, 
sisters ! 

Sisters, each of them got his own (troubles), I eat the cake, sisters ! 


Bhainon, see song No. 45. 

kofhiy (cf. kofhd, in previous song) an inner (or upper) room in 
native houses used as a storeroom j larder, granary, store-room. 

1882.] R. C. Temple— Some Hindu Folksongs from the Panjdb. 213 

kupd ghiue dd, the leathern ghi vessel, ghyo, ghtu, jheu, Panj. =ghi ; 
see song No. 5. Kupd, kupd, kuppd, the large leathern vessel used for 
keeping ghi. 

chdfd, the vessel for receiving the juice of the sugarcane as it comes 
from the milL chdfd gure dd the molasses pot. For an accurate descrip- 
tion of gur and the native processes of sugar-making, see Carnegy's 
Kaehahri Technicalities, art. ukh. 

purd hdhyd : I put the cakes to bake : I put it on the fire. ro\\ 
bdh'nd, to put bread on to the fire, is a common expression ; lit., to make 
the bread expand. This sense of bdh'nd seems to have escaped the Diets. 
The purd is a sweet cake made of ghi, gur and flour. 

chhikkyd: chhikk'nd, Panj., = Hind. chhink f nd t to sneeze. Of. 
pakhi = pankhi, song No. 81. And cjughi = <Jungh&, song No. 45 ; 
uch& = unch£, song No. 44. The sneezing of a cat (or in fact any sneez- 
ing) is considered a bad omen in India. Cf. song No. 50. 

pares 1 ni = parosan, a female neighbour : my neighbour became inqui- 

taxed, Hind., an iron plate for baking bread, a griddle. Fallon. 
jhundd (Panj. jhund, Hind., chddar), a cloth worn by women over 
their heads and faces to conceal them. 

maihd (ek'ndn, lit., I struck my forehead ; I prostrated myself. The 
K&ngr& custom is for young wives or the girls of a family to prostrate 
themselves and touch the feet of any old female relative on seeing her for 
the first time in the day. The mother is excepted. 

pirhiyd, pirhi ; a low stool with a high straight back used by native 

net (conj. part., see song Nos. 23, 32) from Panj. nend (= lend, Hind. 
n for I), to take. 

satyd; sat'nd, hill dial., to throw. 

bhufkhuu (lit. jumped, leapt), used of a rat or mouse, to scratch, pull 
at, make a noise. 

Idrhi, Idri, lah f ri, Idrhid, hill dial,, the field adjoining the house, the 
home-paddock, the compound. 

mung'ri, hill dial., a small wooden mallet used for patting earth. 
bhafnd, Panj., to be broken. Of. Hind, bhich'nd, to be crushed 
Sansk. root, prich. 

unhdnjo, to them, vide supra. 

pat-gat, had befallen. On them their own (troubles) had fallen. 
poind Panj. = Hind. par'n&, see songs Nos. 21, 26. 

chhaki, conj. part, (see net, above), from chhak'n&, Panj., to eat. 
billidn chhikkyd and soh'ren pak'ri. These are good examples of the 
nasal inflect, so frequently noted above. Here in both cases used for the 

214 R. C. Temple— -Some Hindu Folksong* from the Punjab [No. 3, 

agent with ne ; tdn, fern, and en, masc. This is very common in the hills. 
E. g., as familiar examples, ghoridu khat liyd> the mare eat it : ghofen khai 
liyd, the horse eat it* See song Nos. 44, etc. 


Jhul, jhul, meriye pakhiye ; lap lap kar'de nag : 

Bir biydh'na" chalya mundhen sab'j kuman : 

Bir biyaha" ayd ai-baifbd thandhe big. 

Bal mild, saheliyo : bh&bo dekhan jdn&n, 

Bhabo da ki dekh'na ? Sawwal'ri mufydr ! 

Bhaiyd sa<Jd hai garib'nan : bhabo hai chak-chal ! 


Move in and out, my fan, as the snake turns and twists : 

My brother has gone to his wedding with his green bow on his shoul- 

My brother has returned married, and sits in a cool garden. 

Come together, maids, — to go and see our sister-in-law. 

What is there to see in our sister-in-law P She is nut-brown and full 
grown ! 

Our brother is meek : our sister-in-law is tricky. 


pakhiye, paJchi, = pankhi, a small fan. See song No. 31. 

lap lap kar'nd, to twist in and out, to wriggle along : hill dial.' Of. 
Panj., laphy a wave, surge, billow ; Hind., lap jhap chdl, a rapid awkward 
gait ; Up'na, to bend as a cane. 

tnundhen sab'j human : green bow on shoulder, fully armed or dressed. 
Mundhen, nasal inflect., on the shoulder. In the old days in Kdngrd, the 
carrying of a green bow was the sign of being fully got-up for a holiday 
occasion. Green is the usual colour for luck in India. 

mutydr, Panj., a fully developed girl: grown-up girl: a girl of the 
age of puberty. Also = mofd, fat, stout. 

8ddd y Panj. =* asddd, our. 

chak-chdl, hill dial., clever, sharp, tricky. Of. Hind, chik'na, oily ; 
chik'ni-chup'ri bat, oily speech, flattery : chak'nia, a trick. 


" Ni budhye, buhe de wich hai chuh'rd ; 
Tin sift-de ghar d& kura ; 
Turte lai jdwe." 

1882.] R. C. Temple— Some Hindu Folksongs from the Panjdb. 213 

Bhabi nun akhia, « jhab'ke kura ka<J4h sitf 

" Munde nun rotf khulawe : ' 
Mur'ke lai jawe." 

" Grandmother, the sweeper is at the doorway ; 
Then throw him the ho use- rubbish, 

That he may quickly take it away." 
Then he said to his sister-in-law, " throw him the rubbish at once." 

" I am giving the boy bread ; 

Let him come again and take it." 


Moral, it never gets done at all. 
buhe, Pan]., threshold ; see song No. 46. 
wick = vich = bich, inside, Panj. See song No. 18* 
chuh'rd, Panj., a sweeper. 
sitfnd, Panj., throw away : cast away. 

katfdh tift, Panj., emphatic, both verbs meaning to throw. See song 
No. 46. 

mufke, Panj., returning. 


Tun tan dede, be faqira, 

Mainun achhi, be, dawai. 
Tun tan dede, be liakima, 

Mainun achhi, be, dawai. 
Jih'te jhaf'pat akhan bich 

Dedewe dikhai. 

Do you then, faqir, give 

Me good medicine, O. 
Do you then, O doctor, give 

Me good medicine O. 
From which quickly in my eyes 

Sight may be given. 


mainun, Panj., = main nun, to me. 

jth'te = jis'se, from which : te = to =* ton, Panj., = wand te 9 Hind., 
from, with. 

dkhdn =*= ankban, eyes ; see song Nob. 44, 45, 3 J, 47, 5G for the 
omission of this n. 

£ £ 

216 R. C. Temple— Some Hindu Folksongs from the Panjdb [No. 3, 



Mer& kbinun nahin mil'd&, we ! 

Main kithe ja dhurujlangi ? 
Kujh bas nahin aundi : 

Main kithe jd sungb&ngi ? 

My ball I cannot find, ! 

Where shall I go and search ? 
No smell comes from it : 

Where shall 1 go and smell ? 


khinun, khinnu, khiddu, khiddo, Panj., a small ball or plaything : 
a child's bouncing ball. 
we = be, O ! 
kithe ? Panj., lit., in what place ? where ? 


A, re koko ; ja", re koko ! 

Jangal pakke be> : 
(Mera bibi sone m&ng'ta ;) 

Dam'ri ke do ser. 

Come, O crow ; go, O crow ! 

The wild-plums are ripe in the jangal : 
(My baby wants to sleep ;) 

Two sers for a pie. 


This and the next three songs are sung by my ayahs, Panjabis, to 
my son aged about a year, to send him to sleep. They seem to be standard 
songs for English babies, but I do not know for certain if they are sung 
by the women to their own children. 

koko ; a crow, child's bugbear : bugaboo. 

her, the wild-plum : Zyziphus jujuba. 

bibi, a little baby, applied to any European baby, male (as here) or 
female : .probably it is a corruption of the English word ' baby.' 

dam'ri, a pie : a nominal coin : for nothing, for a song. 


1882] R. G. Temple— Some Hindu Folksongs from the Punjab. 217 


Nindi, nindi, bibi ! 
Rotf, ma khan, chini ! 

Sleep, sleep, baby ! 
Bread, butter and sugar ! 


Tins is a song in English nurseries. See song No. 52. 

nindi = nind, sleep. Nindi is the usual form of the word in nurse- 
ries. 12. g. Nindi karo, go to sleep, is a very common expression by 
ayahs towards very young children. 

bibi, baby. See song No. 52. 


Mer& bibi sot&, 
Bil&ti pankh£ chal'ta hai : 

Mera bibi sota, 
'Arab ka p&ni pita hai : 

My baby sleeps, 
The thermantidote is working : 

My baby sleeps, 
And drinks pore water. 



An English nursery song. See song No. 52. 

bibi f baby. See song No. 52. 

Bildti pankhd = Vilayati pankha or English pankha, which is the 
ordinary Hind, and Fanj. term among the servants of the English for the 

9 Arab ha pdni, this is a puzzle. It has been explained to mean, 
'sweet water' or ' pure water.' In Arabic 'arab and 9 arib are used to 
mean * much pure water,' or as verbs, * having much water' (of wells, rivers, 
etc.) This may account for this expression, but the derivation seems 
doubtful. Perhaps the expression should bo adrak kdpdni, ginger water 
or gingerade. 

218 E. C. Temple— Some Hindu Folksongs from the Panjdb. [No. 3, 


Alang-palang kd paTrui, 
Resham lagi dori ; 
Kabul se mughalani 61 
Khari jhulave paTna ; 
Nindi, nindi, bibi ! 
Nindi, nindi, karo. 

A swing-cradle for your bed, 
Hung with silken ropes ; 
The nurse has come from K&bul 
To make the cradle swing : 
Sleep, sleep, my baby, 
Sleep, sleep. 


This is the last of the English nursery lullabies. See song No. 52. 

pdVnd and palan, a swing-cradle, cradle. 

Idgi = lagi, fastened. 

mughalani, properly a female Mughal (Moghul) : used for an atten- 
dant in the women's apartments in Musalmau houses j a maid, house* 
maid, maid-servant, nurse. 

nindi. See song No. 52. 

fobi. See song No. 52. 


Hun min'jo kihan mil'ne P 
Oaddien anda air, 
Pattar pattar bak'riyaa kliai-ide, 
Bhafnaulya» khah'de bair. 

Hun eh nahin phul'ne. 

Kuni jina ? kuni mar'na ? 
Eh kamm phiri kuni kar'na ? 

Hun min'jo kih&ft mil'ne ? 

Barhi bhar phiri kuni bas'na ? 

Kus mitre kane has'na ? 
Hun eh nahin phul'ne. 

How shall I get them now '? 

The shepherd's flock has come 

And the goats have eaten all the leaves, 

And the squirrels have eaten the wild-plums. 


1682.] B. C. Temple— Some Hindu Folksongs from the Panjdb. 219 

This (tree) will not flower now. 
Who will live ? who will die ? 
Who will do this again ? 

How shall I get them now P 

Who will live again a whole year ? 

With what friend shall I laugh (and play) ? 
This (tree) will not flower now. 


The tenor of this song is rather elevated for small children ; it is, 
however, very popular. The child is supposed to arrive at a favourite her 
tree (wild plum, Zyziphus jujuba), and finds that all the fruit and leaves 
have been destroyed by goats and squirrels. 

Awn, Panj., now. 

tninjo, hill dialect, to me ; = main + jo. See song No. 6. 

kihdn ? Panj.; how p See song No. 23. 

Gaddien, en dialect, inflect. See song No. 5, etc. The Gaddis are a 
caste of Hindu shepherds in Kangra and Chamba. 

andd = ata, comes. Of. song No. 46. 

air, if, Panj., a flock (sheep, goats, etc.) 

bhafnauli, hill dial., a squirrel. (Hind. gilaVrt) ; but I rather doubt 

khah'de = khae, eat. 

hunt? hill dial., who ? kus? (= kis) inflect, form of the above. Cf. 
songs Nos. 23,27,31. 

kamm, Panj., = kam in all its senses. 

barht bhar, a full year : barhi, a year. See song No. 

hai'nd, for hans'ni, to laugh. Of, songs Nos. 81, 44, 45 and 47. 



" Chal ; Chambe chakari jana, miyan ; 
Ghal ; Chambe chakari jana, miyan." 
" Aukhi re ghatf, bikh'ra re pain<Ja ; 
Aukhi re ghatf, bikh'ra re painola : 
Godi men balak jana, miyan ; 
Godi men balak yana, miyan." 
" Chal ; Chambe chakari jana, miyan ; 
Chal Chambe chakari." 


220 R. C. Temple— Some Hindu Folksong* from the Panjab. [No. 3, 

" Come and take service in Cbamba, friend ; 
Come and take service in Chamba, friend." 
" That difficult pass, that difficult patb ; 
That difficult pass, that difficult patb : 
A joung child in my arms, friend ; 
A young child in my arms, friend." 
" Come and take service in Chamba, friend ; 
Come to service in Chamba. 


This is one of the songs of the Gacldis or Hindu shepherds of the 
Kangra mountains (see song No. 56). Service under the Cbamba Raja is 
looked on as very remunerative in Kangrd, because, though the pay is 
insignificant, the room for exaction is unlimited. The mountains, however, 
into Chamba from Kangra are very high and difficult. 

Fallon. New Hind. Diet, art. ^^ quotes a ' hymn' in almost the 
exact words of this song. 

Augha{ ghaji, mushkil paindi, godi men balak yana. 
So the above song may be an adaptation from some well known hymn. 

biJch'ra, Panj., difficult, impracticable. 

re y exclamation used towards something bad. Cf. re koko, O that 
crow ! Song No. 52. 


Gadetfye bo, ghasutari kh&n& jan&, bo ! 
Gadejiye bo, ghasutari kh&n& j&na, bo ! 

Gaddi terd aj marhe bich nahinon ; 
Chite bich sukh kiban pand, bo ? 

shepherdess, come and have a slide ! 
O shepherdess, O come and have a slide. 

Thy shepherd to-day is not at home ; 
O how will happiness be in thy heart ? 


This is another song of the Gaddis (see song No. 56). A slide down 
the sides of the snow-clad mountains is a common amusement. This is a 
woman's song. 

Qadefi, a Gaddi women, a Gaddi's daughter ; shepherdess. Ify »', hill 
dial., is a common termination to signify the daughter or woman of a tribe 
or caste. Cf. Khatrefi, a Khatri woman ; Brahmanefj, a Brahman woman ; 
Chamareft, a Chammar woman ; etc. 

bo } O, See song No. 18, etc. 

1882.] R. C. Temple— Some Rindu Folksongs from the Panjdb. 221 

ghatxUari, hill dial., a slide in the snow : a slide down the snow-clad 
mountain side : toboganing. Qhasutari khan 6, to slide, to have a slide. 

Qaddi terd, lit., thy Gaddi, thy shepherd: among the Qaddis it is 
used for husband, but not for any other male relative. Qaddi terd, thy 
husband : Gaddi merd, my husband. 

marhe ; Panj., marh, marhi, a Hindu tomb or monument: hill dial., 
a monument or temple on a hill top : among the Qaddis a house, a hill- 
side hut. 

hick, in : see song No. 18. 

kihdn ? Panj., how ? see song No. 23.* 


Ban Anjaniyan den melen, bo, bhandoru laryd : 

Bhandoru larya, bo, bhandoru larya. 
Xkhen Anjaniy&» den melen, bo, bhandoru larya ! 
Log sare mele de jharan bich ghus're, bo : 
Gusain tithu da ghare bich bary&, 

Bich barya. 
Muiye, Anjaniyan den melen, bo bhandoru laryd. 

Indeed the bees stung at Anjana's fair, O : 

The bees stung, O the bees stung. 
Verily the bees stung at Anjana's fair, O ! 
All the people at the fair rushed into the jungles, O : 
The priest of the place ran into his house, 

Into his house. 
My dear, the bees stung at Anjana's fair, O. 


The monkey god Hanuman was the son of Anjana, wife of Kesari, 
a monkey, by Vayu or Pavana, the Wind ; whence his metronymic 
Anjaneya. At Gurk'ri, four miles from Kangra town, there is a temple to 
Anjana, and a fair is held there in her honour in October. The story 
goes that many years ago a man at the fair accidentally disturbed a bees' 
nest, and the bees dashed out and stung all the people, who ran into the 
thick jungles in the neighbourhood. 

hart, indeed, verily. See song No. 7. 

den, of : see song No. 21. 

bhandoru, a bee ; hill dial. 

* The cm in the word nahiwon in the above song I have explained at p. 157 (0 as 
an intensive termination. The word should, however, be perhaps explained as nuhm 
on — nahin o — nahfo hai, is not, where on (o) — hai. See footnote to p. 161. 

222 It. C. Temple— &>ro* Hindu Folksongs from the Panjdb. [No. 3, 

dkhen, hill dial., indeed, verily : (?) connected with Pan], akh'na, to 
say, tell. 

bich, into, in. See song No. 18. 

tithu, hill dial., there. So also hithu, here ; kithi t where P jithi f 
when : and so on. Of. Panj. tithe, there, and tithon, thence ; and so on. 

rnutye, my dear. See song No. 82. 


A saw, bo, je sunyd khinnuen pattan par ayi : 
Ditti, bo, majuri khinnuen par langhayd. 
Khinnuen di ram-jham lain chirebalia : 
Khinnuen di ram-jham ! 


Bag'di bag'di Rai bioh, pani hin main kura. 
Hath mat landa be ! Murak janda chura. 
Khinnuen di ram-jham ldin chirebalia : 
Khinnuen di ram-jham ! 

Bag'di bag 1 di Rai bich pani ban bhamiriyan : 
Mulak ujarya Bhaunen diyan jhiriyan. 

Khinnuen di ram-jham lain chirebaliA : 
Khinnuen di ram-jham ! 

Bag'di bag'di Rai jit pani ban bhuariyan : 
Des bigarya Bhaunen diyan kumhariyan. 
Khinnuen di ram-jham Uin chirebalia : 
Khinnuen di ram-jham I 

Sar'kin sar'kin jana, hathen kawwe di, be, s6\hi : 
Pichhen muri dekh ! Teri ndr, bo, kharoti ! 
Khinnuen di ram-jham lain chirebalid : 
Khinnuen di ram-jham ! 

0, when I heard that bouncing balls were at the ferry : 
O, I paid the fare and had a bouncing ball brought across. 
A gaily-turbaned man brought the bouncing ball : 
The bouncing ball ! 

I am throwing rubbish into the rolling Ravi. 
don't take my hand ! my bracelets break. 

A gaily-turbaned man brought the bouncing ball : 
The bouncing ball I 

18S2.] R C. Temple— Some Wn,U Follctong* from the Panjdb. 223 

I am throwing twirly-whirlies into the rolling Ravi : 
The water-carrying girls of Bhaun have ruined the country. 
A gaily-turbaned man brought the bouncing ball : 
The bouncing ball ! 

T am throwing the brooms into the rolling Ravi : 
The potter- women of Bhaun have ruined the country. 
A gaily-turbaned man brought the bouncing ball : 
The bouncing ball ! 

O, you walk the roads with kawiodstick in hand : 
Turn and look back ! O your wife is standing (there) ! 
A gaily-turbaned man brought the bouncing ball : 
The bouncing ball ! 


This song is very popular among young marrfed women, and exhibits 
the peculiar habit many of them have of playing with children's bouncing- 
balls (khinnun, see song No. 51). They try and see how often they 
can bounce them up and down without a fault. 

Bhaun is the city part of the town of Kangrd, and Rai stands for 
R&vi, which, however, does not flow past Kangra, but on the other side 
of the Dhaula Dhar or Outer Himalayan Range. 

The first things a native wants in a new place are water and a 
ghard. These at Kangra are supplied by the jhiru and the kunhdris 
who hawk them about to strangers. They are of notoriously loose char- 
acter, hence the allusion in the song. 

Asdn, bo,je sunyd : cf. song No. 32 : when I heard. Je =jo 9 when : 
usually it means if, in Panj. 

majurij vulgar for majdurf = mazduri, a labourer's pay. I have heard 
majur'ni used for a female cooly in the Panj. Courts. 

langhdyd ; Panj. langhdund, causal of langh'nd, to pass over : to got 
brought over : to fetch over. 

ram-jham, hill dial., the bouncing up and down of a ball. Of Hind. 
rimy him, the patter of rain. 

chirebdlid for chirewalii = chirew&ld, lit., he of the checkered turban 
(chird, see song No. 35) : a man with a turban of many colours : wdlid 
for wala is a common Panj. form seen in many family names, e, g., A'hlu- 
walia. Chirewdld has also an idiomatic sense of medical practitioner. 

pant hdn } I have thrown ; pdnd 9 to throw ; cf songs Nos. 23, 25, 45, etc. 

bhamiri {cf. Hind, bhambiri, a butterfly), the common Indian toy 
consisting of a small stick with paper fixed round the top so as to whirl 
quickly in the wind : a twirly-whirly. 
F F 

224 R. C. Temple— Some Hindu Folksongs from the Panjdb. [No. 3, 

khinnuen, Bhaunen, pichhen ; for the termination en, of. songs Nos. 

47, etc. 

jhiri fem. of jhtr, hill dial., = Panj. jhinwar (Hind. Jcahdr) the 
carrier caste : in the hills the water-carriers (bhishti). The women of 
this caste are very loose in character. 

jit, in which. See song No. 25. 

bhudri for buhdrt, a broom. 

tafkin : in, apparently another form of en ; see songs Nos. 47, etc. 

kawwd, (Hind, dk or dkh) hill, dial , the large swallow-wort : eaocha* 
rum qfficinarum. 

muri, having turned : for the term i see song No. 23. 

kharoti(= khaloti) standing still. 



Sarang phariya sarang nun. 

Jo sarang boliya ae, 
Je sarang akhe sarang nun 

Tan sarang mukh te jae. 

The peacock caught a snake. 

When the thunder rolls, 
If the peacock makes his cry 

Then the snake slips from his mouth. 


The above is a play on the several meanings of the word sarang ; viz., 
(1) a peacock, (2) a snake, (3) thunder, (4) the peacock's cry: sarang also 
means (5) a musical measure or rag sung at midday, (6) a cloud, (7) a frog. 

Fallon, New Rind. Diet., quotes the Hindi version of this song ; 
art. «J^;L». 


Bak'ri bolf , " main ! main ! main ! main !" 

" Main u men man jae. 
Maind boli, " main na ! main na !" 

Baithi shakar khae. 


The goat says, " I ! I ! I ! I !" 

And in saying " I !" is killed. 
The maind says " I am nothing ! I am nothing !" 

And sitting (at ease) is fed with sugar. 

1882.] B. C. Temple— Some Hindu Folksong from the Panjdb. 225 


Here we have a play upon the word " main" and the bleating of a 

goat at the shambles : and also a play upon the words " mains?' and 

" main na". The catch has a moral to it, " the proud man has a fall and 

the humble gets good things." 


Rukhe par Gaddi charhyA : 

Sun, charhya, ji ! 

Pakka daru rafya : 

Sun, rarya, ji ! 

The shepherd climbed into the tree *. 

Listen, sir, he climbed ! 

The ripe pomegranate fell : 

Listen, sir, it fell* 

rukhe, Pan], rukkh, rukkh'rd, a tree. 
Ghddi, see song No. 56, etc. 

ddru, hill dial., a pomegranate. Cf. Hind, darimi, 4&rim : Sansk. 
4£lima and dd<Jima. 

raryd, hill dial., to fall (of fruit). 


Meri sundar pyari &i mandar men ; 

Hans hans kar'ti hai, be, khili. 
" K&bul ki larai, ydro, sun'kar, mujh'ko 

Ho, be, rahi thi bekali. 

Kabul m&r'ke kab'je men 14e 

Jiti nahin hai Hir&t gall." 

My pretty dear came into the house ; 

Laughing she is, oh, bursting with laughter. 
" I have heard about the Kabul war, my friend, 

And oh I have remained ill at ease. 
K&bul we have conquered and taken into our possession, 

But have not conquered the road to Hirat. 

Very popular all over the Panjab during the late Kabul war. 
khili, bursting with laughter. 

bekali: kal hond, to be at ease ; bekal hond, to be ill at ease, to be 
Out of joint. » 

gali t a pass, road. 


220 P. N. Bose — Note on some earthen pots. [No. 3, 

Note on some earthen pots found in the alluvium at Makes vara (Mdhesar), 
— By P. N. Bose, b. Sc, f. g. s., Geological Survey of India. 

(With two Plates.) 

Mahesvara is the capital of the southern portion of Hoik a r' 3 territory 
known as the Subha of Nimar, and is situated on the Narmada some 40 
miles south of Indore. Modern Mahesvara rose into importance during 
the reign of Ahalya Bai who made it the seat of her government. As 
containing the ashes of that remarkable and venerable woman it is largely 
resorted to by pilgrims. 

Captain Dangerfield in his paper on the Geology of Malwa* mentions 
having been shewn in the alluvium at Mahesvara large " earthen vessels 
and bricks," which were stated " to have been, at a very remote period, 
overwhelmed by a shower of earth." Since Dangerfield's time, however, 
— and he wrote more than 60 years ago — no one has taken any notice of 
them. I happened to pass through Mahesvara last April, and wanted to 
avail myself of the opportunity to examine the antiquities in question. I 
was located in a bungalow to the west of the town. (PL XIV, fig. 1.) The . 
upper 6 feet of the alluvium upon which the bungalow stands, is composed 
very largely of broken pottery, and I extracted a nearly whole urn-shaped 
earthen pot, quantities of more or less damaged cup-shaped vessels, fresh water 
shells, fragments of lower jaw and bones of Ruminants, &c. The pottery 
remains had evidently been carried by the river from some place higher up ; 
and I learnt on inquiry, that at the eastern extremity of the town, there were 
to be seen by the river side the remains of an ancient city turned upside 
down, as my informant stated, through supernatural agency. The banks of 
the Narmadd at the place (known as the " Mandal kho") are some 65 feet 
high. Approaching it by boat, one sees from a distance two well-defined 
beds of unequal thickness, the upper (about 20 feet) remarkably light- 
coloured, and the lower (about 45 ft.) of a brownish hue. On getting to 
the place, my guides pointed out towards the base of the upper bed por- 
tions of pottery-work, no doubt as they had been pointed out to Danger- 
field threescore years ago, and are described by him as large earthen 
vessels. The pottery-works appeared to enclose round wells, of which 
I counted half-a-dozen. They are all more or less inaccessible, and it is 
not without considerable difficulty that I managed to clamber up to one. 

The two zones of the alluvium just mentioned are separated by a thin 
stratum of very dark-coloured clay which to all appearance formed the soil 
of the now inhumed city. The lower portion (6 ft.) of the light coloured 
upper zone contains bits of charcoa^' and fragments of pottery in abun- 

* Malcolm's " Central India," Vol. II, p. 325. 

18S2.] P. N. Bose — Note on some earthen pots. 227 

dance. The presence of the former would lead one to infer a large admix- 
ture of ashes. Pieces of human and cattle bones, small pebbles, bricks and 
a few large rolled pebbles chipped off artificially were obtained from this 
bed. The overlying alluvium (about 14 ft.) is characterised by the entire 
absence of these, and the occurrence of large rolled pebbles and freshwater 
shells. The pottery- work seen from below is found on examination to be 
composed of very thick, closely fitting circular pieces open at both ends, 
measuring 5£ in. vertically, and with a diameter of a foot and a half. From 
the well enclosed by this pottery I dug out a very large number of earthen 
pots of various shapes and sizes piled up with their mouths downward, some 
quite empty, others filled partially or entirely with an argillaceous material. 
The length of the vessels varies from 11 to 7 inches, and the diameter from 
8 to 6 ; the diameter of the mouth which is without a lid ranges between 
5 and 3 inches. There is no ornamentation except an un symmetrical fur- 
row or two an inch below the neck. See PL XIV, XV, fig. 2 — 5. 

The contents of the pots when not empty are an indurated marl present, 
ing a vesicular appearance, and containing bones of birds and small mam- 
mals and fragments of charcoal. The vesicles are irregularly elongated, 
and are encrusted over with a thin yellowish-brown substance which Mr. 
Mallet of the Geological Survey (who very kindly analysed a specimen) 
considers to be the remains of some decomposed vegetable matter. Large 
numbers of ribs probably of goats and sheep and some teeth were got 
mostly from the interstices between the pots. The entire absence of human 
bones or human teeth from inside the well is notable. 

The well dug into (j in PI. XIV, fig. 1) goes down about 10 ft. into 
the lower zone of the alluvium, though the boundary- work of pottery is 
carried only 2 feet downward. Earthen pots were found from top to 
bottom all, as remarked before, with their mouths directed downward. 

As the other wells were quite inaccessible, they could not be opened up 
without excavations on a large scale for which I had no time. If similarity 
of appearance might justify us in inferring anything we would infer them 
to contain earthen vessels also similar to those obtained from the well 
just described. It would be extremely desirable to examine them, especially 
as excavations may lead to important discoveries a'nd throw some light on 
the early history of India. I may mention in this connection that I noticed 
at one end of the section, at " Mandal koh," two rows of bricks (Jc in the 
diagram), as if they enclosed the door of a house. 

The points which present themselves for determination are— 
(1.) The age of the inhumed town. 

(2.) The purpose for which the well described in this paper was 
constructed, and the earthen vessels placed in it. 
(3.) The cause of inhumation. 
I have not been able to settle any of these important question* to any- 

228 P. N. Bose — Note on some earthen pots. [No. 3, 

thing approaching satisfaction. I shall, however, throw together a few 
notes in the hope that they may he of some service to the archaeologist. 

The shape of the earthen vessels is quite peculiar, and the potters of 
the district have long since ceased to make anything like them. When 
we consider, besides, the thickness of the alluvium covering the wells, and 
of the pottery-bed below the bungalow, as well as the age of modem 
Mahesvara itself which is built upon these deposits and is at least some four 
centuries old,* we can have no doubt about the antiquity of the inhumed 
town. That there was an ancient city of the name of Mahesvarapura or 
Mahesa-Mancjala, there is fair historical evidence to prove. f It is possible 
that the relics now discovered mark the site of that city. 

Gautley in his account J of an ancient town discovered near Saharan- 
pur speaks of a well near the site of that town from which " a great 
quantity of ghards or waterpots were taken out whole, as if," says he, " they 
had fallen into the well and sank." He does not, however, describe them 
or their contents, nor does he tell us how they occur. Their large number, 
and the circumstance of their having been taken out whole, make their 
occurrence by mere accident extremely improbable, and incline me to suspect 
that they were, like the earthen pots under notice, placed in the well by 
human hands, and for one and the same purpose. But what could this 
purpose be ? In the present instance certainly, the wells could not have 
been village wells, for in that case there would not have been so many of 
them close together especially so near the river. Nor could they evidently 
have been meant for irrigation purposes. The most eligible hypothesis 
that has presented itself to me is, that the ghards were dedicated to the dead, 
some with the ashes after cremation, and others with cooked cereals and 
meat. The ashes would explain the presence of bits of charcoal in the 
marly contents of the ghards. The vesicular texture of these contents, and 
the peculiar lining encrustation of the vesicles could be satisfactorily 
accounted for by the mixing up of the cereal grains with marl brought 
into the pots by in nitration and their subsequent decomposition. The 
evolution of gases during this process would, as observed by Mr. Mallet, 

• The inscriptions at Kalesvara and Matamgesvara, the two oldest temples at 
Mahesvara bear the dates Samvat 1622 and 1C23 respectively. An inscription in 
a mosque near the fort deciphered to me by a Monshi gives 800 ffifra as the date 
of its erection. 

t Mahesvara has been identified by Cunningham with the Mohishifafopulo of 
Hiouen Thsang. (" Ancient Geography," p. 488.) The ' Mahisa Mantfala' to which a 
Missionary was sent by Asoka in B. G. 240 (Tumour " Mahawaniso," pp. 71-73) is 
probably present in the names Mahesvara and Mangalesvara which are only four miles 

X Journal of the As. Soc. of Bengal, Vol. III. for 1834, p. 226. 

1882.] P. N. Bose — Note on some earthen potjt. 229 

cause the vesicles to be diverse and irregular ; and such is found to be the 
ease. Some at least of the bones found are probably the remnants of 
dishes of animal food. 

Preserving the ashes after cremation and supplying the dead with 
cooked food, were practices in vogue with many tribes, both Indian and 
extra- Indian. Major Mockler, for instance, describes some earthen pots from 
Makran,* in which he says the dead were supplied with cooked food. But 
in this and similar cases the urns or pots occur in well recognizable and 
indisputable graves. In the instance at hand, however, the pots are extra- 
ordinarily numerous, and their mode of occurrence quite peculiar. 

The Thero Mahadeva who was senb by As oka in B. 0. 240 to Mahisa 
Mandalaf is reported to have made 40,000 converts to Buddhism, and 
ordained 40,000 more as priests. Hiouen Thsang, however, describes the 
people of the kingdom of Mahesvarapura as heretics, the most numerous 
being the Pdsitpatas.% So that if the well had anything to do with Bud- 
dhist funeral rites, it must have been sunk either before, or during the 
earlier centuries of the Christian era. But as the Buddhist topes hitherto 
discovered are to my knowledge of a quite different structure from the 
well-tope at Mahesvara (if tope indeed it be), I am inclined to think that 
the latter was the work of some non-Buddhist Scythian tribe in which case 
too the date could not be later than that just surmised. § I have not, 
however, discovered any certain traces of such a tribe. The Bheels, the 
aboriginal people of the district, burn their dead, except infants and adults 
who die from unnatural causes. 

Dangerfield speaks of a shower of earth as the cause assigned for the 
inhumation ; I was told that the place had been overturned. These tradi- 
tions probably point to an earthquake which would cause submergence, 
as in the case of the fort and village of Sindru on the Indus || 

The collections consisting of ghar&s, bones, Ac., have been presented 
to the Indian Museum. 

• Proc. A. S. B. for July 1877. The vessels found by Major Mockler now in the 
collection of the Indian Museum are not unlike those which form the subject of this 

f Bee note, ante p. 228. 

X " Hist, deja vie de Hiouen Thsang" pp. 414-415. 

§ James Prinsep from an examination of the coins discovered by Cautloy assigns 
the early centuries of the Christian era as the date of the destruction of the ancient 
city near Saharanpur. 

U Lyell'a " Principles of Geology," 10th edition, Vol. II, p. 99. 




Pabt I, fob 1882. 

Saint, p. 16. 

DlHARf Language, p. 129. 
Bon or Pon Religion, of China, p. 112. 
Bose, P. N., Note on some earthen pots 
found in the alluvium at Mahesar, 

p. 226. . . 

Buddhism compared with Confucianism, 

P- 10 ?- * . ™« 

Rise and Progress of, in Ti- 

bet, p. 1. 

ditto, in Mongolia, pp. 68, 66. 
ditto, in China, p. 87. 

V^HINA, Bon or Pon Religion of; p. 112. 
— — — Mnhfl mTT1M dii.nifi m in, p 114. 

Ho-u-se or Hoi Hoi Religion 

in, p. 114. 

Rise and Progress of Buddhism 

in, p. 87. 

religious sects, prior to Bud- 
dhism, pp. 87, 88. 

Hinayana 8chool in, p. 92. 

• Tantnkism in, p. 93. 

■ Vaipulya Dar&na in, p. 94. 
,. Mahayana School in, p. 94. 

S'unyata Philosophy in, p. 96. 

■ Sarirtha Vadi School in, p. 99. 

■ Literature, Philosophy, Reli- 
gion of ancient, p. 99. 

■ Medical works of, p. 106. 
Music of, p. 105. 

Confucian philosophy, pp. 100, 105, 109. 

Dalai lama, p. ui. 

Das. Babu S. C, Contribution to the Reli- 
gion. History, ftc. of Tibet, pp. 1, 16, 
68, 87, 99, 115, 121 

Dnb-thab S'elkyi Melon, a Tibetan work, 
text and translation of, pp. 68, 66. 



OLKSONGS from the Panjab, p. 151. 

EDUNDUB, a Grand Lama of Tibet, 

p. 24. 
Gelug-pa or Reformed Buddhism in Tibet, 

pp. 6, 125. 127. 

ditto, in Mongolia, p. 69. 

Genealogy of the Mongolian Monarchs, 

p. 73. 
Grierson, G. A., Manbodh's Harihans, 

Text, p. 129. 
Gyalwa Ton-Dub, a Tafi Lama, p. 23. 


ARIB AN8, a poem of Manbodh, Text, 

p. 129. 
Hinayana School in China, p. 92, in India, 

p. 115. 
Hoi Hoi, see Ho-u-se. 
Hor, see Mongolia. 
Ho-u-se or Hoi Hoi Religion in China, 

p. 114. 

INDIAN Buddhists in Tibet, p. 2, 8, 4, 
7, 9, 29, 63. 

J IN, see Buddhism. 

lYANGRA, folksongs from, p. 151. 
Kha-dub-Geleg-pal-ssaft, a Tasi Lama, 

p. 21. 
Khug-pa-Lhas-tsi, a Tasi Lama, p. 18. 

IjAMA, classes of, in Tibet, pp. 11, 14. 
■ lives of the Tasi Lamas, p. 15. 
Dalai Lama, p. 31. 



Legdan Jyad, a Buddhist Saint, p. 16. 
life, of Tafi Lamas, p. 15. 

of Tson Khapa, p. 53. 

of Nigarjuna, p. 115. 

literature, of ancient China, p. 99. 
Lochavas or Tibetan Pandits, pp. 1, 6, 6, 

12, 18, 55. _ _. 

LossanChho-kyi ayal-Tshan, a Tail 

Lama, p. 25. 
Lossas Ye-ie-pal-ssan-po, a Tail Lama, 

LossanPaldan-Ye-se, a Tafi Lama, p 29. 
__^_ — — — his journey to Pekin, 

p. 48. 
Lo-ssan-Tagpa, see Tson Khapa. 

MahAYANA 8chool in China, p. 94, 

in India, p 1 18. 
Mahesar, note on some earthen pots found 

at, p. 226. 
Mahesvara, see Mahesar. 
Maithili dialect, p. 129. 
Manbodh, Text of Haribans o£ p. 129. 
Manjufci Kfrti, a Buddhist saint, pp. 15, 

Monastery, of Ta& Lhunpo, pp 24, 48. 
of Nalendra, in Magadha, 

Mongolia, Rise and Progress of Buddhism 

in, pp. 68, 66. 

t genealogy of Monarchs of, p.73. 
Muhammadanism, in China, Tibetan ac- 
count of, p. 114. 

N AG ARJTJNA, aBuddhist Saint, pp. 54, 

Nalendra, Monastery of, p. 115. 
Sinmapa or ancient Buddhist School of 
Tibet, p. 6. 

PaNDITS, Indian, in Tibet, pp. 2, 8, 4, 

7, 9, 58. 
Panchhen-Rinpochhe, see Tali Lama. 
Panjib, Hindu Folksongs from, p. 161. 
Philosophy, Confucian of China, pp. 100, 

105. _ . 
— ., S*unyata, in China, p. 96. 

w of ancient China, p. 99. 

, ethical of China, p. 100. 

Pon, see Bon. 

Pots, earthen, found at Mahesar, p. 226. 


A VERTY, Major G. H , memoir of the 
author of the Tabaqat-i-Nisiri, p. 76. 
Religion, of Tibet, pp. 1, 15, 58, 87. 
, of ancient China, p. 99. 
, Bon or Pon, of China, p. 112. 

p. 114. 

-, Ho-u-se or Hoi Hoi, in China, 


AKYA PANPITA, a Tafi Lama, pp. 

19, 06, 67. 
Sarartha Vadi School in China, p. 99. 
School, Sarartha Vadi, in China, p. 99. 

, Gelug-pa, p. 127. 

, Buddhist Dogmatic of Tibet, pp. 6, 


— — Ninmapa or ancient, of Tibet, p.6. 

■ Hinayana, in China, p. 92, in In- 

dia, 118. 

•, Mahay ana, in China, p. 94, in In- 

dia, 118. 
Shehu, see Confuoian philosophy. 
Sonam-chho Kyi-Laftpo, a Taii Lama, 

p. 22. 
Subhuti, the Buddhist Sthavira, p. 15. 
S'unyata Philosophy, spread of, in China, 

p. 96. 


ABAQ£T-I-NA$IRr, memoir of au- 
"" thor o£ p. 76. 
Tantrikism in China, p. 93. 
Tafi Lamas, lives of, in Tibet, pp. 15, 1 8. 
Tafi-Lhunpo, Monastery, in Tibet, pp. 24, 

Temple, Lt. B. C, some Hindu Folksongs 

from the Panjab, p. 161. 
Tibet, classes of Lamas of, pp. 11, 14. 
, lives of Taii Lamas of, p. 15. 
— , monastery of Taii Lhunpo, p. 24. 
, Tson Khapa, Reformer of. p. 53. 
— — Bise and Progress of Buddhism in, 

p. 1. 

Buddhist Dogmatio Schools of, 

p. 6, 121. 

ftinmapa, or Ancient Buddhist 

School of, p. 6. 

Terma works of, pp. 18, 124. 

Tson Khapa, life and legendof, pp. 63, 124. 

V AIPULYA DARS'ANA,in Chma,p.94. 

Y UN-TON-DORJE, a Taii Lama, p. 20. 













In4 it. Sac. Bmi, Vol LI. Ft. 1. 

MaruUil' —Khv 

* d. t ** ?r*** .r 
-tttt itfc xs j -i 


: B™>. Vol LI. Pi 





PART II. (Natural History, &c.) 

(Nos. I to IT.— 1882 : with 4 plates.) 


The Natural JIistory JSec^jbtai\y. 

" It will flourish, if naturalists, chemists, antiquaries, philologers, and men of science 
in different parts of Asia, will commit their observations to writing, and send them to 
the Asiatic Society at Calcutta. It will languish, if such communications shall be long 
intermitted ; and it will die away, if they shall entirely cease." Sir Wm. Jones. 






Blanfobd, H. F. ;— S00M further results of sun-thermometer ob- 
servations with reference to atmospheric absorption and the 
supposed variation of the solar heat ... ... .... 72 

Cockbfbn, J.; — On an abnormality in the horns of the Hog-deer y 
axis porcinus, with an amplification of the theory of the evolu- 
tion of antlers in Ruminants ... ... ... ... 45 

— — — ; — On the habits of a little-known Lizard, Brachy- 

saura Ornata... ... ... ... ... ... 50 

De Nice'ville, L. ; — Second list of Butterflies taken in Sikkim in 

October 1882, with notes on habits, dfc. ... ... ... 54 

■ ; — See Wood-Mason, J. 

Godwin- Austen, H. H. ; — Notes on and Drawings of the Animals 

of various Indian Land Mollusca (Pulmonifera) Plate V ... 68 

Mollendobf, O. F. ; — On a collection of Japanese Clausiliae made 

by Brigade-Surgeon R. Rungerford in 1881 (Plate I) ... 1 

— — — — ; — Clausilia nevilliana, a new species from the Nico* 

UU10 . . , ... ... ... , . , ... X JL 

; — Descriptions of some new Asiatic Clausiliffl ... 12 

Marshall, G. F. L. ; — Some new or rare species of Rhopalocerous 

Lepidopterayroflt the Indian region (Plate IV) ... ... 37 

; — A new species of Hipparchia (Lepidoptera Rho- 

phalocera) from the N. W. Himalayas ... ... ... 67 

Wood-Mason, J.; — On new and little-known Mantodea ... ... 21 

— — and de Nice'yille, L. ; — Second List of Diurnal 

Lepidoptera inhabiting the Nicobar Islands, (Plate III and two 
wood-cuts) ... ... ... ... ... ... 14 

Date of issue of the diferent numbers of the Journal,. Part II, 1882. 
No. I. — Containing pp. 1 — 36, with Plates I and III ; and Title-page, 

Index, and 3 Plates for Vol. L, was issued on 

August 21st, 1882. 
Nos. II— III.— Containing pp. 87—66, with Plate XVI for Vol. L, 

was issued on December 30th, 1882. 
No. IV.— Containing pp. 67—90, with Plate V, and Title-page, 

Index, &c., for Vol. LI, was issued on March 1st, 



I. — New Japanese and Indian Clausilia. 
II. — Wanting. 

III. — Diurnal Lepidoptera inhabiting the Nieobar Islands. 
IV. — Rhopalocerou* Lepidoptera from the Indian region. (This 
plate will be published with No. I of 1888.) 
V.— Indian Land Shells. 



\ »-, 


07 THB 



%«^^^*^*^^S^*«AM*<i - 

No. I.— 1882. 

j. — On a collection of Japanese Clausiliss made by Brigade Surgeon R. 
Hungerford in 1881. — By O. F. to* Mollendobfp, Ph. D., Vice- 
eomulfor Germany y Hongkong. 

(Received January, 3rd ; — Read February, 1882.) 

(With Plate I). 

When £. von Martens (Preuss, Exped. n. Ostasien, Landschnecken) 
published the first connected list of Japanese landshells in 1868, there were 
only 8 species of Clausilia known from that country, but their number 
has so rapidly increased of late years that Kobelt in his Fauna of Japan was 
able to enumerate not less than 35 species, including one Balea. These show a 
great variety of forms, and have necessitated the creation of many new 
sections and groups of the subgenus Phaedusa, many of whieh are confined 
to Japan. As only a small portion of the Japanese archipelago has been ex- 
plored as yet, and that for the greater part by travellers for whom conchology 
had only a secondary interest, it is not not to be wondered at that Brigade 
Surgeon Hungerford's excursions have been most successful. His collec- 
tion, made in a few weeks, contained, as the following list will show, 21 
specids of Clausilia, ten of which I consider to be undescribed. In enu- 
merating them, I follow the judicious arrangement of Phaedusa by Dr. 
Boettger in his " Clausiiien studien" (Oassel, 1877) and " Systematisches 
Yerzeichniss der Gattung Clausilia 1 ' (Frankfurt, 1878), which I find corro- 
borated nearly throughout. In a few instances, however, the creation of 
new groups for some of the novelties will eventually prove to be necessary. 

I may add here that I have used throughout the terminology now 
generally adopted in Germany. We use the term " lamellae" only for the 

2 0. F. von Mollendorff — On a collection 6/ Japanese Clausilie. [No. 1, 

parietal and subcolumellar plaits, t. e 9 lamella tupera, infera, spiralis, sub* 
columellaris ; while all the palatal ones are termed "plicae." Of these 
latter the long upper plait, in many species the only one, is called "plica 
principalis" those above the principal are "plicae suturales" those below 
it, " plicae palatales." 

Genus Clausilia, Drap. 

Subgenus Phaedusa, H. and A. Adams. 
«. Group of Clautilia Shangkaietm*. Pfr. = Buphaeduta, Bottg., Glaus. Stud. 
1877, p. 67. 

1. Clausilia digokoptyx. 

1877. Clautilia diaonoptyz, Bottger, Glaus. Stud. p. 68. 

1878. Jahrb. D. Mai Ges. ▼, p. 45, t iii, L 1. 

— — — — Syst. Verz. Glaus, p. 64. 

1879. ■- Jahrb. D. M G. vi, p. 108. 

— — — — — Kobelt, Fauna Jap. extramar. p. 69, t. 

viii, f. 17. 

The type from Kamatokogiro ; var. minor, diam. maj. Hi mm., near 
the same place. 

2. Clattsilia tau. 

1877. Clautilia tau, Bottger, Glaus. Stud. p. 68. 

— — — Kachrichtsbl. D. M. G. no. 6, p. 70. 
1878. Jahrb. D. M. Ges. vi, p. 46, t. iii, 1 2. 

__ . _ ... Syst. Verz # p. 64. 

1879. Jahrb. D. M. G. vi, p. 108. 

_ Kobelt, Fauna Jap. p. 70, t. viii, f. 18. 

Very numerous at Kioto, Kobi, Nara, and other places in the island 
of Nippon. 

8. Clausilia pboba. 

1868. Clautilia proba, A. Adams, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 4th ser. i. p. 471. 

— — acuhu, E. yon. Martens, Ostas. Landschn, p. S3, t. xxii £ 

16 (nee Benson). 

1877. — Bottger, Glaus. Stud. p. 68 (ex parte). 

1878. Jahrb. D. M. G. v, p. 49, t. iii, t 8. 

— — — Syst. Verz. p. 64. 

1879. Kobelt, Fauna Jap. p. 71 1. viii, f. 19. 

1879. Clautilia proba y Bottger, Jahrb. D. M. G. VI, p. 108. 

Common at Nagasaki (where the species was likewise collected by 
Professor Rein) and at Utsonomda and Mamada. 

4. Clausilia htjngkbfobdiana, n. sp., PL I, Fig. 1. 

Testa subrimata, jusiformis, pellucida, sericina, arcuatim striatula, 
corneqfusca, maculis albis interrupte signata (quasi zebrina) ; atrfr. 9 con- 
vexiutculi, suturd profunda disjuncti, uUimus rotundatus pone aperturam 

1882.] O. F. von Mollendorff— On a collection of Japanese Clausilia. 8 

subinjlatus, irregulariter costulato - striata* ; apertura subobliqua, rotun- 
dato-piriformis, sinulo recto, peristoma continuum solutum, superne vix 
sinuatum, valde prolractum, expansum, reflexiusculum, parum incrassatum ; 
lamella supera obsolete, interdum in margine peristomal noduli instar vix 
distinguenda, lamella spiralis recedens, lamella infer a a margine valde 
remota, late arcuata, subcolumellaris immersa. Plica principalis mo die a, 
palatalis una supera brevis cum lunelld interrupt^ fere obsoletd subtus 
ramumparvum retrorsum mittente convex a. Olausiliam latissimum, sub- 
quadratum antice acuminatum. 

Alt. 12 J, lat. 2f , apert. alt. 21, lat. 2 mm. 

Hab. Nara in insula Nippon. 

In its closing apparatus this pretty little novelty greatly resembles 
Clausilia proba. The upper parietal lamella is, in the majority of speci- 
mens, only marked by a slight thickening of the lip. Barely there is a 
minute knob. After a distinct interval the " lamella spiralis" sets in. The 
lamella infera is somewhat like that of Clausilia digonoptyx, Bottg., so 
that the parietal lamellse would approach very close to one another, if the 
upper one were properly developed. The specific character of our species 
is the fine sericine epidermis with alternating white and brown spots. 

b. Group of Clausilia valid*, Pfir. = Stereophatdusa, Bottger, Clausilienstudien, 
p. 61. 

5. Clausilia hilgehbobfi. 

1877. Clausilia Hilaendorji, v. Martens, Sitz. Ber. Ges. Nat. Fr. Berlin, 17 April, 

p. 106. 

1877. — — ■ Bottger, Claus. Stud. p. 60. 

1878. — — — „ Syst. Vera. p. 55. 

1879. Kobelt, Fauna Jap. p. 76, t. ix, f. 2. 

Three specimens of a large Clausilia, from 30 to 85 millim. in length, 
of a dark chestnut-brown colour, collected by Mr. Hungerfordat Chinsinji, 
agree very well with Prof, von Martens' diagnosis and Kobelt' s figure of 
C. Hilgendorfi. In one specimen the subcolumellar lamella is somewhat 

6. Clausilia Kobensis. 

1876. Clausilia KoUnsU, Edg. Smith, Quart. J. of Conchology, i, p. 122 

— — — Nipponetms, Kobelt, Jahrb. D. Mai. Ges. iii, p. 275, t. viii, 

f. 3,4. 

1877. — japonica, E. von. Martens, Sitz. Ber. Nat. Fr. Berlin, p. 108 

(an Crosse P). 
— — — — japonica (cum var. Nippontntis), Bottger, Claus. Stud. p. 62. 

1878. — Syat. Vera. p. 

1879. _- — Kobelt, Fauna Jap. p. 75, t. viii, f. 10, 11. 

4 0. F. von Mollendorff — On a collection of Japanese Clausiliss. [No. 1, 

An Clausilia japonica, Crosse (Journ. de Conch. XIX, 1871, p. 228, t. 
XIII, f. 5) ? 

I am by no means sure of the correctness of the identification of 
Clausilia Kobensis, Smith, with japonica, Crosse, as proposed by Bottger and 
Kobelt. Crosse's diagnosis is very- vague and incomplete, and I have 
seen neither figures nor specimens of the true japonica. On the other hand, 
there is no doubt that Kobelt's nipponensis and Kobensis, Smith, belong to- 
one and the same species, and that Smith's name has the priority. 

Mr. Hungerford collected numerous specimens of the type at Kobi, 
the original habitat, and near Eoma Kasunga. A much smaller form from. 
Suma Yushi, I propose to distinguish as 

var. pallenb, nova. 
differt a typo testd minore — 23 millim longd — tenuiore pallide flavescenti- 
corned, lamelld inferd magis elevatd, superae in profundo magis approxi- 

7. Clausilia oobtoma, n. sp., PI. I, Fig. 2. 

Testa elongato-fusiformis, solidula, subpellucida, striatula, comeo-fusca, 
spira gracilis apice obtuso, anfr. 12 — 12£ subplani, ultimus subdistortus 
rotundatus; apertura ovtformis, subrecta, peristoma continuum, solutum, 
expansum, reflexiusculum, superne leviter sinuatum. Lamella sup era marm 
ginalis, obliqua, cum spirali contigua, infera marginem haud attingens, re- 
trorsum valde elevata 9 spiraliter torta,fere horizontalis, intus ultra lamel- 
lam spiralem producta, lamella subcolumellaris emersa usque ad marginem 
protracta ; plica principalis mediocris, palatalis supera brevis cum princi- 
pali divergens, infera obsoleta vel nulla, lunella nulla. Clausilium latissi- 
mum sicut precedentis speciei. 

Alt. 28-J, lat. h\, apert. long. 6, lat. 4f millim. 

Hab. Only three specimens from Hakoni. 

A near relation to the preceding species, but sufficiently distinguished 
by the more elongate shape, the thinner shell, the very regular oviform 
aperture, the more valid and still more spirally twisted, nearly horizontal 
lower parietal lamella, the much more divergent upper, and obsolete lower, 
palatal plait. 

c. Group of CI. Yokohamsmts, Crosse := Megalophaeduia, Bottg. (Clausilieiistudien, 
p. 62). 


1877. Clausilia vasta, Bottger, Claus. Stud. p. 62. 

1878. Jahrb. D. M. G. v, p. 51, t. iii, t 4. 

— — Syst. Verz. p. 56. 

1879. Kobelt, Fauna Jap. p. 82, t. viii, f. 15. 

Hab. Nagasaki. 

1882.] O. P. von Mollendorff — On a collection of Japanese Olausilia. 5 


1876. Olausilia ducalis, Kobelt, Jahrb. D. M. G. iii, p. 152, t. v, f. 7. 

1877. Bottger, Glaus. Stud. p. 63. 

1878. — Syst. Vera, p. 66. 

1879. Kobelt, Fauna Jap. p. 83, t. viii, f. 10. 

Two magnificent specimens of a Megalophaedusa from Hakoni agree 
fairly well with Kobelt's diagnosis and figure of Olausilia ducalis. They 
are, however, longer — 38 million, instead of 86,— of a dark chestnut colour 
with a slight violet tint, not " yellowish horn-coloured" (luteo-cornea) as 
Kobelt describes his G. ducalis, and the subcolumellar lamella is completely 
immersed so that it can only be seen by holding the shell in an oblique 
position. There being but two specimens known of Olausilia ducalis, it 
seems advisable to class the specimens collected by Mr. Hungerford with 
that species provisionally, although they may deserve a new name as a 

d. Group of Olausilia cylindrica, Gray r= Cylindrophaedusa, Bottger (Claus. Stud. 
p. 64). 

10. Cla.ush.ia gbacilispiba, n. sp., PL I, Fig. 3. 

Testa elongato-fusiformis, subcylindrica, tenera, pellucida, subtiliter 
eostulato-striata, viridiflava, anfractus 10-11 subplani suturd valde distinctd 
discreti ; apertura parva, subobliqua, rotundato -piriformis, peristoma con- 
tinuum solutum, superne leviter sinuatum, breviter eapansum. Lamella 
jparietalis supera marginalis, obliqua, satis valida, cum spirali continua, 
infera remotissima, vise conspicua, subcolumellaris immersa ; plica princi" 
palis mediocris, lunella nulla, plicae palatales tres quarum prima et tertia 
subaequales, media brevis. Olausilium angustum linguiforme, acumina- 

Alt. 9J — 13£, diam. 2, apert. long. 2, lat. 1£ millim. 

Hab. Near Eobi. 

A very well-marked species, which I can only compare to Olausilia 
cylindrica, Gray. The slender, subcylindrical shape, the small aperture, 
the absence of a lunella, the very remote and oblique lower parietal lamella, 
the immersed subcolumellar lamella indicate its relation to the group 
Cglindrophaedusa created by Bottger for 01. cylindrica. It differs, besides 
size, shape, colouring, and sculpture of the shell, by the spiral lamella com- 
pletely continuous with the lamella supera instead of " fere contigua," by 
the three palatal plaits instead of two. I think, therefore, that the Japanese 
species has to be placed in the group Oylindrophaedusa. The clausilium 
is like that of the next group, Hemiphaedusa. 

Before passing on to the last-named group, I shall here enumerate two 
new species which do not very well agree with any of Bottger' 8 subsections 
of Fhaedusa, and for which I should propose to make a new group, if I 

6 O. P. von Mollendorff — On a collection of Japanese Clausilisa. [No. 1, 

knew any species of Bottger's Acrophaedusa (1. c. p. 64). This group, com- 
prising two Javanese Clausiliae, O. Junghuhni, Phil., and cornea, Phil., is 
perhaps the only one to which these novelties could be referred. On 
the other hand, there are relations to the first subgroup (" Formenkreis") 
of Hemiphaedusa. Unfortunately, Mr. Hungerford collected only a few 
specimens of each, and I have been unable to study the clausilium of either 
species. The decision whether they belong to Hemiphaedusa as a special 
subgroup or ought to form a new group by themselves has to be reserved 
until more material will allow the breaking up of some specimens. 

11. Clattsilia sebicoa, n. sp., PI. I, Fig. 4. 

Testa ventricosulo-Jvsiformis solida cornea subtiliter striatula sericina ; 
anfr. 10 — 10J convexiusculi sutura distincta, ultimus subdistortus, hand 
magis striates ; apertura subobliqua, rotundato -piriform is ; peristoma con- 
tinuum, solutum, valde incrassatum. Lamella supera valida, obliqua, ad 
marginem descendens, cum spirali contigua, infera antrorsum vix .conspicua, 
subtus truncata, subcolumellaris vix emersa ; plica principalis profunda, 
in apertura haud conspicua, palatales duo, supera brevis 9 secunda punctifor- 
misvel obsoleta, infera lunellaque nullae. Clausilium ? (non vidi). 

Alt. 22i, lat. 5, apert. long. 5&, lat. 4 millim. 

var. mikob alt. 20 J millim. anfr act. 11, lamella subcolumellaris im- 

Hab. Two specimens of the typical form from Ghinsinji, and one 
specimen of the smaller variety from Yumagaaishi. 

The palatal plaits might be compared to those in the group Stereophae- 
dusa, from which our species is otherwise widely different. The lower 
parietal lamella refers 01. sericina to Hemiphaedusa. 

12. Clatjstlia oabyostoma, n, sp., PI. I, Fig. 5. 

Testa ventricosofusiformis solidula, striatula, pallide cornea, anfr. 9 
subplani suturd distinctd discreti 9 ultimus penultimo vix altior ; apertura 
rotundata, subobliqua, peristoma continuum, superne hand sinuatum 9 brevi- 
ter solutum, expansum, incrassatum. Lamella supera mediocris, obliqua, 
cum spirali contwua, infera valde remota, parva, intusfurcata, subcolumeU 
laris immersa ; plica principalis valida, longa, lunella nulla, plicae palata- 
les tres ventrales quarum prima et tertia subaequales, breves, secunda punc- 
tiformis. Clausilium f 

Alt. 14$, lat 3i, apert. long. 3£, lat. 8 millim. 

Hab. Kobi ; four specimens. 

This novelty likewise does not seem to fit into any of Dr. Bottger's 
subdivisions of Fhaedusa. The lower parietal lamella reminds one of that 


1882.] O. F. von Mollendorff — On a collection of Japanese Clausilia. 7 

of 01. subgibbera, also of 01. hgperolia, v. Mart. The palatal * plicae' are 
so far up in the shell that they are visible above the aperture, a position 
for which Ad. Schmidt has introduced the appropriate term " ventralis." 
The same position of the " plicae palatales" occurs in OL aurantiaca, Bottg. 
Our species differs from the group Hemiphaedusa by the immersed sub- 
columellar lamella, and the absence of a lunella. The small number of 
specimens prevented the examination of the clausilium, and, as mentioned 
before, the final classification of this species and 01. sericina has to be 

«. Group of Qlaurilia pluviatili*, Bens = HemiphaMma, Bdttg. (Lop. 66). 
a. Subgroup of Clausilia validiutcula, y. Mart. 

18. Clausilia. <sthiops, n. sp., PI. 1, Fig. 6. 

Testa elongato-jusiformis so lid a, striata, obscure castaneofusca, anfr. 
12 subplani ; apertura subobliqua, ovali-piriformis, peristoma satis incras- 
satum, vix solutum, reflexum, albolabiatum. Lamella supera obliqua, mar- 
ginalis cum spirali contigua, in/era oblique ascendens in projundo dextror- 
sum retorta, suboolumellaris modica, emersa, marginem attingens. Plica 
principalis mediocris, sat profunda, palatales ires laterales obliquae quorum 
media minor, lunella nulla. Clausilium f 

Alt. 3d, lat. 6£, apert. long. , lat. millim. 

Hab. The unique specimen was collected near Nagasaki. 

This fine Clausilia is a near relation of 01. ILickonis, Bottg., with which 
is has all the characteristics of the closing apparatus in common. It differs, 
however, by the habitus (which has nothing of the curious claviform shape 
of 01. ILickonis, but is rather slender), the considerably larger size, the 
dark brown colour, and some smaller differences of the lamella and plicae ; 
so that I do not hesitate to make it a separate species. 

14. Clausilia. tetbapttx, n. sp., PL I, Fig. 7. 

Testa fusiformis, solidula, spird gracilis attenuate apice acutiusculo, 
subtiliter costulato-striata, corneofusca ; anfr. 9& convexiusculi ; apertura 
piriformuovata, subobliqua, marginibus parallelis, peristoma continuum, 
superne leviter solutum, leviter incrassatum et expansum ; lamella supera 
subobliqua, marginalis cum spirali continua, infera spiraliter recedens, haud 
furcata, antrorsum complanata, subcolumellaris valida, emersa, marginem 
attingens. Plica principalis longa, palatales quatuor quorum prima et 
quarto subaequales majores, mediae subaequales minores. Clausilium satis 
angustum, antice haud incrassatum, rotundato acuminatum. 

Alt. 17 — 18, lat. 4, apert. long. 4, lat. 3± millim. 

Hab. Fujisawa. 

By the shape of the clausilium and the four palatal plaits instead of 
a lunella this form belongs to the subgroup of 01. validiuscula, v. Mart. 

8 0. F. von M Ollendorff — On a collection of Japanese Clausilia?. [No. l f 

It is well characterised by the small size, the less solid shell, the sculpture, 

the less oblique upper parietal lamella. 

0. 8nbgronp of Clausilia platydtra, v. Mart. 

15. Clausilia platydera. 

1876. Clausilia platydera, v. Martens, Jahrb. D. M. G. iii, p, 362. 

1877. — BSttger, Clans. Stud. p. 67. 

1878. — Syst. Ver*. p. 57. 

1879. Kobelt, Fauna Jap. p. 91, t. ix, f. 9. 

var. eloxgata, Bottger, Syst. Yerz. Clausilia, p. 57. 

Mr. Hungerford collected some elongate slender forms of 27$ — 29£ 
millim. in length at Nara. These I think are Bottger* 8 var. elongata. 

Another form was found numerous near Kobi. It is more ventricose, 
has a more solid shell, a broader and rounder aperture than the type ; the 
lunella is shaped nearly as in Bottger's var. lambda (Claus. Stud. p. 67), 
forming a right or obtuse angle with the plica principalis. On the other 
hand, the peristome is always solute above and the subcolumellar lamella 
always reaches the margin, while Bottger says of his variety, " peristoma 
superne haud solutum," " lamella subcolumellar is subimmersa" This form 
therefore shows a transition from the type to var. lambda, and might deserve 
a new name as a variety or a subvariety. 

16. Clausilia tusakgeksis, n. sp., PL I, Fig. 8. 

Testa gracili-fusiformis inter dam decollata, solidula, striatula, cornea ; 
anfr. 12 convexiusculi, sutura satis profunda disjuncti ; apertura recta 9 
bast recedens, ovato -piriformis, peristoma continuum, solutum, undique ex- 
pansum et reflexum, albolabiatum. Lamella supera valida, obliqya, margi- 
nalis,cumspirali continua, infera a margine satis remota oblique ascendent, 
fwrcata, in pro/undo dextrorsum retorta, intus lamellam spiralem super ans, 
subcolumellaris immersa. Plica principalis mediocris, lunella cum plied 
pa lata li superiore et inferiore par vis connexa figuram litterae graecae \ 
instar formans. Glausilium angustum. 

alt. 27 — 80, lat. 5, apert. long. 6, lat. 4 millim. 

Hab. Chin-sin-ji. 

Nearly related to Clausilia platydera, especially to the var. elongata, 
this fine form offers by the much slenderer shape, the invisible subcolumel- 
lar lamella, the more twisted lower parietal lamella etc., sufficient differ- 
ences to deserve a new name, which I have formed from Fusang, the old 
poetic name of Japan. 

17. Clausilia aurantiaca, Bottger. 

1877. Clausilia aurantiaca, Bottger, Claus. Stud. p. 68. 

1878. Syst. Vera, p, 57. 

—~ — — — Jahrb. D. M. G. v, p. 101, t. iv, f. 5. 

1879. Kobelt, Fauna Jap. p. 96, t. ix, f. 11. 

1882.] O. F. von Mollendorff— On a collection of Japanese Clausiliae. 9 

var. mtnob, v. Moll. Differt a typo testd minore, graciliore, peristo- 
mate vix incrassato, lamelld subcolumellari immersd vel vix emersd — mar- 
ginem haud attingente. 

Alt. 8*— 11 millim. 

Hab. Nara. 

The differences above mentioned excepted, this dwarf variety agrees 
very well with the type, especially in the orange- brown colour. 

18. Clausilia bilabbata. 

1876. ClausUia bilabrata, E. Smith, Quart. J. of Conchol., Febr. p. 120. 

1877. — — * Bottger, Claus. Stud. p. 68. 

1878. — Syst. Vera. p. 38. 

Jahrb. D. M. G. v, p. 103, t. iv, f. 6. 

1879. — Kobelt, Fauna. Jap. p. 96, t ix, f . 12. 

Hab. Kobi. 

y. Subgroup of Clausilia hyptrolia, v. Mart. 

19. Clausilia hypebolia. 

1877. Claurilia hyperolia, E. von Martens, Site. Ber. Ges. Nat. Fr. 17 April, 

p. 110 

— — Bbttger, Claus. Stud. p. 69 

1878. Syst. Verz. p. 58. 

1879. Kobelt, Fauna Jap. p. 99, t. ix, f. 13. 

Two specimens collected by Mr. Hungerford near Jotsuka, I think I 
can safely identify with £. von Martens' species, although 1 have seen but 
one not quite full grown specimen of the latter. Diagnosis and figure 
agree very well. 

20. Clausilia bectaluita, n. sp., PI. I, Fig. 9. 

Testa Jusiformis, solidula, subpellucida, striatula, pallida cornea; 
anfr. 1 1 £ ultimus penultimo sub ac qua lis, irregular iter costulatus ; apertura 
subobliqua, tetragono-pwiformis, peristoma continuum, solutum, expansum, 
valde incrassatum, reflexiusculum. Lamella supera valida marginem attin- 
gens cum spirali contigua, in/era ant r or sum fere obsoleta t retrorsum subver- 
ticaliter ascendent, in margine peristomatis incrassata, nodulifera ; lamella 
subcolumellaris valida emersa usque ad marginem producta, fossuld ab 
inferd disereta. Plica principalis obsoleta punctiformis cum lunelld rectd 
conjuncta, plica suturalis post lunellam una brevissima, palatales nullae. 

Alt. 18 — 20, lat. 4, apert. long. 4, lat. 3 millim. 

Hab. Kamatokogiro. 

By its peculiar inner structure this remarkable shell can only be com- 
pared with the last mentioned species, with which it has in common the 
almost vertical and receding lower parietal lamella, the long and straight 

10 O. F. von Mollendorff — On a collection of Japanese Clausilise. [No. 1, 

lunar plait, and the strongly emersed subcolumellar lamella. It is, however 
sufficiently characterised as a separate species by the short plica principalis 
(which does not exist in O. hyperolia), the existence of a short sutural plait, 
the want of spiral lines on the epidermis, the horny colour, and the lower 
end of the lamella in/era. This is more spirally twisted, gradually 
evanescent towards the peristome, but again thickens on the margin into 
a small .knob, while the same lamella of C. hyperolia is cut off abruptly. 

21. Clattsilia aptychia, n. sp., PI. I, Fig. 10. 

Testa ventricosulo-fusiformis, solida, subpellucida, subtilissime striatu- 
la, pallide flavescens, saepe decollata ; anfi\ 11£ convex iusculi, ultitnus 
penult imo subaequalis, apertura subobligua rotundato-tetragona, peristoma 
continuum, solutum, valde incrassatum, rejlexitisculum. Lamella supera 
marginal is, mediocris, cum spirali contigua, in/era antrorsum obsoleta y sub- 
tus truncata, vertica liter ascendens, intus valid i.ssima ante lamellam spira- 
lem tenuem evanescentem abrupte desinens, lamella subcolumellar is valida 
emersa usque ad marginem producta. Plicae palatales nullae, lunella 
obsoleta, Clausilium satis angustum, marginibus parallelis, antice rotunda- 

Alt. 22, lat. 4£, a pert. long. 5, lat. 4 millim, 

Hab. Hakoni. 

Another interesting novelty of the subgroup of 0. hyperolia, nearly 
related to the two preceding species, but larger than either of them 
and somewhat more veutricose There are not any palatal plaits and 
even the lunella is in some specimens entirely obsolete, in the others 
there is a thin layer of calcareous matter parallel with the outer edge of 
the clausilium. The spiral lamella is very low and thin and its inner end 
almost evanescent, although it extends beyond the inner end of the lamella 
in/era. The latter is comparatively short, but very thick and high. Its 
abruptly cut off outer end is more like that of 01. hyperolia, but somewhat 
more visible in the aperture ; it then ascends vertically almost without any 
spiral twist and occupies nearly half the width of the whorl, the inner end 
being again truncated. 

The systematic arrangement of these three species ought to be : recta* 
luna, hyperolia, aptychia, the first having rudimentary principal and sutural 
plaits and being thereby more nearly related to the preceding groups. 
I have, however, given C la us ilia hyperolia the first place as the only 
species hitherto described. 

1882.] O. P. von Mdllendorff— On Clausilia Nevilliana. 11 

II. — Clausilia Nevilliana, a new Species from the Nicobars. 


(Received January 15th ; — Read April 5th, 1882.) 

Clausilia nevilliana, n. sp., PL I, Fig. 11. 

Testa elongate fusif or mis y subtiliter oblique striatula,fusca, nitidula ; 
anfr. 10 convexiusculi, apertura mediocrity fere verticalis, elongate -pirifor- 
mis, sinulo recto perlongo, peristoma continuum, solutum, tenue, brevissime 
expansum, superne profunde sinuatum fere angulation. Lamella supera 
obliqua, marginalis, valida, cum lame lid spirali continua, infera a supera 
valde remote, spiraliter recedens, brevissime compicua. Plica principalis 
long a, palatales duae maj ores' prof undae, ventrales, (antice intuenti suprd 
aperturam conspicuae), lunella nulla. Clausilium ? (non vidi.) 

Alt. 20, lat. 4, apert. long. 4, lat. 3 millim. 

Hab. This very fine novelty was discovered by Mr. de Koepstorff on 
the island of Camorta, Nicobars, under a fallen tree in a damp place. 

The small number of specimens — I have seen but two — has prevented 
as yet the examination of the inner structure of this interesting new 
Clausilia. This is the more to be regretted as it does not seem to 
belong to the same group as the only other species of the genus hitherto 
recorded from the Nicobars, CI. wullerstorffi, Zeleb. This species (of which 
I have seen one specimen in Brigade Surgeon Hungerford's collection) is nearly 
related to Gl.javana, Pfr., and should find its place in Bofctger's second 
section of Phaedusa (Pseudonenia) and therein in the 5th subgroup (" For- 
menkreis") of CI. javana. Our Clausilia nevilliana has nothing of the 
Nenia-like shape of that group, effected by the small number of whorls, 
the very large aperture, which is more or less protracted below. It is on 
the contrary rather slender, the aperture is rather small and though not 
very oblique still not quite vertical. The closing apparatus agrees pretty 
well with the characters given by Bottger of his section Acrophaedusa 
(Clausilienstudien, p. 64), viz., a very long " principal plait," two or three 
rather long and deep palatal plaits, no lunella, small parietal lamellse, piri- 
form aperture, not dilatate peristome. This group was created for two 
Javanese species, CI. cornea and junghuhni, Phil., and includes the Indian 
forms CI. monticola, Godw.-Aust., and aracana, Theob. Unless the break- 
ing up of a specimen should necessitate a different classification, I think 
that Clausilia nevilliana can more safely be considered to be an Acrophae- 

12 O. F. von Mollendorff — New Asiatic Clausili®. [No. 1, 

III. — Descriptions of so me new Asiatic Clausilia?. 

(Received and read May 3rd, 1882). 

Clausilia (Pseudomelia) andkbsoniana, n. sp., PI. I, Fig. 12. 

Testa ventricosulo-fusiformis, solidula, subtilissime striatula, fere 
laevigata, pallide corneofusca, apice obtusiuiculo ; anfr. 10 convexiusculi, 
ultimus valde attenuates, sub t us rot undatus, distinct ius striatus ; apertura 
parum obliqua, oblique piriformis, peristoma continuum, valde solutum, 
expansum, reflexiusculum, pallide corneum. Lamella parietalis supera 
obliqua, sat valida, cum spirali continua, infer a crassa ante marginem 
subabrupte desinens, subcolumellaris immersa. Plica principalis valde 
elongata, palatales tres subventrales, divergentes, infima arcuata. Clausi- 
lium ? 

Alt. 20, lat. 4, apert. long 4£, lat. Si mill. 

Has. In insula Mergui provinciae Tenasserim leg. Dr. Anderson. 

This fine new Clausilia, of which Dr. Anderson discovered only two 
specimens in Mergui, is, as Mr. Nevill justly pointed out to me, nearly 
related to 01. ins ignis, Gould, of the same province, to which species 
Dr. Bottger has assigned a separate group (" Forme nkreis") in his sub- 
section Pseudonenia of Phaedusa. It differs by the smaller size, less 
ventricose shape, the number of whorls 10 instead of 9, the more elongate 
and oblique aperture, the freer and more protruding peristome and its 
pale colouring and by the closing apparatus. The latter is much more 
immersed inasmuch as the palatal plaits of CI. insignis are lateral, while 
those of our novelty are nearly ventral and are, together with the inner 
end of the very long principal plait, conspicuous in the penultimate whorl 
above the aperture. Besides, the number of palatal plaits is only three 
against five of CI. insignis. 

I add the diagnoses of two new Japanese species, which have recently 
been obtained by Brigade Surgeon Hungerford. 

Clausilia micbopeas, n. sp. 

Testa gracilis, elongato-fusiformis, tenera, pellucida, subtiliter costu- 
lata ; pallide cornea ; anfr. 9| convexiusculi, apertura rotundato -pirifor- 
mis, peristoma continuum, solutum, expansum, reflexiusculum, albolabiatum. 
Lamella parietalis supera marginalis obliqua sat valida cum spirali con- 
tinua, infera valde remota, vix oonspicua, subcolumellaris immersa. Plica 
principalis sat brevis, pa /at a I is una supera brevis lateralis, interdum 

1882.] O. F. von Mollendorff — New Asiatic Clausilise. 13 

tecunda punctiformis. Clawilium linguiforme f marginibus parallel is, 
subtus acuminatum y haud incrassatum. 

Alt. 10i-lH, lat. 2J-2J, apert. alt. 2-2 J, lat. If -2 mill. 

Hab. Ad lacum Chinsinji insula Nippon leg. cl. B. Hungerford. 

Affinis Cl. gracilispirae differt numero anfractuum minore, habitu 
minus gracili, apertura paullo majore, plica principali breviore, plica pala- 
tali (plerumque) unica. Speciem u tram que ad subsectionem. Cylindro- 
phaedusam Boettgeri referendam esse existirno. 

Claijsilia (Hemiph^dusa) subulina, n. sp. 

Testa gracM-fusiformis, subtiliter striatula t solidula 9 subpellucida, 
t cornea, anfr. 10 subplani, ultimus rotundatus sub in/lotus, rugoso -striata*, 
apertura rotundato-piriformis, peristoma solutum, expansum, reflexiuscu- 
lum, incrassatum, albo-labiatwn, sup erne sinuatum. Lamella parietalis 
supera marginal is valida, obi i qua, cum spirali valida continua ; in/era 
remota, arUrorsum evanescent, nodulum ad marginem emittcns, subcolumel- 
laris emersa. Plica principalis modica, palatal is supera divergens, lunella 
lateralis subobsoleta vel plicis 2 aut 3 punctiformibus confluentibus 
eonstituta. Clausilium linguiforme sat angustum subtus rotundato-attenua- 
tum haud incrassatum. 

Alt. 16, lat. 3, apert. alt. 3fc, lat. 2 J- mill. 

Hab. Ad lacum Chinsinji iusulie Nippon leg. cl. R. Hungerford 
specimen unicum. 

Explanation op Plate I. 

Fig. 1. Clauiilia hungerfordiana, n. sp., x 2, p. 2. 

Fig. 2. — oostoma, n. sp., nat. size, p. 4. 

Fig. 3. — gracilispira, n. sp., x 2, p. o. 

Fig. 4. — — sericina, n. sp., x 2, p. 6. 

Fig. 6. — caryostoma, n. sp., x 2, p. 6. 

Fig. 6. ■ athiops, n. sp., nat. size, p. 7. 

Fig. 7. — tetraptyx, n. sp., x 2, p. 7. 

Fig. 8. — fusangensis, n. sp., nat. size, p. 8. 

Fig. 9. — — rectaluna, n. sp., x 2, p. 9. 

Fig. 10. aptychia, n. sp., x 2, p. 10. 

Fig. 11. — ntvilliana, n. sp., x 2, p. 11. 

Fig. 12. — wullerstorffi, Morch, nat. size, p. 11. 

Fig. 13. — andertoniana, n. sp., x 2, p. 12. 

! J. Wood-Mason & L. de Niceville— Second List of [No. 1, 

r . — Second IAtt of Diurnal Lepidoptera inhabiting ihe Nicobar Islands. 
By J. Wood-Mason, Deputy Superintendent of the Indian Museum, 
Calcutta, and h. he Nice'tille. 

[Beceived April lOUi ;— Head May 3rd, 1882.] 

(With Plate III.) 



Subfamily Dahaisjs. 

1. Radena bimilis, var. hicobaeica, W.-M. & de N. 

J. A. S. B. 1881, vol. 1, pt, ii, p. 22S, $ ? (woodcnt). 

Great Nicobar. 

2. Danaib limniace, Cramer. 

Naokowri, K amort a, and Katschall. 

1882.] Diurnal Lepidoptera from the Nicobar Islands* 15 


3. Danaib aglaioidss, Felder. 

Nankowri, Kamorta, Kar Nicobar, Katschall, Trinkut, and Great 

4. Dahais genutia, Cramer. 

Nankowri, Kar Nicobar, Kamorta, and Katschall. 

5. Danaib chbtsippus, Linn. 
One male from Katschall. 

6. Danais hegesipptts, var. nesipptts, Felder. 
Nankowri and Qreat Nicobar. 

7. Euplgsa espebi, Felder. 

Kamorta, Katschall, Pulo Kondul, and Trinkut, 

8. Ettflcea castelhaui, Felder. 

Kar Nicobar; and Mergui, Lower Tennasserim. 
•9. Euplcba notabje, Felder. 
Kar Nicobar (Felder) ; and Upper Tennasserim. 

10. Euploea camobta, Moore. 

Nankowri, Katsohall, Kamorta, and Kar Nicobar. 

11. Euplcea bimulatbix, W.-M. & de N., PL III, Fig. 1 f , 2 J . 

J. A. 8. B. 1881, vol. 1, p. 229, $ ; p. 228, 2 (as aberrant $ of E. camorta from 
<tt. Nic). 

9 . Wings above and below all lighter and more broadly bordered 
externally with paler of much the same tint as in E. camorta. 

Anterior wings above with an increasing series of three subapical spots, 
an elongated subcostal spot, a minute dot near the end of the cell, and 
a larger one just beyond it near the base of the interspace between the 
second and third median veinlets, all white. 

Posterior wings above spotless. 

Wings below with the discal spots of all, and the subapical ones of the 
anterior pair, larger and more prominent, but with the submarginal series of 
the posterior incomplete and less distinct, only two speck-like representa- 
tives of them being present in one wing and three in the other, with a 
short linear dash between the submedian and the first branch of the median 
forming a seventh circumcellular mark in the posterior ones, and with all 
the spots coloured as in the male. 

A second and smaller specimen approaches the male in the colour 
of the upperside and in the breadth of the pale outer borders ; it lacks 
the seventh circumcellular mark, and has only one indistinct representative 
of the submarginal series of dots, on the underside of the posterior wings. 

Length of the anterior wing 1'88 — 154 ; whence expanse = 3*86 

Great Nicobar. 

Appears to be very closely allied to the Javan E. sepulckralu, Butler. 

16 J. Wood-Mason & L. de Nice>ille — Second List of [No. I, 

Subfamily Satybim. 

12. Mycalesis medtis, Fabr. 

Nankowri, Kamorta, Katschall, and Great Nicobar. 

13. Mtcalesis dbttsia, Cramer. 

Nankowri, Kamorta, Kar Nicobar, Katschall, and Great Nicobar* 

14. Melanitis ismeite, Cramer. 
& $ . Kamorta. 

15. Elymntas mtmus, W.-M. & de N., PI. Ill, Fig. 3 £ , 4 q. 
Kar Nicobar, Pulo Kondul, Kamorta, and Katschall. 

Subfamily Nymphalinjb. 

16. Cethosia iqkobabica, Felder. 
Nankowri, Pulo Kondul, and Great Nicobar. 

17. Cibbiiochboa nicobarica, W.-M. & de N., PI. Ill, Fig. 5 £. 

J. A. S. B. 1881, vol. 1, p. 231, <?. 
Great Nicobar. 

18. Messabas ebymakthis, var. ntkobabica, Felder* 
Kamorta, Katschall, and Great Nicobar. 

19. Atella alcippe, Cramer. 

20. Pybameis cabdui, Linn. 

•21. Junonia astebie, var. nikobabiensis, Felder. 
Kar Nicobar (Felder). 

22. Junonia laomedia, Linn. 
Kamorta, Nankowri, and Katschall. 

23. Hypolimnas misipptts, Linn. 
# Nankowri and $ Katschall. 

24. Hypolimnas bolina, Linn. 
Great Nicobar and Tillangschong. 

25. Neptis nicobabica, Moore. 

Kamorta, Nankowri, Kar Nicobar, and Katschall. 
♦26. Neptis matuta, Hiibner. 
Nankowri (Felder). 

27. Neptis mananda, Moore. 
Kar Nicobar. 

28. Tanaecia cibabitis, Hewitson. 


29. Abisaba bifasciata, Moore. 
Kar Nicobar* 

1882.] Diurnal Lepidopterajfaw the ttcohar Islands. 17 

Family LYC.ENID2E. 

80. Cttbetib thetys, Drury. 
Nankowri and Trinkut. 
*31. Castamub mavlttena, Felder. 
Kondul (Felder). 
82. Lampides .sliantts, Fabr. 
Kamorta, Nankowri, Trinkut, and Katschall. 
33. Lampides pandava, Horsfield. 
Nankowri, Kamorta, Katschall, and Trinkut. 
84. Lampides stbabo, Fabr. 
Nankowri, Kamorta, and Trinkut. 

35. Lampides pabbhabius (Fabr.), Horsfield. 
Nankowri and Katschall. 

36. Lampides plato, var. kicobabictts, W.-M. & de N. 
Nankowri, Kamorta, Trinkut, and Katschall. 

» 37. Lampides abdates, Moore. 

Kamorta, Katschall, and Nankowri. 

88. Lampides plumbeomicans, var. nicobabictts, W.-M. & de N. 

•39. Lampides ckejtts, Fabr. 

Kamorta (Moore). 
•40. Lampides etnktjbka, Felder. 

Kar Nicobar {Felder) and Nankowri (Moore). 
•41. Lampides kantcena, Felder. 

Kar Nicobar (Felder). 
*42. Lampides kondtjlana, Felder. 

Kondul (Felder). 
♦43. Lampides macbophthalma, Felder. 

Pulo Milo (Felder). 

44. Lampides bosimon, Fabr. 



Kamorta, Katschall, and Trinkut. 


Kamorta, Katschall, and Trinkut. 
47. Hypolyc^bta thecloides, Felder. 
Nankowri and Katschall. 
•48. Sithon sraBiVA, var. abeca, Felder. 
Kar Nicobar ( Felder). 
49. Sithon kamobta, Felder. 

Numerous males from Kamorta, Nankowri, and Kar Nicobar ; and 
numerous females from Kamorta ; Great Nicobar (Felder), 

18 J. Wood-Mason & L. de Nic^ville— Second List of [No* I > 

*50. Deudohix oeseis, Howitson. 
Kamorta {Moore). 

51. Mybika atymnus, Cramer. 

Subfamily Piebinje. 

52. Teeias hecabe, Linn. 

Kamorta, Katschall, Trinkut, and Nankowri. 

53. Teeias hikobabiensis, Felder. 
Kamorta ; and Kar Nicobar {Felder). 

54. Tebias dboxa, Horsfield. 
Kamorta, Nankowri, and Katschall. 

55. Tachteis hippo, var. hippoides. 

Pap. hippo, Cramer, Pap. Exot. 1779, iii, pi. cxcv, figs. B. C, ?. 

A pair from Kamorta are nearest to the N. -Eastern Indian variety 
(T. hippoides, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1881, p. 312, <J ? ) ; differing 
only in the wings of the male being not quite so broadly margined with, 
brown either above or below. 

56. Tachtbis panda (Godart), Snell. v. Vollenhoven. 
Great Nicobar. 

57. Tachteis patjliaa, var. oalathea, Felder. 

Males and a female from Nankowri, Katschall, and Great Nicobar. 

The specimen of the latter sex differs from N.-E. Indian and Madras 
ones only in having the base and outer margin of the posterior wings washed 
with sulphureous. 

*58. Catopselia cbocale, Cramer. 

Kamorta (Moore). 

59. Piebis cobonis, var. lichekosa, Moore. 

Kar Nicobar and probably Kamorta. 

Subfamily Papilionin^. 


Nankowri, Kar Nicobar, Kamorta, Katschall, and Great Nicobar. 
61. Papilio polytes, var. nikobabus, Felder. 
Males and females of the 1st form from Nankowri and Kar Nicobar ; 
males from Pulo Kondul and Great Nicobar ; and one female of the 
2nd form from Nankowri or Kamorta. 
*62. Papilio agamkmkoh, Linn, 
Kamorta (Moore). 


*63. Tagiadbs kelfebi, Felder. 
Pulo Milo (Felder). 

1882.] Diurnal Lepidoptera/roja the Xicobar Islands. 19 

64. Tagiades bavi, Moore. 
Nankowri, Kamorta, and Katschall. 

65. Ismeke exclamationis, Fabr. 
One female from Kamorta. 

66. Ibmene malayana, Felder. 

Two females from Kamorta, and one from Katschall without the 
small semitransparent yellow discal speck between the two posterior branches 
of the median vein. 

67. Hespebia ooxaca, Moore. # 
Kamorta, Nankowri, Katschall, and Trinkut. 

68. Hespebia agna, Moore. 
Kamorta (Moore) and Katschall. 

69. Hespebia kaesaka, var. satubata. 

Hesperia kartana, Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1874, p. 576, 6* $, pi. Ixvii, 
fig. 6. 

Much darker and without a trace of sputs on the upperside. 
One female from Kamorta ; and Kulu, N. W. Himalayas. 

70. Pamphila palmabum, Moore. 
Nankowri and Katschall. 

71. Telegonus THTB8IS, Fabr. 
Probably from Nankowri. 

Although upwards of one thousand specimens, the product of a whole 
year's collecting carried on by Mr. de Roepstorff in conjunction with the 
native collectors whom Col. Cadell, Chief Commissioner of the Andaman 
and Nicobars, had so courteously placed at our disposal, have been examined 
since our first little list of Nicobar Butterflies was published in this Jour- 
nal, we have but seven fresh species to add to that list. The meagreness 
of this result appears to be entirely due to the exceptional difficulties that 
beset the path of the collector of zoological specimens at the Nicobars, 
—difficulties arising partly from the unhealthiness of the climate, and partly 
from the visits of the settlement- officers to the more distant and produc- 
tive islands, such as Katschall, Teressa, and Great Nicobar, being necessarily 
so few and of such short duration, but chiefly no doubt from the almost 
complete absence of clearings and of paths through the dense and often 
impenetrable forests, and the consequent uniform distribution of attractive 
flowering plants and anthophilous insects, — and not to the poverty of 
the fauna, for the above list speaks to this being a rich one, and, besides, 
it would be unreasonable to suppose that a group of islands clothed, as the 
Nicobars are, almost to the water's edge, with a rich and fairly varied 
tropical vegetation only supported some 70 species, or little more than one 

20 J. Wood-Mason & L. de Niceville — Second List of Butter/lie*, Sfe, 

third of the number that could in one season be obtained in the Calcutta 
district, which has been under cultivation for ages. But small as the net 
results of our work are, they already afford a tolerably clear indication that 
the Nicobar fauna, so far as the Rhopalocerous portion of it is concerned, 
possesses a much stronger Malayan element in its composition than that 
of the Andamans, whence we have received twice the number of distinct 
species. It would be premature to attempt a detailed analysis, but we 
cannot allow this opportunity to pass by without pointing out that, of 
the five recorded species of JEupJcea, three are unquestionably Malayan 
forms, and that neither of the five is represented either in peninsular and 
northern India or at the Andamans ; that the only Elymnias is a local 
form of a Javan species with a representative in Burneo ; that the Javan 
Tachyris panda appears never to have been before recorded from any place 
so far to the westward as Great Nicobar ; that Hypolyccena thee hides has 
hitherto only been reported from the Malay Peninsula and Singapore ; 
that in Sithon Jcamorta and 8. areea we have two striking and congeneric 
lycsenids whose affinities are decidedly Malayan, instead of one, as in the 
Andamans ; and that the Nicobar form of Badena similis more nearly 
resembles the Javan than it does any other. 

In conclusion, we have to state that in the foregoing list Hesperia 
agna = P. mathias of our former paper (see Moore, Lep. Ceylon, where the 
differences between these too closely allied forms are for the first time 
pointed out), that JEuploea castelnaui = JS phoebm (Mr. W. L. Distant 
having made out to his own satisfaction and to ours that Felder's name has 
priority over Butler's), and that Danais genutia, Cramer = D. plexipput 
(Messrs. Salvin and Godman and others having recently shown that Linne's 
D. plexippus is not the Oriental species which had so long gone by that 
name, but an American species, and that the former ought to be known 
by the name bestowed upon it by Cramer) ; and we ought after having 
so pointedly drawn attention to their apparent absence, also to draw atten- 
tion to fact of the presence, at the Nicobars of Hypolimnas misippus % 
and of Papilio polytes $ second form, which latter, however, would appear 
to be of exceedingly rare occurrence. 

An asterisk (*) is prefixed to the names of those recorded species of 
which we have not as yet received specimens. 

Explanation op Plate III. 
Fig. 1. EupUea simulatrix, W.-M. & do N., £. 

Fig. 2. ?. 

Fig. 8. Elymnias mimus, W.-M. & de N., £ . 

Fig. 4. ? . 

Fig. 5. Cirrhoehroa nicobarica, W.-M. & do N., $ . 

1882.] J. Wood-Mason — On new and little-known Mantodea. 21 

Y. — On new and little-known Mantodea.— 2fy J. Wood-Mason. 

(Bead August 2nd, 1882.) 

Stal, Oefersigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akad. forhand. Stockholm, 1873, p. 401. 

I received an imperfect spirit specimen of this small but remarkable 
form several years ago from Nazeerah, Assam ; and, while I was in Eng- 
land on furlough in 1877-79, Professor Westwood presented me with a 
dried female which, although also defective in many respects, has those 
parts present that in the Assam insect are absent, and which enables me to 
complete Stal's somewhat imperfect diagnosis drawn up from a specimen 
that had lost its abdomen. This part is long and almost linear, tapering 
very slightly and gradually towards the extremity, which extends a short 
distance beyond the closed organs of flight ; its supra-anal plate is trian- 
gular with the sides slightly concave, as long as it is broad at the base, and 
carinate ; and the cerci are racket* shaped, the basal joints being cylindri- 
cal, the two penultimate ones compressed and subfoliaceous, and the last 
expanded into a great broadly-oval plate. The anterior tibia? have the 
tarsus inserted rather nearer to the base than to the apex, although from 
Stal's description — " tarsia anticis ante medium tibiarum insertis" — one 
would have expected to find the reverse of this to be the case. 


Chceradodis bbunnebi, n. sp. 

$ . Closely allied to Oh. rhomb icollis, Latr., and Ch. Sernillei, W.-M., 
differing from both in the size, shape, and position of the femoral blotch 
(which is nearly thrice as long as broad, extends rather further in front 
of the ungual groove than it does behind it, and is followed by four black 
puncta arranged along the lower margin of the joint at the bases of alter- 
nate spines), and in having the posterior margin of the pronotum slightly 
convex instead of concave ; from the former in its much narrower and 
from the latter in its rather broader tegmina ; and from the latter in the 
upper margin of its fore femora being coarsely granulated, and sinuous 
instead of straight, in which latter respect it approaches the former. 

Hab. Santa Pe* de Bogota, New Granada. The nymph from Bogota 
assigned, by me (J. A. S. B., 1880, Vol. XL1X, pt. II, p. 83) with hesi- 
tation to Oh. rhombicollis agrees perfectly with the specimen briefly de- 
scribed above in the form and colouring of the fore femora and without 

22 J. Wood-Mason — On new and little-known Mantodea. [No. 1, 

doubt belongs to the same species, as also in aljpprobability do the specimens 
from New Granada named Ch. %trumaria by St&l. 

Ranssure, Mel. Orthopt. 3 me fasc. Suppl. 1871, p. 378, 9 » fr° m Djeddah. 

For the first specimen of an Eremophila from the desert country 
on the north-western frontier of India, I am indebted to Mr. Francis 
Fedden, of the Geological Survey, who obtained it in Western Sind. It is a 
female, and it differs from de Saussure's .description of the above species 
only in having five instead of four spines on the outer edge of the fore 
tibi®. I have recently received from Mr. Murray of the Karachi Museum 
three females and two males of the same species, which, exhibit a consider- 
able amount of variation in size, in the roughness of the integument, and 
in the number of spines on the outer edge of the fore tibia*, two specimens 
having only four and another only three developed on one tibia but the 
usual number on the other in each case. A male taken some years ago in 
the Suliman Range, and presented to me with some other insects, by 
Professor V. Ball, differs from the Sind specimens in having the band on 
the underside of the tegmina broader and 14. teeth instead of 13 on the 
inner side of the fore tibiae. 

The four posterior legs, of which de Saussure makes no mention in his 
description, and which may have been wanting in his type specimen, are 
all annulated with brown and roughened with spiniform granules on the 
upperside in the Indian specimens. 

No species of this remarkable desert genus has before been recorded 
from any place further to the eastward than Djeddah in Arabia. 

Tarachodes insidiatob, n. sp. 

& . Body and appendages brown of the colour of a dead and decayed 
leaf. Antennae rather coarsely setaceous. Pronotum with a polished 
conical spine on each side at the junction of the anterior with the lateral 
margin, which is obsoletely denticulated as far back as the level of the 
supracoxal groove. 

Organs of flight extending by about 1/6 of their length beyond the 
extremity of the abdomen, not quite perfectly hyaline, being just per- 
ceptibly milky, with the veins and veinlets horn-coloured, short-streaked or 
annulated with darker in the anterior area of both pairs, though much less 
distinctly so in the wings than in the tegmina, the latter semiopaque 
horny anteriorly, as also are the former in a less degree ; the stigma of 
the latter long and linear, pale whity-brown, almost colourless. 

Legs obsoletely and rarely punctated and mottled with darker, and 
only moderately pubescent. The anterior ones marked with darker- brown 
(P red in the living insect) on the inner surface, the smooth-crested coxa 

1882.] J. Wood- Mason — On new and little-known Mantodea. 23 

being tipped at both ends, the trochanter streaked, and the femur orna- 
mented along the middle with a streak commencing at the base and taper- 
ing to a point before the extremity of the joint ; fore tibia furnished with 
15 and 13 spines on the inner and outer edges respectively. 

Abdomen slightly fusiform, with at least the 2nd to 7th of its ventral 
arcs bimaculated with dark brown. Cerci rather broad. 

Total length 47 millims. ; height or length of head 65, breadth 8 ; 
length of pronotum 115, greatest breadth (between the lateral bulgings) 
6; length of meso. + metanobum = 10; of abdomen 235, greatest 
breadth of abdomen 6'75 ; length of tegmina 40, breadth (just before the 
middle) 11*5, of the marginal field 2 ; length of wings 85 ; length of fore 
coxa 7, femur 10 ; of intermediate femur 7, tibia 6 75 ; of posterior femur 
8*75, tibia 8*75 ; of cerci. 7. 

Hah. Nyassa. 

Tabachodes dissimulator, n. sp. 

£ . Pale greyish testaceous or earth-coloured, with the head, the upper 
(outer in the anterior ones) surface of the legs, and the pronotum symme- 
trically, speckled and mottled with darker. 

Head with the line of the vertex very slightly bisinuous. Antennae 
extremely finely-setaceous. Pronotum with two conical tubercles on each 
side at the junction of the obsoletely denticulate lateral with the anterior 
margin, which latter has a minute rounded median emargination. 

Organs of flight in repose extending but little beyond the extremity 
of the abdomen, not quite hyaline, with veins and veinlets pale testaceous 
marked, especially in their anterior are®, with dark brown short coalescent 
streaks, both more clouded anteriorly, the tegmina with an oval discoidal 
pale patch before the middle devoid of dark marks followed by another 
irregular and less distinct ; the stigma shorter and brownish. Legs and 
leg- bases long-pubescent ; the anterior pair internally yellowish and 
conspicuously marked with shining black, the coxa (which has its upper 
crest minutely 4-denticulate) throughout except at its two ends, and the 
femur from the base to the end of the second third, processes being given 
off from the lower margin of the black patch to all but the apical one of 
the black spines of the inner and inferior crest and from its distal end 
along each side of the femoral brush ; fore tibia? armed internally with 14 
teeth concolorous with the outer surface and internally with the same 
number of jet-black spines. 

Prosternum marked behind the middle with a large and conspicuous 
deep, but dead, black cordiform blotch, which is succeeded by a pair of 
similarly coloured puncta placed near the posterior margin of the somite ; 
and by a small roundish, also dead black, spot on the middle of the meta- 
thoracic sternum. 

24 J. Wood-Mason — On new and little-known Mantodea. [No. 1, 

Abdomen more broadly fusiform ; its cerci, though narrow, have the 
four or five terminal joints distinctly foliaceous. 

Total length 41 millims. ; height of head 6, breadth 7 25 ; length of 
pronotum 10 5, greatest breadth 5*25 ; length of meso. + metanotum 9 ; 
of abdomen 20, greatest breadth 7 ; length of tegmina 31, breadth 8 5, of 
the marginal field 1*5 ; length of wings 26 ; of fore coxa 6 5, femur 95 ; 
of intermediate femur 65, tibia 6 ; of posterior femur 75, tibia 7*5 ; of 
cerci 5*5. 

Hab. Cameroon Mountains, West Africa. 

Genus Didymocobypha, W.-M. 

Ann, and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1877, March, p. 222. 


Didymocorypha ensifera, Wood-Mason, loo. cit. " 
Fyrgocoti* gracilipe*, Stal, Syst. Mant. 1877, p. 17, £. 

In the structure of the head this remarkable form differs from the 
similar and allied Pyrgomantis of Africa in having the juxtocular lobes 
prolonged into two tall cones which touch one another in the middle line 
instead of the middle of the vertex together with the juxtocular lobes 
elevated into a median azygous process. 

The part of my description {loc. supra cit.) relating to the prothorax 
should read thus : — " Prothorax narrow, with its sides suparallel, slightly 
narrowed behind the insertion of the fore legs, then widening again slightly 
to its base ; its supracoxal dilatation and cervical groove hardly perceptible ; 
its neck quadrate; its disk," Ac., &c. 

The structural differences between the Asiatic Schizocephala bicorni* 
and the African Episcopu* (olim Schizocephala) chalybeus are of similar 
kind and of equal importance ; in the former the " ocular spines" are in 
reality prolongations of the juxtocular lobes of the vertex, while in the 
latter the faceted cornea of the eyes is itself produced upwards into a 
conspicuous spine. 

Hab. Tinpahar, on the eastern flank of the Bajm&hal Hills ; Ceylon 
(St&l) ; and Kulu, Kangra, in the N.-W. Himalayas. 

The names proposed by me for this remarkable form have priority over 
those of Stal by several months. 

Episgopus chaltbeus. 

Schizottphala chalybea, Burm., Handb. d. Entom. 1839, vol. ii, p. 652. 
Oxyophthalma chalybea, Saussure, Mil. Orthopt. 4me fasc. 1872, p. 12, fig. 22 «, £ . 
Epi»eopu9 chalybcu*, Stal, Syst. Mant. 1877) p. 18, from Damara Land. 

9 . Organs of flight abbreviated. Tegmina about 1£ times as long a* 
the pronotum, scarcely extending to the middle of the fourth abdominal 

1882.] J. Wood-Mason — On new and little-known Mantodea. 25 

somite, thin-coriaceous, opaque, light yellowish green, the anal gusset alone 
membranous and semihyaline. Wings reaching to a little beyond the end of 
the 3rd abdominal somite reduced nearly to a quadrant of a circle, their 
anal emargination almost none, their anterior area semicoriaceous, yellow, 
their posterior area at the base and along the abdominal margin membra- 
nous and milky like the anal gusset of the tegmina, ornamented in the 
middle by a large violet-brown metallic blotch (on which the veins are 
broadly margined with paler and yellower brown), at the basal end of which 
are 3 or 4 small opaque yellowish spots on transverse veinlets, and between 
which and the outer margin are alternate arcs of violet-brown and opaque 

Total length 47 millims. j length of pronotum 11 ; of tegmina Id ; of 
wings 125. 

Hab. South Africa (J. P. Mantel Weale). 


St&l, SyBt. Mant., 1877, p. 18, & non £ , from Bengal. 

9 . Wings and tegmina, abbreviated, semiopaque ; the latter scarcely 
longer than the pronotum, yellowish horny with the meshes all faintly 
smoky or sordid, and with the apex and a discoidal punctular spot fuscous ; 
the former with the anal emargination very slight and shallow and obtuse- 
angled, with the anterior area reddish -horny tipped with fuscous, and the 
posterior bright yellow and bearing near the base a large oval dark violet- 
fuscous patch, which is succeeded by a number of concentric lines of the 
same colour extending to and becoming successively closer and closer to- 
gether towards the outer margin, where they unite to form with the fuscous 
apex a fuscous outer border decreasing from the apex to the posterior angle 
of the organs. 

Total length 56 millims. ; length of pronotum 18 ; of tegmina 19, 
width of tegmina 6 ; length of wings 15. 

£ . 9 . Anterior femora marked on the inside just in front of the 
ungual groove by a small round black spot. 

Hab. $ 9 Kulu, Eangra, in the N.-W. Himalayas and Bengal 

Var. bbevipennis. 9 . Organs of flight more abbreviated ; the tegmina 
being shorter than the pronotum, and the wings having the shape of a 
quadrant of a circle* with the anal emargination less evident. 

Length of pronotum 18*75, of tegmina 155, and of wings 125 millims. 
Hab. Bangalore, Mysore, S. India : obtained by a soldier of H. M.'s 
45th Begt., whom I formerly employed to collect for the Museum. 

The eyes in all specimens of the species are furnished near the summit 
with a very minute and smooth granule, or blind spot, overlooked by Still. 

26 J. Wood-Mason— 0» new and little-known Mantodea. [No. 1, 

Subfamily MANTID.B. 


9. Body and appendages pale fleshy brown or earth-coloured thickly 
punctulated and marbled with darker ; the still darker markings of the 
tegmina and- legs of a rich warm vandyke-brown, arranged on the latter 
in rings, especially on their two terminal divisions ; postacetabular portion 
of the prosternum, all but the anterior margin of the mesosternum, and the 
intermediate coxae internally, jet-black. 

Facial shield crescentic, about thrice as broad at its anterior or inferior 
margin as it is long. Fronotum strongly dilated at the insertion of the 
fore legs, whence it narrows to either end, its setulose margins scarcely 
denticulated and slightly hollowed out posteriorly ; the disc of its anterior 
lobe convex, raised into a prominent trilobed obcordiform boss, that of its 
posterior lobe bearing an indistinct raised median longitudinal line, on 
either side of which is a row of smooth and very low rounded tubercles 
arranged in four pairs, of which the one next to the posterior margin of the 
somite is the most prominent, coloured dark brown, and separated from 
those in front by a transverse depression. 

Tegmina subcoriaceous, abbreviated, about 2£ times as long as the 
pronotum, not reaching to the extremity of the abdomen, their marginal 
field spotted longitudinally with rich dark brown, their veins and long 
linear stigma whity-brown, the former spotted and streaked with dark 
brown, their membrane concolorous with the body and legs, their discoidal 
field marked across the middle of its length with a large spot or band 
narrower at each end and broader in the middle, their posterior area or 
anal gusset with the meshes brown and the net-work whity-brown, their 
interior radial vein and the first branch of the ulnar both simple and un- 
divided, and the anal and axillary veins anastomosed very close to the 
posterior margin. Wings semiopaque, dull red, with the outer margin of 
both areas rather narrowly margined with fuscous, on which the transverse 
veins are whity-brown indistinctly edged with subhyaline ; anterior margin 
having the veins towards the apex streaked with darker and the membrane 
paler and consequently presenting a spotted appearance ; anal emargination 
distinct, the apex of the posterior area reaching the level of that of the 


Legs all annulated with bands of brown punctulations, the anterior 
ones externally ; with the first joint of the tarsus in all longer than the 
rest taken together. Anterior tibia more richly (almost black) banded 
internally than externally, armed below in the outer edge witli 11 and on 
the inner with 9 spines exclusive in each case of the terminal claw ; anterior 

1882.] J. Wood-Mason— On new and little-known Man tod ea. 27 

COZ8B scarcely denticulated on the upper crest, furnished with hairs rather 
than with spines, punctulate externally but internally washed with fuscous 
along the middle ; femora dilated, triangular, only about twice as long as 
broad with their superior crest sharp and arcuate, and with a large oval 
black blotch preceded by and marked with a whity-brown patch on their 
inner face. 

Total length (about) 28 millims.; length of pronotum 575, of 
which the anterior lobe is 2 5, width of pronotum at dilatation 3*5 ; width 
of head 53 ; length of tegmina 15, width of tegmina 45, of marginal 
field 1 ; length of wings 12, width of their fuscous outer border about 1 ; 
length of fore coxa 6, femur 6'5, width of femur at angulation 3 ; length of 
intermediate femur 8, tibia 6, tarsus 6 ; of posterior femur 9, tibia 95, 
tarsus 9'5. 

Hab. A single specimen was obtained at Minthantoung, on the 
Tenasseriin river, near Mergui, by Dr. J. Anderson on December 22nd, 1882. 


Manlis (TheepUJ thoracic*, De Haan, Orthopt Orient p. 94, 2 . 

PhaemomanUe ? thoracic*, Saussure, Melanges Orthopt i. 3° faso. p. 192 (44) ; 
ibid. p. 403 (279). 

FUcheria thoracica, Saussure, op. cit. ii. 4 e fasc. p. 68. 

Buchomcna thoracic*, Wood-Mason, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 5th ser. vol. i, 1878, 
p. 144, $ . 

Mantis heteroptera, De Haan, op. cit, p. 78, pi. xviii, fig. 1, $ (nee fig. 2, $J. 

Many years ago I recognized an insect obtained by my native collector 
at Johore in the Malay peninsula, as the Mantis thorftcica of De Haan, a 
species briefly described in Latin from a specimen without locality, and in 
1878 I published a short account of it referring it to the genus Euchomena. 
I have since received from Mr. H. O. Forbes, who obtained the insects at 
Bantam in the island of Java, two spirit-specimens of the male of De 
Haan's Mantis heteroptera, which, on comparison with the female insect 
above-mentioned, prove to be examples of the opposite sex. The insect 
from Celebes considered by De Haan to be the female of his Mantis 
heteroptera consequently represents, as indeed its totally different structure 
shows, a totally distinct species, for which the name heteroptera may con- 
veniently be retained. 

The following are the measurements of one of Mr. Forbes' specimens 
of the male : — 

Total length of body 62*5 millims. ; height of head 3, breadth of head 
6 ; length of pronotum 28, of which the anterior lobe is 5, breadth of 
pronotum at narrowest part just behind dilatation 1*5 ; length of tegmina 
85, width of tegmina across middle 6, width of marginal Geld 1*3 ; length 

2S J. Wood-Mason — On new and little-known Mantodea. [No. 1, 

of abdomen 24 ; of fore coxa 12*5, of femur 15, of its unarmed part 8 ; of 
intermediate femur 15, tibia 12 5 ; of posterior femur 16 3, tibia 16 3. 

The fore tibiae are armed with 7 — 14 teeth. 

The legs are all banded and the apex of the fore femur is dark brown 
on the inner face, as in the female. 


Monti* b-dens, MacLeay, King's Survey. 

Hierodula quinguedens, Mel. Orthopt. 4me fasc. p. 42, $ . 

This curious species unquestionably belongs to the section SpKodro- 
poda as by St&l denned ; being provided with a marginal series of tubercles 
on the under surface of the anterior lobe of the pronotum, as well as with 
a prseacetabular spine, and having the margins of the outer face of the fore 
femora granulated. The form and colouring of the fore coxae are remark* 
able : these are broadly bevelled rather than grooved at the upper margin 
of their inner face, and the bevelled edge is rich orange-coloured marked 
with white or lighter vertical stripes, the prolonged bases of the margi- 
nal spines, the rest of the surface being pale violet. The colours of the 
tegmina and wings are no less remarkable, the latter being hyaline yellow, 
but the former opaque reddish brown varied with yellow of the colour of the 
stigma throughout except on the under side of the marginal field, which 
is red-violet broadly bordered externally with black. 

The front edge of the tegmina is denticulate, but the four posterior 
femora are devoid of all traces of a lateral ridge ; as in J3T. (&) dentifrotu, 

Hab. Trinity Bay and the northern territoiy of South Australia 
(0. French). 


Hierodula licarinata, Saussure, Bull. Ent. Suisse, vol. iii, 1869, p. 68, £ ? , et Mel 
Orthopt. 3me fasc. 1871, p. 222, pi. 5, fig. 22, ? . 

Mantis kerateni, Gerstaeckcr, Arch. f. Natarg. 1869, p. 209, 6*, et v. d. Decken's 
Beisen in Ost-Africa 2te Band 2to Abth., 1873, p. 13. 

I have a large series of both sexes of this species from the Cameroon 
Mountains, Somali Land, South Africa, and Sierra Leone. 

Like the closely allied H. gastrica, St&l, this species has the front 
edge of the tegmina strongly toothed* so as to serve as a stridulatiug 
organ, and a strong ridge on the apical half of the upper or posterior 
face of each of the posterior femora, by which doubtless the toothed edge 

* See Fig. 2 of my memoir ' On the Presence of a Stridulating Apparatus in 
certain Mantida,' in Trans. Ent. Soc. 1878, p. 263 et seq. 

1832.] J. Wood Mason — On new and little-known Mantodea. 20 

of the partially separated tegmina is rubbed ; for, if the tegmina of a 
limply-articulated spirit- specimen be moved horizontally outwards, so as to 
be slightly separated from one another, their toothed anterior margin comes 
quite naturally into relation with these ridges, and, if either of the four 
posterior legs be then rapidly moved backwards and forwards, a crepitating 
or rasping sound is given out, which in the living insect, with its wings 
so disposed as to act as resonators, would, I feel confident, be as loud as 
that made by many grasshoppers in scraping their toothed femora across 
the sharp projecting nervures of their tegmina. 

While I was engaged in correcting the first proof of this paper 
Mr. J. G. Furnivall, a gentleman who had lived and travelled for many 
years in South Africa, informed me that stridulating Mantises very fre- 
quently came under his notice during his residence in that country ; that 
the sounds emitted by them were as loud as, but more crepitating in 
character than, the hiss of a large snake j and that, on account of their 
possessing these sound- producing powers in so eminent a degree, it was 
a common practice with native children to bring specimens of them 
alive as curiosities to the European settlers. The species observed by 
Mr. Furnivall was in all probability Idolomorpha capensis, Burmeister. 

Hiebodula (Sphodbomantis) ababica, n. sp. 

Hitrodula trimacula, Wood-Mason, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1878, 5th ser. vol. i, 
p. 147, {nee Sanssure). 

9 . Very closely allied to H. (&) bioculata, Burm., but differing in 
its much less expanded pronotum (which is scarcely more enlarged ante- 
riorly than that of JET. trimacula), in its more pointed and thinner tegmina 
(which are thin-coriaceous in the marginal field, but membranous and only 
slightly clouded throughout behind the principal nervure), in its less 
strongly spined cox® (two or three spines of which are similarly connected 
with yellowish callosities on the inner face), and in the four-branched dis- 
ooidal vein of its wings. 

Total length 65 ; length of head 7*75 ; breadth of head 9'5 ; length 
of pronotum 22*3, of which the anterior lobe is 6*5 ; length of tegmina 
43, breadth 13, of marginal field 4 ; length of wings 37 ; of fore coxa 17, 
femur 20 ; of intermediate femur 17*5, tibia 17 ; of posterior femur 21, 
tibia 235. 

Hab. Oman, Arabia. Obtained by Colonel Miles. 

The anterior edge of the tegmina is delicately toothed and the four 
posterior femora are laterally ridged ; the sides of the anterior lobe of the 
pronotum are peculiarly straightened as if truncate ; and the fore tibiae are 
armed with 10 teeth on the outside and with 16 or 17 on the inside. 

30 J. Wood-Mason — On new and little-fawwn Mantodea. [No. 1* 

Hieeodtjla (Sphodbo mantis) muta, n. sp. 

?. Of small or moderate size, green. 

Facial shield broader than long, 2-4 carinate, the two lateral carinas 
obsolescent. Fronotum of about the same shape and proportions as in 
H. trimacula, but with the margins more narrowly rounded at the dilata- 
tion, and very distinctly denticulate nearly to the base of the posterior 

Organs of flight extending little if at all beyond the extremity of the) 
abdomen, with the apex of their anterior area sharply pointed. The 
tegmina coriaceous with the posterior margin broadly, and the anal 
area wholly, membranous ; their anterior edge appearing indistinctly 
and irregularly jagged under a lens ; their stigma elongate, narrow, with a 
brown point at either end. Wings hyaline a little obscured with greenish 
along the front margin and at the very apex, where, also, the transverse 
venulation is denser ; their discoidal vein two-branched on one side and 
three on the other. 

Fore coxa armed on the upper crest with numerous very small 
teeth (five or six of which, a little larger than the rest, are yellow-based, 
and arise from the inner face), devoid of the usual marginal groove, but 
ornamented on the inner face with two large subquadrate or subrotundate 
depressed yellow spots extending from the edge of the upper crest for 
more than two-thirds of the distance towards the lower margin, separated 
from one another by a large oblong jet-black spot about 1} times as large 
as either of them, and each bounded at its free end by a jet-black line, and 
with a very much smaller yellow spot touching the black encircling line 
of the basal one of the large spots ; posterior femora not ridged on their 
upper or posterior faces, as in the stridulating species. The fore tibiae 
are armed in the outer side with 10 (there are only 8 and a rudiment on 
one tibia, owing probably to an injury received during larval life), and on 
the inner with 13 teeth. 

Total length 57 millims. ; length of head 6*5, breadth of head 8 ; 
length of pronotum 19, of which the anterior lobe is 6, breadth of pronotum 
at dilatation, 6 ; length of tegmina 36, breadth of tegmina 10, breadth 
of marginal field 3 ; length of wings 31 ; of fore coxa 13, femur 16*5 ; 
of intermediate femur, 16, tibia 13'5 ; of posterior femur 20, tibia 20*5. 

Hab. Cameroon Mountains, West Africa. 

Mantis simulacrum, Fabr., Ent. Syst. vol. ii, 21, 34 

Barm., Handb. d. Entom, vol. ii, p. 636. 

Eierodula simulacrum, Saussure, Mil. Orthopt. 3me fasc. p. 225, fig., 23, 9,23 $ . 

A specimen of the female has been received from Mr. H. O. Forbes 
from Bantam in Java. 

1882.] J. Wood-Mason — On new and little-lcnown Mantodea. 81 


S . Allied to JET. vitrea y Stoll, from which it differs in being larger and 
much more robust, in its much more opaque tegmina (which are finely 
serrated on the anterior margin so as to serve as stridulating organs), in 
having the fore tibiae armed with 12 and 15 instead of 11 and 14 teeth, 
in having the basal half and the lower apical lobe of the fore coxae, 
with the lower half of the base of the fore femora to a little beyond the 
ungual groove, washed with red on the inside, in the prosternum and mesos- 
ternum being symmetrically punctated with dark red-brown of the colour 
of the lower apical lobe of the fore femora, and in the tegmina being 
bordered in front with pale red-violet on the underside. 

Total length 85 millims. ; length of pronotum 30*5, of which the 
anterior lobe is 9, breadth at supracoxal dilatation 10 ; length of tegmina 
52, breadth 205, breadth of marginal field 6*5 ; length of fore coxa 19, 
femur 24 ; of intermediate femur 20, tibia 18 ; of posterior femur 23*5, 
tibia 25 ; breadth of head 12, length 10. 

The discoidal vein of the wings is 4 and 5-branched in the type 
specimen, 3 and 4 in another, and 3 and 4 in a third, in which the anterior 
branch of the three-branched wing is forked. 

Hab. Near Trinity Bay, Australia (0. French), Nine specimens, 
3 adult females, and 3 nymphs of each sex. 


9 . Differs from typical Hierodula atricoxti, W.-M., in its larger 
size, in the relatively narrower foliaceous expansions of its pronotum, and 
in having the two anterior black spots of the prosternum squarish instead 
of pyrif orm. 

Total length about 100 millims. ; length of pronotum 33, of which 
the anterior lobe is 10, greatest breadth of pronotum 16, breadth of pri- 
mitive pronotum at supracoxal dilatation 11*5 ; length of tegmina 62, 
breadth of tegmina 23 6, breadth of marginal field 7*5 ; length of fore 
coxa 21*5, femur 27 ; of intermediate femur 22*5, tibia 205 ; of posterior 
femur 27, tibia 295. 

Hab. Murray Island, Torres Straits. 


Mantis Jlava, De Haan, Orthopt. Orient, p. 68, £ ? , from Java. 
Mantis maeropsis, Giebel, Zeitschr. f. gesammt. naturwiss. 1861, p. HI, from Banka. 
Hierodula (RhomboderaJ maeropsis, Sauflsure, Mel. Orthopt. 3 me fasc. p. 218, fig. 
IS, ? ; SuppL p. 408 ; et 4me fasc. p. 36, $ . 

A specimen of tbe female of this very distinct species has been for- 
warded to me from Bantam in Java by Mr. H. O. Forbes. 

82 J. Wood-Mason — On new and little -known Mantodea. [No. 1» 

The fore margin of the tegmina is minutely and irregularly jagged, 
but not modified to serve as a stridulating organ, as in some of the other 
Eastern species of the same section. 


Mantis basalts, Be Haan, Orthopt. Orient, p. 67 9 . 

Hisrodula (Rhombodera) basalis, Saoseure, M61. Orthopt 4 me fasc. p. 35, fig. 6, 
7, ? , from Java and Malacca. 

Three fine specimens of the female were recently obtained near Mergui 
by Br. J. Anderson, all having the stigma encircled with rich dark brown* 
From the anal orifice of one of them, there project the terminal coils of 
two specimens of a species of Gordiw measuring five and eight inches 
in length respectively. 

The fore margin of the tegmina is not serrated. 

Mantis, Linn., Sauss. 

All the species furnished with 9 spines (African) on the outer edge 
of the fore tibia are distinguished from those (European, Asiatic, and 
African) with only 7 by having marginal denticles on the under surface 
of the anterior lobe of the pronotum, as in Sphodropoda and Sphodromantit, 
sections of Hierodula. 

The following species belongs to this category :— • 

Mantis callifeba, n. sp. 

2 . Pronotum much slenderer than in M. pia, Serville, and more 
suddenly narrowed behind the insertion of the fore legs. 

Anterior coxse armed on the upper crest with numerous minute den- 
ticles, and ornamented on the inside with four large highly polished convex 
oval callosities (red or yellow in the living insect) connected with the 
bases of as many minute spines springing from the side of the crest ; femora 
without black marks ; tibiae armed with 9 spines on the outer edge and 13 
on the inner in one specimen and with 8 to 9 and 12 to 13 in the other. 

Total length about 62 millims. ; of pronotum 2075, of which the 
posterior lobe is 15, width of pronotum at dilatation 5'26 ; length of 
tegmina 47 ; of fore coxa 14, femur 18 ; of intermediate femur 14, tibia 11 ; 
of posterior femur 17'5, tibia 17"5. 

Hab. Cape of Good Hope, — two specimens. 

Ibis obientalis, n. sp. 

6*. 8. Much slenderer than I. orator ia, Linn., from which it also 
differs in being without a trace of talc-like fenestra in the anterior area 
of the wings. 

o* . Organs of flight long, very delicately clouded with green and 
almost perfectly hyaline everywhere except in the marginal field of the 

1882.] J. Wood-Mason — On new and little-known Mantodea. -38 

tegmina and at the anterior margin of the wings, in which parts thej 
are semiopaque bright green ; posterior area of wings ornamented with 
a large oval violet-fuscous subbasal blotch succeeded by four or five 
concentric lines of the same colour, which are successively narrower and 
less distinct from within outwards. 

$. Organs of flight much abbreviated. Tegmina semicoriaceous, 
light bright green like the body and legs. Wings reduced nearly to a qua- 
drant of a circle, the margin and the apex of their anterior area yellowish- 
green, the rest of the anterior, together with the bade of the posterior, area 
dull wine-red, their posterior area bearing a huge violet-fuscous discal 
blotch, between which and the outer margin the ground-colour is yellow 
marked with a series of about four concentric violet-fuscous lines sue* 
cessively decreasing in width and distinctness from within outwards. 

Total length $ 40, 9 42 millims. ; length of pronotum $ 11, 

$ 12, width of pronotum at dilatation & 3, 2 3 5 ; length of tegmina 

a 28, $ 13, width of tegmina 6 6 5, 2 5 ; length of wings <? 25, 

¥ 10-5. 

Hab. Kulu Valley, Kangra, in the N.-W. Himalayas, where it was 

discovered in extraordinary numbers in 1880 by Mr. A. G. Young. 


£ . Head 1| times as broad as long ; facial shield pentagonal, also 
about 1) times as broad as long ; ocelli all oval and equal and rather close 
together, the two posterior being not much further from one another than 
either of them from the anterior ; antennae black, concolorous with the 
head at base. 

Posterior lobe of pronotum about 3£ times as long as the anterior, 
strongly roof-shaped with a prominent but smooth raised dorsal ridge ; 
supracoxal dilatation well-developed, rounded, on either side of which the 
margins of the pronotum are tolerably finely denticulate for about half the 
length of each lobe. 

Organs of flight very long, extending by about one-fourth of their length 
beyond the extremity of the abdomen. Tegmina semicoriaceous, ferrugi- 
nous-brown, the posterior margin and the anal gusset being alone membra- 
nous and pale smoky or sordid ; marginal field with a large opaque black- 
fuscous blotch at the base followed by another and by six (including the 
apical one) fuscous-black transverse bands ail commencing at the costa and 
extending to the middle of the discoidal field, growing paler as they go, 
and finally blending insensibly with the sordid of the posterior moiety ; 
anal gusset with its transverse veinlets pale and lined with hyaline. 

Wings dark smoky-quartz-coloured, with the longitudinal veins much 
darker and the transverse veinlets much paler and very narrowly lined with 

34 J. Wood-Mason — On new and little-knovm Mantodea. [No. 1, 

hyaline on both sides ; with the apex of the anterior area and six bands all 
commencing at the anterior margin and extending successively from the 
base of the organ further and further into the posterior area (where they pass 
insensibly into the paler ground-colour) very much darker smoky-quartz- 
colour ; with the venation and membrane between these bands much 
lighter than elsewhere, so that the organs appear alternately banded with 
light and dark; and with the outer margin of the posterior area very 
narrowly semihyaline. 

Fore femora and coxae bifasciated externally with fuscous, the latter 
furnished with 8 — 9 minute, slanting, sharp, conical spinules on the upper 
crest, the former black on the inner side from the base nearly to the 
apex ; fore tibiae armed with 10 + 15 spines on their two inferior edges ; 
the femora of the four posterior legs present obscure traces of transverse 

Abdominal terga black-fuscous with the lateral margins paler. 

Total length 85 millims. ; of pronotum 31*5, of which the anterior 
lobe is 7, width of pronotum at supracoxal dilatation 7*75 ; height of head 
7, breadth of head 9 5 ; length of fore coxa 16, femur 19*5 ; of intermediate 
femur 20, tibia 18*5 ; of posterior femur 24, tibia 25 ; length of tegmina 67, 
breadth of tegmina (across middle) 12*5 ; length of wings 59. 

Hab. Cameroon Mountains, West Africa. 

The female differs from the male in her larger size and stouter build, 
and in her shorter and broader organs of flight, the tegmina being only 
about 1£ times the length of the pronotum and the wings reduced nearly to 
the form and proportions of a quadrant of a circle. 

Genus Mesoptebtx, Sauss. 
Bull. Entom. Suisse, vol. iii, 1870, pp. 234, 235.— M6L Orthopt. 3me fesc. p. 188. 

Mesoptebtx alata. 

Sauftsure, op. supra, cit. 
Hab. The Philippines. Manilla. 

Mesoptebtx plattcephala. 

Tonodera platycephala, Stal, Syst. Mant. 1877, p. 56 ? . 
<J . Much slenderer than the female. 

Pronotum smooth and rounded, carinate only for a short distance 
from the base ; slightly enlarged at the insertion of the forelegs ; the trans- 
verse impressed black lines of the underside of its lateral expansions having 
the form of elongate puncta barely extending half the distance from the 
base to the margin. 

1882.] J. Wood-Mason— On new and little-known Mantodea. 85 

Organs of flight when closed not extending further than the 8th abdo- 
minal somite, hyaline with horn-coloured (? green in the living insect) 
veins everywhere except in the marginal field of the tegmina (which is 
coriaceous opaque and bright-green margined posteriorly along and behind 
the principal vein with semiopaque horn-brown (? green) concolorous with 
the veins and shining stigma), and at the anterior margin of the wings, 
which is obscured with horn-brown (? green). 

The cerci are long and compressed from the middle of their length to 
the tip, in both sexes, but especially in this sex, in which they are narrowly 
foliaceous at the extremity. 

Total length 97 millims. ; length of pronotum 35*5, of which the pos- 
terior lobe is 29 ; length of head 5, width of head 8*5 ; length of tegmina 
51 ; length of fore coxa 16, femur 18*5 ; of intermediate femur 19, tibia 
17 ; of posterior femur 25, tibia 25. 

The above description has been drawn up from a specimen captured by 
any native collector between Moulmein and Meetan in 1877. 

Another specimen from Nazeerah measures pronotum 33*5 and tegmina 
48, and a third, obtained by Mr. S. E. Peal in the Sibsagar district, Assam, 
pronotum 34 and tegmina 50 5 millims. 

Specimens of the female differ a good deal in the degree of develop- 
ment of the organs of flight, two specimens from Moulmein measuring — 
total length about 100 — 105 millims. ; length of pronotum 37*75— 39, 
of which the posterior lobe is 305 — 315 ; length of head 675 — 7, width 
of head 10 — 10 ; length of tegmina 51*5 — 55*5, width of tegmina 11 — 11, 
of marginal field 3 — 3 ; length of fore coxa 1925 — 20, femur 21 — 2175 ; 
of intermediate femur 20 — 20*5, tibia 19 — 205 ; of posterior femur 26 — 27, 
tibia 29 — 31 ; one from the Himalayas — total length 110 millims. ; length 
of pronotum 42, of which the posterior lobe is 34 ; length of head 7 '5, 
breadth of head 10' 5 ; length of tegmina 55; of fore coxa 21, femur 24 ; 
of intermediate femur 23, tibia 21 ; of posterior femur 30, tibia 33 ; one 
from Sibsagar — total length 108 millims. ; of pronotum 42, of which the 
posterior lobe is 34 ; length of head 7, breadth of head 105 ; length of 
tegmina 40; of fore coxa 21*5, femur 24; of intermediate femur 22*5, 
tibia 21*25 ; of posterior femur 29'5, tibia 32 ; and the specimen described 
by St&l having the tegmina scarcely longer than the pronotum. 

Hjlb. One male from the banks of the Houngdarau, on the road from 
Moulmein to Meetan, Upper Tenasserim ; another from Nazeerah (Dr. 
Foster), and a third from Sibsagar (S. 12. Peal), Assam. Two females 
from Moulmein (Captain Hood), a third from the ' Himalayas,' belonging 
in all probability to the Asiatic Society's collection, and a fourth from 
Aideo, Sibsagar (S. & Peal). 

36 J. Wood-Mason — On new and little-known Mantodea. 

Mesoptebtx bobusta, n. sp. 

fj . Prothorax longer and more robust than in M. platycephila, Stal, 
and slightly dilated at the insertion of the fore legs ; its dorsal arc roof- 
shaped, with the raised median longitudinal line coarse and prominent 
throughout, and with the free edges of its relatively narrower foliaceous 
expansions straight posterior to the supracoxal dilatation instead of slightly 
convex and the under surface coarsely rugose-punctate, with the puncta 
translucent instead of black. 

Organs of flight when closed reaching just to the extremity of the last, 
abdominal somite. The tegmina green with the marginal field coriaceous, 
the rest of the organs being membranous. The wings hyaline with the 
anterior margin alone clouded with green. 

Legs rather more robust. The fore tibiae armed with 12 blunt teeth 
on the outside and with 18 on the inside below. 

Cerci only slightly compressed. 

Total length 118 millims. ; length of pronotum 45*5, of which the 
posterior lobe is 36*5 ; length of head 7 5, breadth 11 ; length of tegmina 
65, breadth of tegmina 14*5, of marginal field 3 5 ; length of fore coxa 
24, femur 27*25 ; of intermediate femur 23, tibia 21 25 ; of posterior 
femur 29 25, tibia 3175 ; of cerci 125. 

Hab. A single specimen obtained probably by myself on South Anda- 
man Island in 1872, but possibly by one of the Museum collectors under 
Captain J. Butler in the Naga Hills, Assam. 



A5>. -^ ' Vr 

1 '. ' \ ' f 




♦ N 




TSTos. II and III— 1882. 

VI. — Some new or rare species of Rhopalocerous Lepidoptera from the 
Indian region. — By Majob G. F. L. Marshall, R. E. 

(With Plate IV.) 
[Read January 4th, 1882.] 

1. Mycalesis stjbkha, d. sp. 
Plate IV, fig. L $. 

$. With a tuft of hairs on hindwing just above the base of the 
subcostal nervure, and another placed in a slit or pouch near the middle 
of the submedian nervure, the opening on the upperside. Wings above 
bright yellowish rufous shading off into a dark brown outer border most 
broadly at apex of forewing where the dark brown is continued along the 
costa, and at the anal angle of the hind wing ; a single round small black . 
spot on the forewing with an indistinct iris of paler rufous situated above 
the first median nervule at the inner edge of the dark border. Underside 
pure glossy brown, a narrow lilacy- white transverse line continuous across 
both wings, even, narrowly edged internally with very dark brown, the 
brown ground-colour deepens from the base to this line, and outside the 
line it is abruptly and uniformly paler. Forewing with two Bub marginal 
ocelli, small, white pupilled, and riuged with lighter brown. Hindwing 
with seven ocelli, the three upper small, the fourth, sixth, and seventh 
minute, the fifth only prominent. 

Length of forewing 1 inch, whence expanse = 2*1 inches. 

38 G. F. L. Marshall — Rare species of Rhopalocerons Lepidoptera. [No. 2, 

Taken by Captain 0. T. Bingham in the Donat range in Upper Tenas- 
serim in January. The type specimen, which is unique and much muti- 
lated, has been deposited in the Indian Museum. The female is unknown. 
It is closely allied to Mycalesis (Loesa) oroatis Hewitson, from Java, and 
of which it is the continental form. 


Plate IV, fig. 2 &. 

9 . Wings above dark velvet brown, with a faint purple gloss and 
in some lights a golden sheen, the outer margin of both wings abruptly 
. paler, the pale margin widening on the hindwing where it occupies nearly 
half the wing. Forewing with an indistinct similar submarginal line on 
the pale ground ; hindwing with four round blackish spots on the pale 
ground, and beyond them a dusky marginal line followed by the usual 
outer yellowish lines divided by a fine dusky line. Underside as in 
Z. sura, Moore, to which it is closely allied, but the silvery grey and 
ohesnut markings are less prominent, and the grey zigzag lines at base of 
the hindwing are much more convex in outline. 

The spots on the upperside of the hindwing are much smaller than 
in Z. sura, the two on the median interspaces are prominent, the other two 
are obsolescent. 

Length of forewing 1*35 inches, whence expanse = 2*8 inches. 

Taken by Captain C. T. Bingham in the lower Tboungyeen forests in 
Upper Tenasserim in May. The type specimen, which is unique, has been 
presented to the Indian Museum, Calcutta. 


Plate IV, fig. 3 % . 

9 . Allied to H. briseis, Linnaeus, from northern and western Asia, 
but smaller and notably differing in having a large white patch in the 
discoidal cell of the forewing completely filling the cell except at its 
extremity ; and in this feature approximating to the species of Melanargia 
(galathea, lachesis, psyche, cloiho, &c.) in colouring. 

Wings above dull black with creamy white markings. Forewing with 
the costal margin streaked and mottled with grey and black ; a large blotch of 
creamy white in the discoidal cell, filling it completely from the base to near 
the extremity where it ends abruptly, and a discal series of longitudinal 
creamy white streaks, consisting of a short streak above the subcostal nervure, 
a very long one below it bearing a round black spot in the centre, a very 
short narrow streak between the discoidal nervules, a larger streak beloft 

1882.] Q. P. L. Marshall — Rare species of BKopahcerous Lepidoptera. 39 

the third median nervule, a larger one still below the second median 
nervule divided transversely by a large blackish spot, a shorter streak 
filling the whole width between the first median nervule and submedian 
nervure and bearing a blackish spot near its outer upper end, and a 
short streak below the submedian. Cilia long, white, broadly inter- 
rupted with black at the ends of the nervures. Hindwing with a broad discal 
transverse band of creamy white longitudinal streaks completely coalesced, 
widest at the middle where it extends half way into the discoidal cell and 
narrowest at the margins especially the costal margin ; cilia long, white, 
scarcely perceptibly interrupted with black. Underside. Forewing 9 cos- 
tal margin and apex whitish finely mottled with brown ; cell white mottled 
with brown at upper edge, and with a blackish bar near extremity ; the 
discal series of streaks as above but all larger, completely coalescing, and 
sharply defined with dark brown internally and externally except at the 
apex where they merge into the mottled ground, the two black spots of the 
upperside reappearing as black ocelli with white papils. Hindwing white 
mottled with brown, the mottlings deepening into three irregular dark 
brown mottled transverse bands darkest at their outer edges, one sub- 
marginal, one near the base of the cell, and one between these two. 

Length of forewing 1*15 inches, whence expanse = 2*4 inches. 

Taken by Major John Biddulph on the Shandur plateau in Northern 
Kashmir. The type, which is unique, has been deposited in the Indian 
Museum, Calcutta. 

4. Zettxtdia masoitc, Moore. 

This species was described from a specimen of the female taken in the 
Limborg expedition at Meetan in Upper Tenasserim in April, at an eleva- 
tion of 3,000 feet, in the following terms. " Allied to Z. amethystus, Butler, 
from Sumatra. Female, differs in the paler colour of the wings, and in 
the greater breadth of the yellow oblique band ; the band entire and termi- 
nating at the middle median branch, below which are two similar-coloured 
spots ; a small pale patch before apex of the wing ; hindwing pale cinnamon- 
brown broadly along outer border. Expanse 4*5 inches." 

A male specimen of a Zeuxidia has recently been taken by Captain 
C. T. Bingham in the lower Thoungyeen forests which evidently belongs 
to this species, the male of which has not as yet been described. It differs 
from Z. amethyst us $ on the forewing in having the lilac band extending 
to the hinder angle ; and in the hindwing in having the lilac patch 
extending from just above the third median nervule to the submedian 
nervure: instead of extending from just below the body to the fold 
between the second and third median nervules. 

40 G. P. L. Marshall — Bare species of Rhopalocerous Lepidoptera. [No. 2, 

Description, <?, uppebside velvety blackish brown, paler at the 
outer margin and glossed with purple about the disc of each wing ; fore- 
wing with a broad whitish purple transverse band suffused with darker 
purple at the edges and extending from the costa, where it is broadest, 
outside the cell to the hinder angle where it narrows to a point ; hind wing 
with the outer margiu broadly pale purple extending from the fold above 
the third median branch to the submedian nervure, the extreme margin 
and tail being brownish. Uxdebside bright golden brown, deepening out- 
wards towards a narrow dark brown almost regular line which crosses 
both wings just at the end of the discoidal cell from the costa of fore wing 
to a little short of the anal angle of hindwing near which this line is 
abruptly and acutely angled back towards the base. Forewing with three 
lilac grey bars across the cell, and the transverse dark line outwardly and the 
costal half of the wing outwardly irregularly suffused with lilac grey. 
Hindwing with the dark transverse line outwardly and the basal half irregu- 
larly suffused with lilac grey, and with two moderate sized ocelli, one 
between the subcostal nervules brown, with a yellowish pupil and yellowish 
and narrow dark brown rings ; the other between the first and second median 
nervules dull yellow finely ringed with dark brown and excentrically marked 
with a brownish spot bearing a yellowish pupil. 

Length of forewing 2 inches, whence expanse = 4*2 inches. 

This species is manifestly very closely allied to the Sumatran 
Z. amethystusy but both are extremely rare, and in the absence of specimens 
of the latter, we must retain the Indian species as distinct. 

The specimen was caught between March and May, but the exact 
date is uncertain, and adds one more to the numerous and valuable discoveries 
which we owe to Captain Bingham's careful research. 

5. Thaumantis louisa, Wood-Mason. 

The male of this species was described and figured by Mr. Wood- 
Mason in the Journ. A. S. B., Vol. XLVII, part II, p. 175 (1878), from 
two specimens in the Limborg collection, taken in Upper Tenasserim op 
the Taoo plateau at an elevation of 3,000 to 6,000 feet. Captain C. T. 
Bingham has recently captured a fine specimen of the female, hitherto 
un described, in the lower Thoungyeen forests which are also in Upper 
Tenasserim, and not far from the Taoo plateau but at a considerably lower 

T. louisa 2 differs from the figure of the male, in the following 
particulars. Uppebside with the fulvous ground-colour on the hindwing 
extending completely up to, and embracing the heads of, the hastate 
border spots, the ground-colour of the outer portion of the wings being 
not white but pure french grey, the only traces of pure white being on 

1882] G. F. L. Marshall — Bare species of Bhopalocerous Lepidoptera. 41 

the forewing, at the middle of the costal margin and outside the median 
transverse line and decreasing from its costal end. The dusky tipping at 
the apex also extends below the subcostal nervure. Underside with the 
fulvous portions not luteous, but strongly suffused with grey and altogether 
of a far colder tone ; the hastate border spots of the upperside pale but 
perfectly distinct and complete ; liindwing with the outer submarginal 
lunular line obsolete, the inner one slender and incomplete, whereas in the 
figure of the male both these lunular lines are complete and prominent. 

Length of forewing 2*8 inches, whence expanse = 58 inches. 

The specimen from which the description is taken was captured between 
March and May, exact date not recorded. It of course lacks the tuft of 
erectile hairs on the hind wing which is present in the male. 

6. P0LYOMMATU8 KLLISI, n. sp. 

Plate IX, fig. 4 $. 

£ . Uppebstde dark greyish black, the basal portion of both wings 
powdered with metallic greenish golden scales, the outer half with a bronzed 
sheen ; Forewing with a dark centered white spot at end of the cell, and 
a discal series of four prominent white spots sometimes dark centred ; 
liindwing also with a white spot at end of the eel!, and a small white one 
above it near the costa ; a discal series of four white spots, corresponding 
with those on the forewing. 

Underside creamy white, Forewing brownish on the disc with the 
outer margin broadly paler, the spots of the upper surface large, indistinct 
and paler still. Hind wing with the base metallic greenish golden deepen- 
ing into brown up to the discal row of spots, the outer margin creamy 
white, the spots of the upperside large, indistinct, white. 

The female appears to differ in lacking the brilliant metallic scales. 

Expanse 0*9 to 1*05 inches. 

The type specimen (which has been presented to the Indian Museum) 
was taken on the Sanch pass in Pangi, N.-W. Himalayas, at an elevation of 
14,000 feet above the sea in August by Mr. Robert Ellis, after whom I 
have named it. Several other specimens were taken at the same time all 
corresponding with' the type specimen. Others were taken in Pangi in 
June at an elevation of 12,000 feet which have less of the metallic sheen, 
and have the white spots on the upperside considerably smaller ; these 
latter evidently belong to the same species, but whether they are seasonal 
or geographical varieties is uncertain. 

42 G. P. L. Marshall— Sard species of Rlopaloceroms Lepidoptera. [No. 2 

7. Papilio Clarke, n. sp. 
Plate 17, fig. 5 S. 

6* . Wings above velvety brown, almost black in some specimens, paling 
at the outer margin broadly at the apex and decreasing towards the hinder 
angle. jBorewing with four short streaks of powdery blue at the end of 
the cell, behind which are four longer and narrower streaks toward the 
base, also a di>cal series of ei^Ut bluish streaks increasing in length 
from the cost a and each extending from near the outside of the cell to 
the edge of the paler outer border, the two lower streaks between the 
subraedian and median nervures, the remainder one between each pair of 
nervules. Hind icing with a prominent submarginal row of pure white 
longitudinal streaks one on each side of each nervule leaving a wide 
brown margin beyond on which in some specimens indications of the 
continuation of the white streaks to the margin show through from the 
underside ; a rounded yellow spot at the anal angle bordered inwardly by a 
blackish lunule. Body black, spotted with white. 

Underside uniform paler brown of the same tint as the margin on the 
upperside, the forewing unspotted except with faint traces of whitish at 
the hinder angle ; kind wing with the row of white streaks as on upperside 
but continued up to the margin, the yellow anal spot and black lunule as 
on upperside and a round white spot at base above the costal nervure. 

Length of forewing 1*9 inches, whence expanse = 3*9 inches. 

Habitat. — Upper Tenasserim. 

P. elarm is closely allied to P. Kewitsonii, Westwood, from Borneo, 
of which it may possibly be only a permanent geographical variety. It 
differs from P. hewUtonii in the presence of the blue streaks on the forewing 
which are visible more or less in all the thirteen specimens examined, in 
some very prominent in others partially obsolete, but none are without 
blue at the end of the cell and in the interspaces immediately beyond it. 
It also differs in the paling of the margin of the forewing ; and in the 
hind wing in the single row of prominent white streaks. Its northern ally 
P. slateri, Hewitson, differs in the shape of the forewings having them 
narrower and more acuminate, and also entirely lacks the white streaks 
on the upperside of the hindwing. In shape of this wing P. elarm 
corresponds with P. kewittoniL 

The difference between Assam and Tenasserim species in regard to 
the absence or presence of white spots on the hindwing has curious 
parallels among the Emplceas which are mimicked by this group of Papilio, 
JS. deione, Westwood, and E. kopei, Felder, from Assam lack the white 
border spots on the hindwing, while their representatives in Tenasserim 

1882.] G. r. L. Marshall — Bare species of Rhopalocerous Lepidoptera. 43 

JE. limborgi, Moore, and E. grotei, Felder, have the white spots prominently 

Four specimens were taken by Captain C. T. Bingham on the Donat 
range in January. Three were taken by Captain C. H. E. Adamson in 
the Thoungyeen forests in February, and six in the same locality by Captain 
Bingham in May. 

8. Paptlio papone, Westwood. 

This species was described by Westwood in 1872 in the Trans, of 
the Ent. Soc. Lond., with " habitat in India orientali," and no subsequent 
notice has been recorded of its occurrence so far as I know. A specimen 
has now been taken by Captain C. T. Bingham in Upper Tenasserim> 
which satisfactorily establishes the exact locality for this rare butterfly ; 
the capture was made in the Thoungyeen forests on the 12th March. 

It will be seen that the materials for the foregoing paper are almost 
entirely due to the careful researches of Captain C. T. Bingham, whose 
investigations as an ornithologist are already well known, and to whom I have 
been indebted for most valuable and generously rendered assistance in the 
getting together of data for the handbook of the " Butterflies of India," 
&c, the first part of which has been published ; Captain Bingham has 
succeeded during the past two seasons in capturing nearly every species 
formerly recorded from Tenasserim, besides numerous species and sexes of 
species new to science and some new to the Indian list, and I take this 
opportunity of warmly acknowledging not only his labours but the gene- 
rous way in which he has placed the whole of his collection at my disposal. 

Explanation op Plate IV. 

Fig. 1. Mycalesis surkka, Marshall, <?. 

Fig. 2. Zophoessa dura, „ $ . 

Fig. 3. Hipparchia ahandura, „ ? . 

Fig. 4. Polt/ommatus ellisi, „ £ . 

Fig. 5. Paptlio claret, „ £ . 

44 J. Cockburn— On am abnormality in the home of the Hoe -deer [No. 2, 

VII — On an abnormality in the horns of the Hog-deer, Axis porcinus, 
with an amplification of the theory of the evolution of ant term in 
Buminantt.—By Johs Cockbuks, OJfg. 2nd Am*, to SrnpdL Indian 

Museum, Calcutta. 

[Bead March 1882.] 

The specimen exhibited to the meeting is a frontlet of the Hog-deer 
in which the left horn is abnormally developed as in a stag of the elaphine 
group. The frontlet is a specimen that belonged to the Aidatic Society's 
collection and is without history. There is, however, fair presumptive 
evidence that the horns belonged to a feral animaL* Before proceeding to 
any explanation of the variation a description is necessary. 

The right horn is normal and measures 14* from burr to tip along 
the curve. The brow tine 3f", the external tine 5*, internal tine 2\ m , 
Circumference at burr 5* of beam midway 2|. The left horn has five 
tines on it, as in a stag of ten, and the beam describes a sweeping curve 
posteriorly. The burr and brow tines are normal, though the latter is 
slightly curved inwards ; an inch and a half further up the beam is a tine 
measuring Z\" in length which I take to be representative of the bez tine. 
Thin tine, though otherwise justly proportioned, is curved inwards and back- 
wards. Three and a quarter inches further up the beam is a third snag 
measuring 2 J* along the curve ; this snag though flattened and distorted I 
take to be analogous to the royal tine. Lastly the tip is bifurcated, its 
appearance being that of the sur-royal in Cercus canadensis. These snags 
are palmated and the inner furcation, which has lost its tip, grows parallel 
to the inner tine C on the opposite horn. 

Abnormalities in Cervine horns are not uncommon. Judge Caton in 
his recent work " On the Antelope and Deer of America 1 ' discusses the 
question and attributes these growths to accidental injury to the horn, 
while tender and growing. Admitting that the majority of abnormal horns 
come under this category, I am nevertheless inclined to think that the 
specimen under review is to be otherwise explained. As a disciple of the 
doctrine of evolution it appears to me more rational to attribute the con- 
dition of the left horn to reversion or atavism. The circumstance of the 
variation being unilateral does not invalidate my hypothesis; polydactylism, 
the occurrence of supernumerary mammae, and other phenomena of this 
nature being very frequently unilateral. 

* The horns aro bleached as if by exposure, and the polish where visiblo appears 
to mo rather that of a feral than domestic animal. 

1882.] J. Cockburn — On an abnormality in the horns of the Bog-deer. 4$ 

The fact, however, that reversion to an extinct ancestor implies degra- 
dation in the Eusince is I confess a difficulty. The Rusine type of antler 
prevailed in Pliocene times, and is a comparatively elementary state. 
Nevertheless Gervus dieranos, whose antlers are described by Boyd Daw- 
kins as " so complicated as to defy description," existed during that epoch. 

The question of the atavism of these Hog-deer antlers is an important 
one, and as it is notoriously difficult to assign a clear and true value to certain 
conditions which would entail the destruction of a fancied discovery, I 
shall first attempt to put in as strong a light as possible the opposite argu- 
ment to my view, viz, that the horns here described are accidental pro- 

It may be advanced : Firstly, that of four of the so-called tines only 
one, the bez, bears any resemblance to a well formed tine, and the fact of 
its turning down at the tip seems to point to an inherent tendency which 
the inner tine has (in this species) of curving downwards ; that it is in fact 
nothing more than the inner tine C arrested in its growth at the lower 
portion of the beam. Secondly, that the so-called royal tine is on the 
inner aide of the beam. Finally that the terminal bifurcation is due to 
a law announced by myself further on, that all terminal portions are 
capable of furcation. Other abnormalities doubtless exist in private collec- 
tions of horns and this paper, if it results in no further good, may possibly 
have the effect of leading to the description of some of these. 

The evolution of antlers in Ruminants appears capable of being brought 
under a theory of development. The honour of being the first to apply a 
definite law to the development of the horns of the Oervida belongs to the 
late Prof. A. Garrod, who published a paper on the anatomy of the 
Ruminants in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society for January 1877. 

Garrod's law may be most briefly stated in his own words. " What 
may be called the typical antler is composed of a bifurcate beam, with a 
brow-antler springing from the front of its basal portion. These three 
parts may be termed A, B, and C as in the accompanying diagram (fig. 1.) 

" They occur, uncomplicated, in the genus Busa, in O. poremus, O. axis 
and O. alfredi (fig. 1). On the assumption that most of the complicated 
many-pointed antlers that occur are the result of the exaggerated develop- 
ment of one or other, or both of the extremities B and C, their special 
features may be explained. For instance imagine both B and C bifurcate, 
remaining of equal size, and we arrive at the condition found in Oervue 
schomburghi (fig. 2). O. duvaueelli differs in that B is extra developed at 

the expense of C (fig. 3) Following out the ingenious hypothesis 

of Mr. Blyth, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 836, O. Mi only differs in the still greater 

development of the anterior branches of B (fig. 4) In Gervus dama, 

and in the species included in the genus Pseudaxis a different condi- 


46 J. Cockburn — On an abnormality in the horns of the Hog -deer. [No. 2, 

B C B * . 


* 5 • 

Diagram of Antlers of Deer. 

tion obtains, B being greatly reduced and C correspondingly enlarged 
(fig. 5). In the Elapbine Deer this is carried further, the continuation 

of the beam being divided terminally into many points (fig. 6) 

With reference to the brow-antler A, it is evident that its duplication (the 
bez tine) is more associated with the actual size of the antlers than with 
any other peculiarity." (This last assertion is by no means evident.) 

Although Prof. Garrod's theory satisfactorily explains the development 
of a large number of Cervine antlers, it is powerless to explain the horns of 
the Elaphinm those of JSlaphurus davidianus, Cenfulits, Coassus, Afc. 
It is apparent that his so-called typical antler is already a complex organ 
possessing as it does 3 tines, while there are existing species of deer whose 
antlers never proceed beyond the condition of a simple spike, Coasxus rufus 
for example. It therefore appears more philosophical to assume the typical 
antler to be a simple spike, a condition which all cervine horns exhibit in 
the first year 's growth. 

Some months after the publication of Prof. Garrod's paper on the 
anatomy of the Ruminants, Prof. Boyd Dawkins published a most im-% 
portaut paper in the Quar. Jour, of the Geol. Society (Vol. XXXIV — Read 
19th Dec. 1877) " on the history of the Deer of the European Miocene and 
Pliocene strata." The general conclusions he arrived at regarding the 
palseontological history of the development of antlers are given below in an 
abstracted form. 

1882.] J. Cockburn — On an abnormality in the horns of thv Hog-deer. 47 

" In the mid- Miocene age, the cervine antler consisted of a simple 
forked crown only. In the Pliocene it becomes larger and longer and 
altogether more complex, some forms, such as the Oervus dicranios of 
Nesti, being the most complicated antlers known either in the living or 
fossil state. These successive changes are analogous to those which are 
to be observed in the development of the antlers in the living deer, which 
begin with a simple point and increase their number of tines until their 
limit be reached." More recently (Nature Nov. 1881) he has repeated the 
same generalization in slightly different language which I here quote, " In 
other words the development of antlers indicated at successive and widely 
separated pages of the geological record is the same as that observed in the. 
history of a single living species.' 9 

Boyd Dawkins regards the antlers of the extinct Procervulus t which is 
the simplest type hitherto met fossil, as the starting point of the antlered 
ruminants both in the old and new worlds. But the antlers in this genus 
were more or less branched, and bearing the existing Ooassus rufus in view, 
they can hardly be regarded as quite elementary. Considering the imperfect 
state of the Geological record it may be foretold that an antlered ruminant 
with simple deciduous spikes for horns will yet be discovered fossil. 

Prof. Dawkins has not attempted to apply his theory to an explanation 
of the horns of existing deer as Garrod had done, but Sir Vincent Brooke 
■who published an elaborate paper on the classification of the Cervidae, with 
a synopsis of the existing species, in the P. Z. S. for 1878 p. 883, has fol- 
lowed Garrod's theory closely. 

There is therefore room for an amplification of Dawkins' phylogenetic 
law, which I would state thus, as bearing .on both extinct and existing 
cer vines. 

The development of the antlers of individual species of cervines is 
a recapitulation of the history of the development of antlers in the group. 

I would assume the typical antler to be a simple spike, as in Coassus 
rufus, capable of extensive furcation, reduplication, arrest and redundancy 
of growth in parts. 

In certain species the terminal portions of the main stem, when the 
limit of length has been reached, have a tendency to develop an almost 
unlimited number of snags, possibly referable to pal mat ion of the horns in 
an extinct ancestor. This tendency is markedly manifest in Oervus elaphus 
and Panolia eldi and in a lesser degree in Bucervus. m 

I shall take up the development of the horns of the Wapiti, Oervus 
canadensis, to illustrate my theory. 

* Tho fine horns of Rueervus duvaueelli figured by Blyth, P. Z 8. 1867, fig. 3, show 
this character, and also a tendency to palmaUon. The horns are yet in the Museum. 

48 J Coekburn— On an abnormality in the lorn 8 of tie Hog-deer. [No. 2, 

The growth of the mi tiers in the Wapiti has been carefully described 
by Judge Caton whose observations extended over a period of 15 years and 
included over 100 deer* 

The horns of the 1st year are usually spikes, a condition I illustrate by 
fig. 1. 

The second antlers have both brow and bez tines, this condition I 
therefore regard as a double furcation, fig. 2. The third antlers almost 
invariably have the Royal tine, see fig. 3. The fourth and fifth year may 
or may not produce the sur-royal, fig. 4. 

The horns of Cervus elaphus and its numerous races are, I consider, the 
most difficult of comprehension in the whole group, and the above is I 
believe the first rational explanation of their development that has as yet 
been offered. Capreolus caprea and Elaphurm davidianus are both primi- 
tive types. In these two genera the primary bifurcation takes place on 
the beam at some distance from the burr. The development of the horns 
of Capreolus offer so admirable an instance of furcation from a simple 
beam, that the marvel is that the theory I have brought forward has not 
occurred to some one before. 

The horns of Elaphurue davidianus which were a stumbling block to 
Prof. Garrod, who states that they were " quite beyond his comprehension," 
are easily explained by the same theory. The primary furcation takes 
place some distance up the beam, the forward branch (brow tine) subse- 
quently furcates again, while the posterior branch, which in the stag (Elaphus) 
has hitherto been considered the beam, remains simple tapering and pointed. 
It thus becomes obvious that superiority of growth in either the anterior 
or posterior branches of the primary furcation would constitute the main 
stem or beam. 

The tendency towards furcation of the anterior branch or brow tine is 
yet manifest in various existing cervines. In an extinct species of deer, 
Megaceros hibernieus the brow tine was constantly furcate at the extremity, 
and a tendency to this order of things is to be observed throughout the 
Rusine family. I would in this manner explain the studs and snags so 
commonly present in the brow tine of Axis macula t us. I observe that it 
exists in 8 out of 15 heads, and such being the case, it appears doubtful 

1882.] J. Cockburn — On an abnormality in the horns of the Hog-deer. 49 

whether it should not be rather considered the normal condition, and the 
typical antler of Garrod the reverse. In the majority of instances there 
is a small conical snag at the base of the brow tine, bat in more than one 
specimen there is a double snag, and in one of these specimens the anterior 
snag measures 3£ inches in length. 

The extreme of this form of development is to be observed in Panolia 
eldi where the brow tine has commonly 3 snags (trifurcate). It is of less 
common occurrence in Bucervus duvaucelli, and in JR. schomburgki exhibits 
the same type as in Megaeeros 9 viz., a well marked furcation of the extre- 
mity of the brow tine. R. schomburgki has probably the most exuberant 
horns of any existing cervine. 

The Sambar of India, Rasa aristotelis, can, as a rule, be distinguished 
from other races by the circumstance of the tines B and C being of nearly 
equal length, and the posterior being set on immediately behind the other. 
It is thus in the same plane as the furcation at the brow. In the Assam 
and Burmese races the outer tine B is, as a rule, longer than B which is 
set on the beam in a transverse direction pointing inwards and upwards. 
It thus approaches the horns of Axis porcinus. I would throw out the 
suggestion that as both these animals frequent grass jungles, the more or 
less transverse direction of the posterior tine has been produced through 
the resistance offered to the growing horn by the grass and that this caufe 
operating similarly on both species through a series of generations has 
resulted in a permanence of the type. 

With reference to the horns of Panolia eldi, an examination of a large 
series of horns in every stage of growth has convinced me that Prof. Garrod's 
diagram is incorrect. (P. Z. S. 1877, p. 16, fig. 4.) The tine C has no 
existence in the position assigned to ic in any specimen I have seen. Horns 
of the 2nd year's growth are in the form of a C without the top stroke. 
The next stage is furcation of the anterior extremity. Mature horns of 
JP. eldi often have as many as 9 or 10 small snags on the main beam, in 
addition to a terminal furcation. 

This is particularly to be noticed in the Siamese race of brow-antlered 
deer named Cervus platyceros by Gray. Good figures of these Siamese 
horns are given by Blyth, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 841. The palmation of the 
extremity is evident (hence the name), and the numerous snags are, I 
consider, of the nature of the spillers in Dama and Aloes. I cannot at 
present offer an explanation of these spillers beyond that already given. 

50 J. Cockburn — On the habits of a little known Lizard, [No. 2 f 

VIII. — On the habits of a little known Lizard, Brachysaura ornata. — By 
John Cockbtjbn, 2nd Assistant to Superintendent Indian Museum. 

[Received 26th January; Read 1st February.] 


Blyth, J. A. S. B. Vol. XXV p. 448. 

Giintber, Reptiles of Brit. India, p. 161. 

Jerdon, P. A. S. B. 1870, p. 78. 

Stoiiczka, P. A. S. B. 1872, p. 77. 

Very little is known of this lizard. It was originally described by 
Blyth in the J. A. S. B. Vol. XXV from specimens procured by Dr. Jerdon 
at Saugar in Central India Dr. Giintber includes it in an appendix to the 
Reptiles of British India, and remarks that it is just possible that this 
animal may be recognized when re-discovered, but from the description 
alone it is impossible to characterize the new genus Brachysaura or to fix its 
position in the family of the Agamidde. 

In the P. A. S. B. for 1877, Dr. Jerdon in his Notes on Indian Herpe- 
tology remarks that all his endeavours to procure specimens for a more 
minute examination of this curious form had hitherto failed and " till some 
one with sufficient scientific proclivities examines these districts we must 
rest satisfied with our incomplete information." The type appears at this 
time to have been lost. In 1872, five specimens were procured in Kachh by 
that enthusiastic naturalist Dr. Stoiiczka, and described in the Proceedings 
for May, 1872. 

During the last rainy season I found B. ornata excessively common in 
the vicinity of the town of Banda and was enabled to send more than twenty 
living specimens to the Zoological Gardens, Calcutta, as well as to present 
a series to the Indian Museum. The results of my observations show how 
much of interest there may be in the life history of a small lizard. 

There are certain anomalous sexual characters about this lizard, the 
females being larger than the males. The superiority of the female in size 
appears to occur irregularly throughout the province Sauropsida. The 
female of Sitana minor is a third larger than the male, but in Oalotes 
versicolor the reverse is the case. In Brachysaura, which is closely allied 
to Calotes, not only is the female larger, but she is normally more brilliantly 
coloured than the- male. Certain peculiarities in the behaviour of the 
females leads me to suspect that they seek and attract the males. In more 
than one instance I observed a female make decided advances towards 
a male. She sidled up to him in a most insinuating way, with a crouching 
wriggling motion and open jaws, and seized him by the nuchal crest. 

Dr. Stoiiczka P. A. S. B. 1872, p. 72 remarks that the head-quarters 
of Brachysaura appear to be westward. This is not strictly correct, but 
even in ignorance of Stoliczka's paper I fell into a similar mistake and in a 

1882.] J. Cockburn — On the habits of a little known Lizard. 51 

letter to Dr. Anderson, wrote, " B. ornata appears to be essentially a 
Central Indian species. Tbe black volcanic soil of these provinces seems 
its peculiar habitat. I, however, once (in 1873), captured a pair on the 
north bank of the Jumna at Allahabad near the mouth of the Sussor 
Kuderee, Sitana is plentiful in this locality, but I never found another 
pair of Brachysaura. It is unknown in the Duab, and the probability is 
that these individuals were the offspring of others brought down in some 
flood from Bundlekhand." It now appears likely that Brachysaura ornata 
will be found in arid tracts throughout the Gangetic provinces, from the 
confluence of the Jumna westward to the extreme limits of the Empire. 
It would appear to range with Psammophis condanurus, and Sitana minor. 
Its southern limit beyond Saugar is yet unknown. 

There are several points in which my specimens appear to differ from 
Dr. Stoliczka's and I have therefore described the lizard anew. 

Brachysaura ornata, Blyth, $ . A squat thick-set pot-bellied ground 
lizard, with a large head and short tail. Scales on the upper surface of 
body, limbs and tail strongly keeled, this character being less denned on the 
lower surface of the abdomen and thighs. The scales of the body are in 
nearly vertical series down the flanks, following the line of the ribs, and 
gradually inclining upwards in the direction of the costal cartilages on 
the ventral surface. Counted round the body at the 30th spine they are 55 
in number in an adult. From the 1st nuchal spine to the extremity of the 
tail are 110 scales. 

A dorsal and nuchal crest of sharp spines is present in the male sex 
only ; the nuchal portion of this crest, composed of 9 scales, is most deve- 
loped, there is then a hiatus of 8 strongly keeled scales, when the spines 
again occur. They are continued in the form of a strong median series of 
keels to the tips of the tail. • 

Total length. 

Head and body. 

Tail from 

. to centre of vent. 

centre of vent. 

3 6* 



9 5* 


1$ (Imperfect) 




The fore limb when laid backwards reaches tbe inguinal region, and 
the hind limb laid forward extends to the angle of the lower jaw, all four 
limbs are strongly keeled to the extremities of the digits. The keels 
are very strongly marked on the scales of the tail, so much so as 
to impart to it a polygonal appearance in its lower half. They dimi- 
nish in a binumeral ratio from 12 in number at the basal half of the upper 
third, to 6 at the extremity. No preanal pores have been observed. 

Head large, with a prominent and overhanging superciliary ridge 
composed of 8 inflected scales, counted between the nostril and the posterior 

52 J. Cockburn— On the habits of a little known Lizard. [No. 2, 

margin of the orbit where it abruptly terminates. Nostril round, in a 
single large inflated shield, its position being immediately above the 3rd 

and 4th labials. Labial formula, ,' • 

JL«, JM. A.Z 

The lips are thick and fleshy and there are two rows of scales, similar 
to the upper labials, covering the lip. Both upper and lower labials are 
perforated with pores varying from 1 to 5 in number on each scale ; the 
loreal region also exhibits these pores. The upper surface of the head 
requires minute description ; it is more or less covered with tuberculated and 
keeled scales. Beginning from the rostrum it will be seen that the 4th 
and 6th scales on the mesial line from this shield are tuberculated and 
enlarged into a rudimentary nasal appendage. The number of scales in 
transverse series at this point are 2 on each side, or, including the tubercle, 
6 in all. In other specimens, particularly in females, this character may be 
described as a rosette-like group of tuberculated scales. These scales are 
not so strongly marked in immature specimens. Posterior to this region 
are the convexly prominent superior surfaces of the orbit, characterised 
by a deep mesial groove, and also covered with enlarged tubercular scales. 
In the centre of the vertical region, which may be defined by an imaginary 
line drawn across the head from the posterior termination of the super- 
ciliary ridges, is a large round scale with a central depression and white 
horny central point. Separated from it by a single scale are two small 
conical isolated spines, and a few enlarged keeled scales. Further beyond, 
on the posterior edge of the temporal region, are two groups of spines as in 
Calotes. These groups are made up of from 5 to 7 elongate conical spines, 
a central spine being always more developed than the others. There is one 
other character of importance in the head. This consists of a ridged cheek 
piece of much enlarged and keeled scales which extends from below the 
hinder angle of the orbit to the tympanum. The number is not constant, 
and from 6 to 12 may sometimes be found. 

The normal colour of the females consists of various shades of earthy 
brown, with three rows of rhomboidal or circular blotches — one median, 
which is the largest and extends down the tail, and two lateral rows of 
smaller size. The blotches have a pale straw or flesh-coloured edging. 
Females taken under sexual excitement are either wholly crimson, or crimson, 
with the exception of the back, which is dusky olive. The gular fold is deep 
black. In this stage the female does not exhibit any markings or blotches 
whatever, and at the least provocation or excitement becomes quite crimson. 
The prominent and pendulous abdomen in this sex is evidently connected 
with the stowage of ova. 

The males are normally of an uniform dusky brown. In this sex the 
blotches are not so well marked as in the female, and much smaller. The 

1882.] John Cockburn — On the habits of a little known Lizard. 53 

flesh-coloured edging might in them be rather described as an interrupted 
flesh-coloured line. The general colour assimilates itself to the black cotton 
soil which this lizard particularly affects. I have never captured a male in 
the crimson state, but have observed that they can assume a faint rosy 
tinge and also a bright green. The males have a distinct physiognomy, 
slenderer bodies, but stouter limbs than the females. The tail is bulbous 
and thick at the base, with the usual sexual projection, and suddenly 
tapers. It is always a third longer than in the female. The gular sac is 
developed in both sexes, but is more massive and has a distinctive 
masculine outline in the male. These notes on colouration present the 
sexes in breeding livery, August and September. 

The tissue below the nuchal and dorsal crests would appear to be of an 
erectile nature. These crests I observed much developed in a male during a 
paroxysm of excitement when it acquired a distinctly arched outline. Many 
of the females when captured were entirely scarlet and evidently under 
strong sexual excitement. Their behaviour is then remarkable and most 
amusing. A female under these circumstances twirls the tail, inflates her 
gular sac, and gives the body a peculiar wriggle. 

Brachysaura is a sluggish lizard, with a dull and heavy habit of body 
and grows much larger than any specimens I have sent to the Museum. 
Both B. ornata and Sitana minor are ground lizards, but I have observed 
them hanging in an awkward fashion from nearly bare stalks 3 J feet above 
ground. Though both frequent the open by choice, their holes are usually 
at the roots of a Spurge wort (Oalotropis) or a Bair bush (Zizyphus) ; a deser- 
ted rat burrow is often used. They do not seem to be very prolific, laying 
from eight to ten eggs, yet they are numerically abundant in certain spots ; 
for I captured no less than 50 within a mile of my house, chiefly on the 
Banda race-course. This lizard must be considered decidedly stupid. Large, 
and heavy specimens are hardly able to run, and in fact do not attempt it ; 
but if pressed show fight with open jaws, actually leaping at an offending 
object. It can give a sharp nip and holds ou like a bull dog. 

I am at a loss to conceive how Brachysaura maintains itself in such 
numbers against the numerous predacious animals that prey on lizards. 
The genera Gorvus, Milous, Poliornis, Herpestes, Fslis, Oanis, Ptyas f Naja, 
Varanus and a host of other enemies all abound in the localities where it is 
found ; Oalotes and Uroma&tix are an important item in the food of these 
animals. Sitana I have often observed impaled on a thorn by a Lanius. 

The only explanation I can offer is, that it has some objectionable 
flavour or poisonous protective quality which renders it secure from attack. 
I was in hopes that the experiment of offering one to some Raptor would 
have been made at the Zoological Gardens here, but the subject seems to 
have escaped attention. I may mention that the natives of Banda firmly 

64 L. de Niceville— &*m<J List of Butterflies. [No. 2, 

believe this lizard to be poisonous and get out of its way at once ; I was 
also informed that if eaten they would produce insanity. The circumstance 
of its feeding with impunity on insects that are themselves protected in 
this way seems in favour of this theory. The contents of the stomach of 
one I killed on purpose were, (1st), fragments of a small species of Julia 3 
(2nd), one small carnivorous beetle ; (3rd), fragments of other Ooleopter*. 
It is very easily kept alive, feeding readily on flies, grasshoppers and 
beetles, and all kinds of stinking bugs. These bugs and Julus have a pro* 
tective odour, and I have found all birds reject them. 

When caught or frightened this lizard emits a short but not unmusical 
squeak. The f acully of voice has not been observed before in the Agamidm. 
It appears to be nocturnal in its habits, and it is only in the evening, or 
when their holes are flooded, that they are to be seen in numbers. 

IX. — Second List of Butterflies taken in Sikkim in October, 1882, with 
notes on habits, tifc. — By Lionel de Nice'ville. 

[Received 29th November; read 6th December, 1882.] 

In the second part of this Journal for 1881, vol. 1, p. 49, I contributed 
a list of the Butterflies taken by me during five days collecting at different 
elevations in Sikkim in the month of October, and enumerated 129 species. 
This is but a very small portion of the Rhopalocerous fauna to be met 
with even in one month in the vicinity of the Station of Darjiling, as I 
therein indicated, and as the list that follows shews. The whole of the 
species now enumerated were not taken by myself, as I was accompanied 
on several occasions by Mr. Otto Moller (an enthusiastic collector, who 
has most generously placed the whole of his extensive collections of Sikkim 
Butterflies at Major Marshall's and my disposal for examination in the 
preparation of our work on " The Butterflies of India"), and a party of 
five Lepchas, who make what they can by catching insects and selling 
them to visitors. These men were very glad to sell us what we wanted of 
the specimens they caught at a pice a piece ; especially as we told them that 
we required small species more especially, these latter, unless very bright- 
coloured, they never take any notice of. On two different days they took 
us to two parts of the same hill stream (" Jora"), and shewed us their 
principal hunting grounds. These chiefly consist of open sandy spaces by 
the side of the stream which attract vast numbers of Butterflies to settle, 
and to suck up the moisture. In one place upon a large flattish stone 
near the middle of the stream, the men had put some sand and kept it 

1882.] L. de NioeviUe— Second List of Sikkim Butter/lie*. Bff 

watered, and it was surprising the numbers of Butterflies that came to 
their ' trap' and were caught. Judging from what I there saw, I am of 
opinion that nearly all the Butterflies which are bought from the common 
Lepcha boxes at Darjiling are caught in this way, and in the low valleys 
averaging perhaps 2,000 feet elevation above the sea. Here Butterflies 
in immense variety literally swarm, and in one fine day a man can easily 
fill a box with large and showy species. 

For facility of reference I have repeated, with the addition of an 
asterisk, the names of all the species given iu my first paper which 
we did not meet with on this trip, commencing the numbering of the 
fresh species at 130. The latter were all taken between the elevations of 
about 4,000 and 2,000 feet above the sea. The species that were met with 
on this as well as on the first occasion have no number prefixed* 



Subfamily Dakahtjb. 

Danais ( Parantica) aglea, Cramer. 

130. Danais (Oaduga) tytia, Gray. 
Danais (Oaduga) melaneus, Cramer. 
Danais (Tirumala) septentrionis, Butler. 

In the neighbourhood of Calcutta D. Umniace alone occurs, in Sikkim 
it 18 replaced by D. septentrionis, but at Simla and in the neighbouring 
hills and in many other localities both species occur together. 

4. * Danais (Salatura and Limnas) chrysippus, Linnaeus. 

5. Danais {Salatura) genulia, Cramer. 
This is the D. plexippus of my former list. 

131. Euplcea (Salpinx) rogenkqferi, Felder. 

One male only of this rare Butterfly was caught by a Lepcha. 

132. Euploea (Salpinx) rhadamanthus, Fabricius. 
One male only at 2,000 feet. 

JEuploea (Trepsichrois) midamus, Linnaeus. 
*JEuplcea core, Cramer. 

133. Euplcea (Stictoplcea) fiopei, Felder. 

One female was taken by a Lepcha. It is by no means a common 
Sikkim butterfly. 

Subfamily Satybin^. 

134. Anadebis himachala, Moore. 
Not very common in deep forest. 

Mycalesis (Oareris) gopa, Felder. 
Myodesis ( Vvrapa) anoxias, Hewitson. 

56 L de Niceville— Secon d List of Butterflies [No. 2, 

135. Myealesis (Orsotriwna) runeka, Moore. 
Two males only. 

136. Myealesis [Oalysisme) per sens, Fabricius. 

A single male. It is evidently rare in Sikkim, Mr. Ot to Moller has 
taken hundreds of the variety M. visala 9 but only a few of the true 
M. perseus. The latter is at once known by the rounded apex to the 
fore wings. 

Myealesis (Calysisme) perseus, var. visala, Moore. 
Common everywhere amongst trees and bushes. The markings on the 
underside are infinitely variable, but the u sharply angled, almost pointed, 
apex of the forewing" (Elwes, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1882. p. 406) dis- 
tinguish it from the preceding. 

Mycalesis (Samanta) mahara, Moore. 
Not uncommon amongst bushes and undergrowth* 

Lethe kansa, Moore. 
Both sexes, males not uncommon, one female only. 
m Lethe mekara, Moore. 
Lethe chandica, Moore. 
Both sexes in forest. 

m Lethe europa, Fabricius. 
Lethe rohria, Fabricius. 
Males common everywhere, females less so. 

137. Lethe (Tansima) verma, Kolliir. 

Far less common than the preceding. Occurs in the same localities. 

Lethe sidonis, Hewitson. 
Common at about 6,000 feet elevation, not seen much lower. 

Neope bhadra, Moore. 

Ypthima philomela, Johansson. 

Ypthima sakra, Moore. 

Ypthima nareda, Hewitson. 

m Zipaetis seylax, Hewitson. 

138. Melanitis leda, Linnaeus. 
One example at 2,000 feet elevation. 

139. Melanitis ismene, Cramer. 
Common in forest. 

140. Melanitis zitenius, Herbst. 
Common at low elevations. 

Subfamily Eltmfidtjs. 

Elymnias undularis, Drury. 

141. Elymnias leucocyma, God art. 

Common around villages at about 2,000 feet elevation. 
Dyetispatna, Westwood. 

1882.] taken in Sikkim in October. 67 

142. Dyctis vasudeva, Moore. 
One male at a low elevation. 


143. Discophora tultia, Cramer. 
Discophora celinde, Stoll. 
Thaumantii diores, Doubleday. 

Subfamily Agile oral. 

JPareba vesta, Fabricius. 
This is the Acraa vesta of my former paper. 

Subfamily Nymfhaldlb. 

Oethosia biblis, Drury. 

Ceihosia cyane, Drury. 

Not nearly as common as O. biblis. 

Oirrhochroa aoris, Doubleday, Hewitson. 
Cirrhochroa mithila, Moore. 
Cynthia erota, Fabricius. 

144. Argynnis (Acidalia) niphe, Linnaeus. 
Common at about 4,000 feet elevation. 

Symbrenthia hippoclus, Cramer. 
Very common. It is one of the comparatively few butterflies that 
live amongst the tea, to be accounted for probably by its food-plant (nettle) 
growing there more commonly than in uncultivated ground. 

145. Symbrenthia hypselis, Godart. 

Both sexes taken, but it is not nearly as commonly met with as 
8. hippoclus. Mr. Moore has described two allied forms from Sikkim, 
8. niphanda (P. Z S., 1872, p. 669), and 8. cotanda (P. Z. S., 1874, p. 569, 
pi. lzvi, fig. 9#). The examples referred to above as 8. hypselis are pro* 
bably 8. cotanda. 

146. Vanessa oharonia, Drury. 

A single male was taken by Mr. Moller at about 2,000 feet elevation. 

147. Vanessa casohmirensis, Kollar. 
Very common in the tea-gardens. 

Pyrameis indica, Herbst. 
Junonia lemonias, Linnaeus. 

* Junonia laomedia, Linnaeus. 

* Junonia asterie, Linnaeus. 
Precis iphita, Cramer. 

Common. I recorded this species under the genus Junonia in my 
former paper. 

Pseuderyolis wedah, Kollar. 

58 L. de Nice>ille— Second List of Butterflies [No. 2, 

This is the Precis veda of my first paper. 
Kallima inaehis, Boisduval. 

148. Doleschallia bisaltide, Cramer. 
Ergolis ariadne, Linnaus. 
Oyrestis thyodatnas, Boisduval. 
Cyrestis risa, Doubleday, Hewitson. 
Stibochiona nicea, Graj. 
Hestina noma, Doubledaj. 

Males very common, one female taken by a Lepcha, the first specimen 
of this sex I have seen, and therefore new to the Museum collection. Our 
largest <? measures 3*7 inches in expanse, this 2 is half an inch (4 2) larger. 
The wings are broader, and the ferruginous outer margin of the upper and 
undersides of the hindwing lack the series of very dark brown lunules 
between the nervules which are present in the male. 

149. Hestina persimilis, Westwood. 
One male only at a low elevation. 

150. Euripus cinnamomeus, Wood-Mason. 

One fresh female taken, which agrees with the type specimen described 
in the J. A. S. B., vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 272, pi. iv, ^g. 4, (1881), from Shillong. 

Euripus halitherses, Doubleday, Hewitson. 
Males only seen. 

Lebadea ismene, Doubleday, Hewitson. 

Limenitis procris, Cramer. 

* Limenitis daraxa, Doubleday, Hewitson. 

Bahinda hordonia, Stoll. 
The Neptis hordonia of my former list. 

151. Neptis miah, Moore. 

Not rare at low elevations. I took it settled to drink on damp sand. 

152. Neptis radha, Moore. 

One very worn male at about 3,000 feet elevation. 
• Neptis viraja, Moore. 
Neptis varmona, Moore. 
One male. This agrees with the specimen I named N. aeeris in my 
former list and which I subsequently sent to Mr. Moore for correct identi- 
fication. It was returned with " ? varmona* 9 placed on a ticket beneath it. 
The underside is bright ochreous, with the white bands and spots clearly 
defined outwardly with black. 

Neptis emodes f Moore. 
These specimens have been named by Mr. Moore. They are smaller 
than N. varmona, the underside is dark tawny, not ochreous, the bands are 
narrower and the spots more separated. The dark edgings to the spots and 
bands are less prominent owing to the ground-colour being much darker. 
One of the specimens is the Neptis amba of my former list. 

1882.] taken in Sikkim in October \ 59 

153. Neptis soma, Moore. 

The Sikkim specimens named by Mr. Moore have the streak in the cell 
on the upperside of the forewing very narrow, as also is the spot beyond 
it, the discal series of spots on that wing small, rounded and well separated ; 
underside tawny, not so deep a shade as in N. em odes, the bands and spots 
not outwardly defined with black. 
Neptis susruta, Moore. 

Specimens of this species from Sikkim identified by Mr. Moore may 
be known from the preceding by the streak in the cell and spot beyond it 
being wider, as also is the anterior band on the hind wing. The bands and 
spots on the underside are slightly defined with black. 

154. Neptis nandina, Moore. 
Several specimens at low elevations. 

Neptis cartica, Moore. 
Mr. Moore has confirmed my identification of the specimens of this 
species I took in Sikkim. It may perhaps be best identified by noticing 
that only the discal band on the upperside is pure white, all the other 
markings are more or less sullied, the discoidal streak is narrow and 
hardly separated from the triangular spot beyond it, and the submarginal 
waved lines are very distinct in the forewing. Underside tawny, markings 
undefined with black. 

155. Neptis vikasi, Horsfield. 
One specimen at 2,000 feet. 

156. Neptis columella, Cramer. 
Two females at low elevation, 

Athyma lencothoe, Linnaeus. 
Aihyma selenophora, Kollar. 
Males common, one f (= A. bahula, Moore) only observed. 

157. Aihyma zeroca, Moore. 

Males as common as A. selenophora. The female has yet to be dis- 
covered. It will probably differ from the female of the preceding species 
in having the streak in the cell of the forewing undevided. 
Athyma inara, Doubleday, Hewitson. 
Both sexes taken at low elevations. 
* Athyma mahesa, Moore. 

158. Athyma coma, Moore. 
Both sexes taken. 

159. Athyma chevana, Moore. 

A single specimen of this rare species was taken by a Lepcha. 

160. JButhalia yaruda, Moore. 

161. Euthalia lu oe ntina, Cramer. 

A single female ^i n QQO foe* elevation. 


60 L. de Niceville— Second List of But lei flies [No. 2, 

Euthalia kesava, Moore. 
* Euthalia sananda, Moore. 
Euthalia apiades, M6n6tries. 
Note. The three last species appeared in my former list under the 
genus Adolias. 

37. Eohana pary satis y Westwood. 

Males common. Eohana is a new genus lately defined by Moore in 
his " Lepidoptera of Ceylon." The species formerly appeared under the 
genus Apatura. 

162. Apatura namouna, Doubleday. 

Males not uncommon below 8,000 feet elevation. 

163. Apatura bolina, Linnaeus. 

Very common, but all the examples taken were much worn. 

164. Sephisa chandra, Moore. 

One female only was taken by a Lepcha. The female of 8. chandra 
has never been described I believe. It differs from the male in the outer 
margin of the forewing being far less emargiuate, in the male it is deeply 
incised between the lower discoidal and third median nervules. The 
hindwing is also broader and far less denticulate. On the upperside the 
rich orange colour of the male has entirely disappeared except the spot in 
the cell of the forewing, which however is much reduced in size. Beyond 
the cell in that wing in the Sikkim specimen above referred to, but hardly 
observable in another Sikkim example and one from Nepal both in the 
Museum collection, there are four longitudinal white streaks between the 
nervules, decreasing rapidly from the anterior one placed between the 
costal nervure and upper discoidal nervule and the posterior one between 
the third and second median nervules. The discal white spots in the 
male are smaller in the female, the anterior ones whitish, the posterior 
bright steel-blue. There are also other similarly coloured spots and 
streaks between the nervules just beyond the cell and below it. In the 
hindwing the ground-colour is black with a marginal and submarginal 
row of spots, the outer the smaller, and a discal series of streaks between 
the nervules all steel-blue. In the Nepal specimen they are sullied with 
tawny. On the underside the orange spot in the cell of the forewing is 
much larger than above, and in the hindwing there is a round orange spot 
on the middle of the costa and a similar one in the cell, the submarginal 
spots are yellowish and all the steel-blue markings of Che upperside much 

In 8. dichroa, the North- West Himalayan representative of 8. chan- 
dra, there is hardly any sexual differentiation. 

165. Dichorragia nesimachus, Boisduval. 
One male at 2,000 feet elevation. 

1882.] taken in Sikkim in October. OL 

JZulepis athamas, Drury. 

Both sexes of the pale greenish-white (almost pure white), and males 
of the sap-green variety were taken. The latter is by far the commonest 
form of this species, but both occur in the same localities and are equally 
partial to sucking up the moisture from damp sand. 
Haridra polyxena, Cramer. 

Numerous varieties taken. They have the same habits as the pre- 
ceding species but are seldom found but at low elevations, while E. athamas 
occurs up to 6,000 feet elevation to my knowledge. These two last species 
appeared in my former list under the generic name Nympkalie, but 
Mr. Moore has lately made new genera for their reception. 



Zemero* flegyas, Cramer. 
Common everywhere. As far as my personal knowledge goes all the 
species contained in the subfamily Nemeobiina (apud Eirby) have a quick 
flight, but only for a short distance, when they settle usually on the upper 
surface of leaves with wings half open, often in the shade, and frequently 
walk over and about the leaf, a habit peculiar as far as I have seen to this 
subfamily, all other Butterflies when settled remain quite still till they 
take their next flight. 

Abisara fylla, Doubleday, He wit son. 
Dodona ouida, Moore. 


166. Spalgis epius, Westwood. 
Both sexes at low elevation in forest. 

167. JPithecops hylax, Fabricius. 

Females only at low elevations in deep forest. They agree with 
Horsfield's description of the species rather than with P. dharma, Moore, 
from Ceylon, or P. zaltnora, Butler, recorded from the N.-W. Himalayas. 
Curette buli*, Doubleday, Hevvitson. 
Common at low elevation. 

Cyaniris puspa, Horsfield. 
The Lampides puspa of my first list. 

168. Niphanda tessellata, Moore. 

One female at about 1,500 feet elevation. It is rather smaller than 
tbe specimen described by Mr. Moore from Penang, and the upperside is 
entirely un glossed with blue. 

169. Zizera ma\a Kollar. 

Common awo^ . grass from 1,500 to 4,000 feet elevation. 

62 L. de Niceville— Secon d List of Butterflies [No. 2, 

m Zizera sangra, Moore. 
The Polyommatus sangra of my former paper. 

*Oastalius rosimon, Fabricius. 
Placed under the genus Lampides in my former paper. 

Oastalius decidia, Hewitson. 
Placed under Lamp ides previously. 

Everes parrhasius, Fabricius. 
Placed under Lamp ides previously. 

170. Jam ides bochus, Cramer. 
One male at 3,000 feet elevation. 

Lyccenesthes bengalensis, Moore. 
Placed under Pseudodipsas in former list. 

171. Lyccsnesthes lycanina, Felder. 

Two males, agreeing with the description of the species by Mr. Moore 
in his " Lepidoptera of Ceylon/' page 87, except in the absence on the 
upperside of the hindwing of the " indistinct dusky spots with whitish 
outer border from anal angle." 

172. Nacaduba macrophthalma, Felder. 
One male at low elevation. 

Nacaduba ar dates, Moore. 
This species appeared under the genus Lampides in my former list. 

* Catochrysops strabo, Fabricius. 
The Lampides kandarpa of my former paper. 

173. Catochrysops pandava, Horsfield. 
At low elevation. 

174. Polyommatus baticus, LinnaBus. 
Common at low elevations. 

Lampides celianus, Fabricius. 

Lampides elpis t God art. 

Lampides* ttwlaya, Horsfield. 

Iter da epicles, God art. 

*Ilerda androcles, Doubleday, Hewitson. 

175. Her da brahma, Moore. 

Both sexes common from 4,000 to 5,000 feet elevation. The female 
differs from the male in having none of the brilliant gold colour on the 
upperside, but has an oblong patch of orange on the disc of the forewing. 
Underside as in male. 

176. Horaga ciniata y Hewitson. 
One male at 1,500 feet elevation. 

*Deudorix petosiris, Hewitson. 

177. Virachola perse, Hewitson. 

A single female was taken by a Lepcha. 

1882.] taken in Sikkim in October. 63 

178. Aphnmus lohita, Horsfield. 
One male at low elevation. 

m Aphnmus syama, Horsfield. 

179. Camena ctesia, Hewitson. 

One male was taken at 1,500 feet elevation sacking up moisture on 
damp sand on the brink of a mountain stream. 
Hypolycana erylus, God art. 

180. Hypolycana othona, Hewitson. 

One male taken on the banks of a stream sucking up moisture from 
wet sand. 

Hypolyccena etolus, Fabricius, 
Both sexes taken. Common at about 2,000 feet elevation. 

18 1. Iolaus anysis 9 Hewitson. 

One male taken by a Lepcha at low elevation. 

182. Oheritra acte, Moore. 

One female at about 3,000 feet elevation. 

183. Loxura atymnus, Cramer. 
Common amongst clumps of bamboos. 

Surendra quercetorum, Moore. 
Nilasera centaurus, Fabricius. 
Common. This species appeared in my first list under the generic 
name Arhopala. 

184. Nilasera eumolphus, Cramer. 

One male taken by a Lepcha. 

185. Atnblypodia paraganesa, n. sp. 
(Amblypodia ganesa, Hewitson, ttoc Moore.) 

I propose the name paraganesa for the species figured by Hewitson in 

his " Cat. Lycanidce Brit. Mus., pi. vii, fig. 72, under the name ganesa, as 

it differs entirely from the A. ganesa of Moore which occurs in the N.-W 

Himalayas ; the hindwing is tailed, and the markings of the underside are 

quite different. 

One male taken at about 3,000 feet elevation. 


* Subfamily Pierhub. 

m Nychitona xipTiia, Fabricius. 
The JPontia xiphia of my first list. 
Terias hecabe, Linnaeus. 

186. Terias harina, Horsfield. 

187. Catopsilia cutilfa, Cramer. 

188. Catopsilia crocale, Cramer. 
Catopsilia pyranthe, Linnaeus. 

64 L. de Nice*ville— Second List of Butterflies [No. 2, 

Ixias evippe, Drury. 
Hebomoia glaucippe, Linnaeus. 
dppias hippo , Cramer. 
Oatophaga indra, Moore. 
The Tachyris indra of my former list. 
Huphina nadina, Lucas. 

The Pieris n ad in a of my first list. 
Huphina nerissa, Fabricius. 
Papilio anuutna, Cramer, pi. xliv, fig. A, £ . 

This is the Pieris nerissa of my former list. 

Mancipium canidia, S parr man. 
Common amongst gardens at about 4,000 feet elevation. Previously 
recorded under the genus Pieris. 

Nepheronia avatar, Moore. 
The Eronia avatar of my first list. 

Delias past (hoe, Linnaeus. 

189. Delias thy she, Cramer. 

Delias agostina, Hewitson. * 

190. Prioneris thestylis, Doubieday. 

191. Dercas verhuellii, van der Hoe von. 
One male only was taken by a Lepcha. 

Subfamily Papiliontn^i. 

Papilio (Ornithoptera) pompeus, Cramer. 
Not uncommon at low elevations. 

m Papilio (Byasa) phihxenus, Gray. 
Gray first named this species, not Westwood as stated in my first 
paper, though the latter figured it. 

192. Papilio {Byasa) dasarada, Moore. 
Frequently seen sailing over the tea gardens. 

Papilio (Achillides) par is, Linnaeus. 
Papilio (Dalchind) sarpedon, Linnaeus. 
Papilio [Zttides) agamemnon, Linnaaus. 

193. Papilio (Orpheides) erithonius, Cramer. 
Papilio (Charus) helenus, Linnaeus. 
Papilio {Laertias) polytes, Linnaeus. 
Papilio (Menelaides) aristolochice, Fabricius. 
Papilio (Iliades) androgens, Cramer. 
Papilio astorion, Westwood. 


194. Choaspes harisa, Moore. 
Common at low elevations. 

1882.] taken in Sikkin in October. 65 

*Choaspes benjamini, Qu£rin. 
*Choa*pes amara, Moore. 
These two last species were placed under Ismene in my first list. 

195. Hasora badra, Moore. 
At low elevations. 

Astietopterus diodes, Moore. 

196. Telegonus ihrax, Linnaeus. 
One specimen was taken by a Lepclia. 

197. Baoris oceia, Hewitson. 
One pair taken at a low elevation. 

Suastus eltola, Hewitson. 
The Hesperia eliola of my first paper. 

198. Suastus toono, Moore. 

Parnara colaca, Moore. 
This is the Hesperia chaya of my first list. 

Telioota bambusa, Moore. 
The Pamphila augias of my first paper. 

Padraona dara, Kollar. 
The Pampkila mcesa of my first paper. 

• Padraona gola, Moore. 
The Pamphila gala of my first paper. 
t Halpe zema, Hewitson. 
f Halpe homolea, Hewitson. 
My Sikkim specimens agree exactly with the figure and description of 
this species, the type of which came from Singapore. It is the Hesperilla 
luteisguama of my first list. 

Tagiades menaka, Moore. 
Common at low elevations. This species appeared under the genus 
Pterygospidea in my first list. 

199. Tagiades gana, Moore. 
Barangesa dasahara, Moore. 

The Tagiades dasahara of my first list. 

200. TTdaspesfolus, Cramer. 
One male at a low elevation. 

Plesioneura alysos, Moore. 
Plesioneura sumitra, Moore. 

201. ? Isoteinon oephala, Hewitson. 

Two males taken at a low elevation. Flight very swift, but settles 
frequently on an outer leaf of a bush. • 

202. Parnara assafncmis, Wood-Mason and de Nice>ille. 

This species will }& f ully described hereafter, but it may be briefly 


66 L. de rfic6viUe — Seeond List of Sikkim Butterflies. [No. 2, 

characterised as follows: — Forewing with ten spots (sometimes eleven in 
the female), viz., two oblong at the end of the cell, disjunct in the male, 
but connected at their inner and opposite ends in the female, three apical, 
and five discal in the male (sometimes six in the female) forming an oblique 
series extending from the submedian nervure to the discoidal nervule in the 
male (but sometimes to the subcostal nervure or first discoidal nervule ia 
the female) of which spots the first is subtriangular, touches the submedian 
nervure and is subequal to the fourth, the second in the same space with 
the first, is equal to the first subapical, and lies close to, but does not touch, 
the first median nervule, the third the largest of all, is equal to or rather 
larger than the first and fourth put together, and acute angled at its outer 
end, the fourth is rhomboidal, the fifth rather larger than the second and the 
sixth sometimes present in the female is shaped somewhat like one of the 
strokes of a section sign (§). Hind wing above with a small oval discal 
spot sometimes accompanied by a very minute dot in front of the third 
median nervule. On the underside of this wing there are four or five discal 
spots. Wings above and below rioh dark Vandyke brown, the spots lustrous, 
semitransparent white. Expanse 2*2 to 2'4 inches. 
Nirionades salsala, Moore. 

203. Thanaos stigmata, Moore. 

One female at 3,000 feet elevation. 
*Satarupa bhagava, Moore. 
*P Hesperia semamora, Moore. 

Since the publication of my first paper, Mr. Moore in his " Lepidoptera 
of Ceylon" and elsewhere has defined many new genera and altered the 
synonomy of several species, all of which I have tentatively adopted here* 
This will account for the frequent changes in nomenclature that I have 
been obliged to make in this list. 


1 ^ »* -a 


v \ v • * - / > 


' /0MAV£-: ! 

OF THE „ • r ' : \ * 



No. IV.— 1882. 

X. — A new Species of Hipparchia (Lepidoptera Khopalocera) from the 
N. W. Rimalaya8.—By Majoii G. F. L. Mabsiiall, R. E. 

[Received 12th December 1882 ; Read January 3rd, 1883 J 

Hipparchia diqna, gp. n. 

Upperside brown, with a broad well defined submnrginal fulvous 
band bearing a single subapical black spot on the fore wing and none on 
the bindwing ; the ban I outwardly defined by a dark lunulate line, and 
further removed from the margin than in any other Indian Hipparchia, 
leaving a broader brown border to the wing. Up debs id e fore wing ful- 
vous, the band of the upperside outwardly distinctly defined by a dark 
dentate line, inwardly faintly defined except near the costa, ochreous at 
the costa and inner margins ; the black subapical spot of the upperside 
but with a distinct white pupil ; the inner margin dark brown, the outer 
and costal margins very pale brown, mottled throughout with dark brown, 
' and on the costa with irregular brown strisB, extending into the cell. 
Hindwing pale whitish brown clouded with brown and mottled throughout 
with darker brown; the band of the upperside but inwardly whitish, 
outwardly clouded with brown, and defined on both sides by dark dentate 
lines ; also a subbasal dark line between which and the band the ground 
colour is darker, forming an inner dark band. 

This species was found by Major J. Biddulph on the Shandur plateau 
in Northern Kashmir and only two specimens were taken, both females. 

This makes the tenth species of the genus known to ocour in the 
N. W. Himalayas ; and stiangely enough out of the ten, in four cases 

68 H # H. God win- Austen — Not en on and Drawings of the [No. 4, 

only the females are known, and in the fifth the male has only recently 
been discovered. 

XI. — No. 2. Notes on and Drawings of the animals of various Indian 

Land Mollusca (Pulmonifera). — By Lt.-Col. H. H. Godwin-Austen, 

F. R. S., F. Z. S., Ac. 

(With Plate V.) 
[Received December 15th, 1882 ;— Read January 3rd, 1883.] 

In continuation of a former contribution, I now forward another 
lithographed Plate from the original Drawings left to us by Ferd. 
Stoliczka. I only trust that they may lead some of our members to look 
more closely at the animals of the Land Shells of their districts, or collect 
them in spirits for the Museum in Calcutta, where they are sure to be 
sooner or later fully examined. and described. In some^ parts of the coun- 
try, and particularly during the rains, they may be found with very little 
search. The Slugs are quite unknown from many parts of India. 

One object in publishing these drawings is to bring about a more 
natural and accurate classification of the Indian Helicidce, and I would 
here refer to Mr. W. T. Blanford's continuation of the " Contributions 
to Indian Malacology" No. XII.* All Indian conchologists will be glad 
to peruse it, for no one possesses greater knowledge of the subject, than 
the author of that work, and I trust it will be followed by other parts ; 
it carries me back to the time when I first collected for him, Henry Blan- 
ford and Ferd. Stoliczka, and the many pleasant hours passed in their 
society. I quite agree with what Mr. Blanford has written concerning 
classification in pages 184 and 185, particularly as to the importance of 
the sections ITelicarion, Macrochlamys, Ariophanta^ Euplecta, <fec. The 
rules of Nomenclature must be adhered to quite as much in Conchology as 
in other branches of Natural History. The genus Ariophanta was created 
in 1829, vide my last paper in this Journal, and therefore it takes prece- 
dence of Nanina by 5 years, and can be used exactly in the same sense as 
Nomina, which, as Mr, Blanford truly remarks, " is utterly bad, it offends 
" every law, the name had been previously used by Risso, the type is the 
"same as that of Benson's genus, Macrochlamys, and the term is objec- 
" tionable on account of its signification." I am inclined therefore to 
adopt it for all species that up to the present time are known only super* 
ficially, (1) by the shell, and (2) the animal possessing a mucous gland -at the 
extremity of the foot. Ariophanta will eventually, when the anatomy of 
ail are known, and their sub-generic value established, be retained for «4. 
favipes, and its allies. 

* J. A. S. B., Vol. XUX, Part II, p. 181. 

1882.] animal* of various Indian Lind Mollusca (Pulmonifera). 69 

Oxttes blanfordi. Theobald. Plate V, fig. 1. 
[Daxjiling] (Stol. MS. drawing. No. 47.) 

Vide Nevill's Handlist (1878) p. 48. No. 265, as Remiplecta ? 
For notes on this genus vide last paper, J. A. S. B. Vol. XL IX. 1880, 
p. 151. 

Oxttes, Koondaehsis (Juv. ?) W. Blf. Plate V, fig. 2. 

[ P Young Kunder etuis.] Stol. MS. Drawings, fig. 4. 

" Botanical Gardens, Calcutta." 

" Dull white, pinkish on neck and end of foot, small horn, sole not 
furrowed" (Stol.). 

Nanina Eoondaensis, W. Blf. J. A. S. B. (1870), p. 16, Plate III, fig 
12. from Sispara in Koonda Hills. South India. The young specimen now 
figured is referred to, as probably imported with plants from South India. 
It is said to be allied to N. indica, Pfr. and N. Shiplayi, Pfr. I would remark 
that this species measures when fully grown 25 mm. in major diam. 
The drawing which is natural size is only 12 0, and possesses 5 whorls, which 
is the same number as in adult shell. There is certainly wrong identi- 
fication here. It has more the appearance of young serrula, Bs. a Khasi 
Hill form. 

Macrochlamys tugueium, Bs. 

" Tugurium, Bs." Plate V, 6g. 4. 
[« Darjiling." (Stol).] fig. 22 of MS8. Drawings. 

In pencil by G. Nevill. " Rotula fide Stol." 

Neviirs Handlist (1878) p. 30, No. 94, as Nanina. The animal it 
described from this drawing as follows : " Tail very pointedly truncate 
with a nearly upright unusually large horn-like projection above ; body of 
an earthy brown colour." 

From the position in which this has been drawn, it would be impossible 
to see either of the shell lobes. A specimen of tugurium, from Darjiling in 
spirit given me by Mr. W. T. Blanford, proved to belong to Macrochla- 
mys. Fig. 46 of these drawings, would represent this species, for the shell 
lobes are delineated. Mr. Nevill has written over this mainwaringiana in 
pencil ; it is very different from fig. 21, also bearing this MS. title. 

Bensonia (?) mainwaeingi, G. Nevill, MS. 

Plate V, fig. 3. 
[" Darjiling, lubriea F (Stol.)] fig. 21 of the MS. Drawings. 

This is the species referred to in Nevill's Handlist, 1878, p. 49. 
No. 272, under Nanina (Bensonia ?) n. sp. with the following note : 
"Perhaps better cl^g j near &• iu 9^rium. From a drawing of Dr. 

70 H. H. Godwin-Austen — Notes on and Drawings of the [No. 4, 

" Stoliczka's the animal appears to be of a brick red colour, with a pointedly 
" truncate tail and remarkably developed nearly vertical horn above, — 20 sp. 
" Darjiling, coll. Dr. F. Stoliczka and Col. G. B. Mainwaring." In the 
MS. book of Drawings, Mr. Nevill has written in pencil, " This is not 
Macro, lubrica t is it Mainwaring i or an ally P It is a species of Rotula, 
fide Stol." 

Sub-Geuus RHYSSOTA, Albers, Die Heliam, p. 61, (1850). 

Type N. ovum, from Luzon. 

Rhtbsota confebta, Pfr. Plate V, fig. 6. 

[" Haughtoni. Andamans. Animal dark brown reddish at the pedi- 
11 cles. Mantle thick, greyish brown, freckled with white, body very rough, 
11 look like shielded P (sic) pedal row very distinct and the elongated tuber- 
" cles whitish, basal edge pale greyish brown. Tail gland distinct sur- 
" rounded by a swollen edge." (Stol.)]. Fig. 38 (uncoloured) of MSS. 

Nevill's Handlist (1878), p. 46, places it in the Sub-genus Rhy8*ota % 
which I follow until an anatomical comparison shall be made with 
JR. ovum the type of the genus by Albers. Nevill says (1. c.) " The 
"animal very closely resembles that of N. ligulata* in a less degree -flT 
" orobia the tail of which is less truncate &c., and some species of Ario- 

H. conferta, Pfr. P. Z. S. p. 828 (1S56). Hab.P type in Brit. Mus. 
Compared with Andaman specimens by Mr. Edgar Smith and myself. 

R. haughtoni, Bs. A. M. N. H. Vol. XI, p. 87, (1863). 

R. chambertinii, Tryon, Amer. J. Conch. Pfc. II, Vol. V, p. 109, PI. 
X fig 2 (1869). 

As Rhysota haughtoni by Theobald in Sup. Cat. Cone. Ind. (1876), 
p. 23. 

ElJPLECTA OBKATIS8TMA, Bs. Plate V, fig. 8. 
[Darjiling (Stol.)] Fig. 60 of MS8, Drawings. 

Placed in Sec. B of Machrochlamys by Theobald — but it haa no 
shell lobes to the mantle. It is no doubt a close ally of E. vidua, Blanford, 
described in J. A. S. B. 1880, p. 190, where he shows (taking subopaea from 
Ceylon as the type) how very similar it is in the odontophore and form of 
the animal to that species. 

To the list of species of Euplecta given on page 193, should be added 

partita, Pfr. from Ceylon, and I would add also camura, Bs. Darjiling ; 

tugurium, Bs. has I find from a spirit specimen give me by Mr. Blanford, 

shell lobes to the mantle, and will therefore come into the sub-genus 


• Vide J. A. 8. B. (1880) PI. XI, fig. S. 

1882.] animals of various Indian Land Mollusca (Pulmonifera). 71 

Euplecta ? camura. Plate V, fig. 5. 
(Not named) [" Darjiling, Stol."] fig. 49 of MSS. Drawings. 

In pencil by Nevill. " I think N. camura" 

In Nevill's Handlist, (1878) p 30, No. 95. Kanina camura, Benson. 
" Animal ashy-grey, no projecting lobe above the caudal gland ; sole doubly 
" and broadly margined. TJiis mollusk precisely resembles If. indica, to 
which it is evidently closely allied" [W. T. B.] 15, Darjiling, coll. Dr. P. 
Stoliczka and Col. G. Mainwaring. 

" 1. Darjiling 7000 ft. Dr. P. Stoliczka. 

" In a drawing which I take to be of this species there is a pointed horn- 
" like projection on the lobe above the mucous gland not so large, however, 
" as in JV. tugurium ; the tail is also more abruptly truncated." This last 
description no doubt refers to this drawing fig 49, and William Blanford's 
description from life does not at all agree as regards the horn above the 
mucous gland, and we therefore cannot be at all certain what species has 
been drawn. 

Euplecta ? cbossei, Pfr. Plate V, fig. 10. 
[No Genus, « Crostei, Singapur," Stol.] Fig. 34 of MSS. Drawings. 

Nevill's description of animal is probably taken from this drawing. 
Handlist (1878) p. 32, No. Ill, as Nanina crossei, Pfr. 

" Tail abruptly truncate, gland relatively rather small, surrounded 
" with a broad swollen margin ; it is evidently congeneric with i\T. ligu- 
" lata, the animal of which it closely resembles," 20 sp. from Sinkip Island 
ex. col. J. Wood-Mason, 20 sp. " Singapur, coll. Dr. P. Stoliczka." 

Euplecta P Plate V, fig. 7. 

[Pedina but query. Bombay (Stol).] Fig. 31 of MSS. Drawings. 

Euplecta ? Species unknown. Plate V, fig. 9. 

[Kandale, Stol.] Fig. 18 of MSS. Drawings. 

Is this Khandala, Bombay ? This carefully executed drawing repre- 
sents a very remarkable species. The very yellow colouring being character- 
istic and the mucous gland peculiar in form, there being scarcely any over- 
banging lobe. It may be related to pedina, if from the Bombay side. 


Fig 1. Oxytcs blanfordi, Theobald. 

2. Do, koondaentit, W. Blf. 

3. Rotula maintcaringi, G. Nevill MS. 

4. Macrochlamys tugurium, Benson. 

5. Euplecta camura, Benson. 

6. Rhyssota conferta, Pfr. 

7. Euplecta ? pedina. 

72 H. F. Blanford — Some further results of the sun-thermometer. [No. 4, 

8. Euplecta ornatisnma y Benson. 

9. Do. unknown. 
10. Do. crossei, Ffr. 

XII. — Some further results of sun-thermometer observations with reference 
to atmospheric absorption and the supposed variation of the solar heat. 
— By Henbt F. Blaotobd, F. R. S., Meteorological Reporter to the 
Government of India. 

[Received 28th December, 1882.] 

In 1875, I read a paper before the Society, in which I discussed the 
temperatures observed with the sun-thermometer, at eleven Indian stations, 
during the years 1868-1874, and arrived at the conclusion that the solar 
heat had undergone a rapid increase from 1868 to 1871, and a less rapid 
decline afterwards, up to 1874. 

The data were discussed according to various methods, but that on 
which I chiefly relied, as taking count of the largest amount of data, and 
being the best calculated to exclude the disturbing influence of atmospheric 
variation, was to select days on which there was either no cloud, or on 
which the cloud canopy, on the average of the 10 A. M. and 4 p. M. observa- 
tions, did not exceed one-fifth of the sky expanse ; and having taken the 
monthly averages of all the sun-thermometer readings on such days, to 
compare these averages for homonymous months at each station, in each 
pair of consecutive years. The months June, July, August and September 
were excluded from this comparison, inasmuch as, at nearly all the stations, 
the registers of which were discussed, these months are too cloudy to fur- 
nish a sufficient number of available readings. For the remaining months, 
the mean progressive variation of all the stations was taken, for each pair 
of years ; and finally, the mean of the eight months gave the adopted varia- 
tion for the consecutive years. 

In order to ensure that such comparison should be valid, the investi- 
gation was restricted to stations, at which the same instrument had been 
in use in each pair of years compared, exposed in the same way, and on 
the same site. The curve of annual variation, resulting from these data, 
coincided, in a marked manner, with the sun-spot curve ; but, in reality, 
striking as it was, this result was vitiated by errors from two sources, both 
of which tended to disturb and diminish the coincidence. One of these 
was the inclusion of the Silchar registers, which, as I afterwards discovered, 
had not been kept under similar conditions throughout ; so that those of 
all the earlier years gave too low a temperature ; and hence a marked increase 
of insolation temperature, shewn by this station in the later years, (when, 
according to the general result, that temperature was falling,) was not real. 
The other, the effect of which was however small, was an error of method : 

1882 ] H. F. Blanf ord — Some further results of the sun-thermometer. 73 

the figures discussed were the actual readings of the sun-thermometers, 
readings which notoriously depend, not only on the intensity of the sun, 
but also on the temperature of the air ; and it has been shewn by Koppen 
and others, that there is a cyclical variation of air temperature, of the 
opposite character to that disclosed in the curve, resulting from the regis- 
ters of insolation temperatures. Hence it is at least probable that, the 
deduction of the air temperatures, and the discussion of the residual excess 
of temperature due to the solar action would have resulted in a curve of 
the same type, and of still greater amplitude. 

Since this paper was published, I have attempted to carry on the 
comparison of the insolation temperatures, from year to year, by a rough 
and ready method ; but as I am now convinced, one of very precarious 
validity. In the first place, all sun-thermometers are compared before 
being issued, with a common standard, by actual exposure to the sun, side 
by side, for 30 or 40 days, and their registers are corrected for the differ- 
ences thus determined. All readings are recorded as excess temperatures 
(above those of the maximum thermometer in the shade), and in order to 
avoid the tedious process of picking out days of comparative clearness, I 
have taken simply the highest difference recorded at each station in each 
month, and the average of all these monthly maxima, as representing the 
solar intensity for the year. This method is, however, open to many objec- 
tions, which I need not here specify ; and I have therefore now reverted to 
my former method, (with one essential improvement), as the only one 
which is calculated to yield any trustworthy information, on the question 
of the supposed variation of the solar heat. 

In the present paper, which is to be regarded only as a first instalment, 
I have taken the registers of eight stations, representing a great variety of 
climates, and which fulfil the three essential conditions, that the register of 
each station is that of the same instrument throughout ; that it is exposed 
in the same manner, and also at the same place. Those of one and the 
same station are therefore as rigorously comparable in consecutive years, 
as can be ensured by the ordinary arrangements of our observations. The 
selected readings are those of days, on which the average estimated cloud 
at 10 A. M. and 4 p. m. did not exceed one-fifth of the sky expanse ; and 
the figures compared, are those of the excess temperature, shewn by de- 
ducting the self -registered maximum shade temperature, for each day, from 
the reading of the maximum black-bulb thermometer in vacuo* on the 
same day. It is unnecessary to give these first results in extenso. As an 
example of the data thus obtained for one year at a single station, I 
reproduce the following, which is a fair specimen of the whole : 

* Except in the case of Vizagapatam, where the thermometer is not enclosed in an 
exhausted tube. 

74 H. F. Rlanforil — Some further results of the sun-thermometer. [No. 4, 

Table I. — Observed difference* of shaded and exposed (blackened bulb in 
vacuo) maximum thermometers, and cloud proportion, at Allahabad 
during the year 1878 on clear days. 


e | 




' s i 


e | 






Propor- |-« 



l'ro por- 









lOh I6h 

■ .- 

10 h. 



16 h 







i 64-2 






63 1 

| 61-2 



1 52-6 



















' 61-2 







2 , 62 6 

1 . 67-6 





E 63-7 







' 58-6 





1 68-1 


1 599 


i 67-7 




•70 4 

1 ! 60-0 























1 61 5 

b o 

62 9 



; 60 8 





2 585 





60 V 7 











"b 616 







































BO 4 









G:> ':> 



















* There recmi no reason to question this reading- A little rain bad fallen the 
previous orening. 

1882.] H. F. Blanford— Some further retain of the mn-thermometor. 75 



Clond 3 j. 
Proper- g>5 

Clood J 3.1 
Proper- I &-S 



SI 4 



Peshawar, being situated in a very dry region, affords sufficient com- 
parable observations for every month of the year ; Jessore and other stations, 
within the reach of the heavy monsoon rains, do not afford a sufficient 
number of valid observations from June to September, and these months 
are accordingly excluded. Allahabad and Sirs* hold an intermediate place. 

The mean value fop each month of each year, obtained from such 
data as the above, is gj voJ i in the following Table (II) for each station 

76 H. P. Blanford— Some farther results of the sun-thermometer. [No. 4, 

Table II.— Monthly mean values of the excess of sun over shade tempera- 
tures at eight stations. 





28 2 









87 3 
23 9 


27 6 
22 3 







•- • 



29 7 


•• • 

t •• 

















• • 


• t 

26 3 






26 7 


■■ • 


•• • 














Mean] 69 60 1 58*8 






•■ • 






• • ■ 






































62 2 


56 5 






59 5 63*2 

59 7 







62 4 




68 4 

53 6 




60 4 



67 9 





60 3 








58 8 

















32 4 

32 6 
32 2 








•• • 





68 91 


64 8 


69 7 


69 9 



57 3! 


60 7 


63 6 




• •* 

• •• 

60 2 




58 8 





• • • 



• •• 

67 6 





63 7 





• •• 


59 9 






62 3 



• • 







66 3 




••• , 


• •* 




306 30 7 



55 8 

69 9 
55 4 









• •• 


• »• 





66 7 





• ■• 

• •• 




54 9 





• a a 



• •• 










• t • 

• •• 

• •■ 

• •• 


57 6 








• •- 

• •• 

• •• 

• •• 

69 3 











• •• 














57 6 


58 8 





■ t a 

• •• 

• •• 



65 7- 



57 9 





• a* 

• •• 

• at 

t aa 










• •• 

t •• 


• •» 



58-2 57 5 1 68*6 






69 6 

1 61-1 



j 606 

58 3 

60 3 








68-5 ; 69 4 


1882.] H. F. Blanford — Some further results of the sun4hertnometer. 77 

1 1877 














63-5 627 





• • ■ 


59 3 





62 2 63 6 









g J 



602 619 







59 9 

68 7 






63 2 


59 4 




58 8 

60 7 




62 4 








59 3 


59 8 

69 6 




















65 3 






57 7 

68 7 







58 9 






64 9 







47 3 










59 6 




50 5 

54 8 



55 2 





62 6 



















66 2 



53 5 


54 9 

It is evident, on a simple inspection of the above table, that the 
intensity of the insolation, on days apparently equally clear, undergoes 
a distinct annual variation. And moreover, that this rariation is not 
determined by the thickness of the atmosphere traversed by the sun's rays, 
as the sun varies in declination ; since it is different in character at 
different stations ; and at some stations, viz. Allahabad, Vizagapatam and 
Bombay, is greatest in the winter, when the sun is at or near its lowest 
altitude, and the absorbing atmospheric layer, therefore, at its thickest. 
Its character, at the several stations enumerated in Table II, is best shewn 
in Table III, which exhibits the monthly anomaly of each station, com- 
puted on the general average of the months under consideration ; i. e., 
not an annual mean, but the mean of as many monthly mean values as 
are shewn in Table II. 

Table III. — Annual variation of insolation excess temperature on clear 

(or but slightly clouded) days. 

Sironcha • • 
Bombay . • 
Hazaribagh . 
Allahabad . • 
Peshawar .. 











* ! -§ 








+ 2.2, + 1-3 
—0-2 —10 
+ 0'7 +1-7 
+ 1-4 
+ 0*3 
+ 16 


—3-6 —85 


+ 2-0 
+ 1-8 
+ 6-8+6-2 

—2 6 —1-2 
+ 0-5—0-5 
— 12 1 — 2 2— 1 

■ • • 

+ 5]— 11 
+ 2-7 +2-1 

+ 4-4 

+ 03 

+ 03 




• •• 







+ 0-2 
+ 2-8 
+ 3 4 
+ 1-5 

+ 26 
+ 31 
+ 11 
+ 0-7 

+ 28 27-9 
+ 0-2 57-3 
+ 3 43 3 
+ 0-8 55-9 
—0 656-8 
+ 1*6 58-7 
—10 60-6 
— 1-5:56-4 

78 H. F. Blanford — Some further remit* of the gun-thermometer. |No. 4, 

This table shews that, tinder a sky apparently clear, the atmosphere 
is most and least diathermanous, respectively, in the following months 
at the stations enumerated ; it being borne in mind that, except at the 
Punjatxfltations, and, in part, at Allahabad, the months of the summer 
monsoon are left out of consideration. 



April, May. 




Deer., Feby., March. 





November, December 

October, November. 





March, April. 

February, March. 

The results of the laboratory investigations of Professor Tyndall, 
as well as Mr. S. A. Hill's discussion of Mr. Hennessey's actinometrio 
observations at Mussooree, obviously suggest the vapour constituent of 
the atmosphere as the variable element on which the actinic absorption 
of the atmosphere, may be expected to depend. And, on comparing the 
above results with the monthly averages of vapour tension, humidity 
and cloud proportion, (the last being regarded as an index of the relative 
humidity of the higher atmospheric strata), this expectation is confirmed 
in the case of the two coast stations Bombay and Vizagapatam ; at least, 
with a near approximation. The results of the comparison in the case 
of these two stations are as follow : (Table IV, A). The maximum phase 
of each element is indicated by an (*) the minimum by a (f). 

Table IV. — Comparison of the annual variation of insolation tempera- 
ture on clear days with those of vapour tension, relative humidity and 
cleud proportion. 

A. — Coast stations. 




Vapour Tension .... 
Relative Humidity . . 

Insolation I 59*0 

Vapour Tension .... a 583f 

Relative Humidity . . 70f 

Cloud 1*60 











24 3 f 




















176 1 




3-23 1 










66-7f| 68 2 I 
•886* -860 
75 81* 
412 4*42* 




2 22 





1882] H. P. Blanford — Some Jwrther results of the sun-thermometer. 79 

The chief point in which the inverse variation of insolation and 
humidity, otherwise distinctly indicated, seems to fail is, that the minimum 
of the former, at both stations, occurs in April or May, while the maxi- 
mum of the latter as tested by relative humidity and cloud proportion 
falls in October ; but, as regards the absolute humidity of the lower atmos- 
phere, the coincidence holds good. And it will presently be seen that there 
is good reason why, other things being equal, the atmosphere should be 
somewhat more diathermanous after than before the beginning of the rains. 

When, however, we tnrn from the coast stations to those in the interior 
of the country, where moreover, the range of insolation temperature is 
in some cases greater, this concomitance of absolute humidity and atmos- 
pheric absorption, which holds good at maritime stations, fails more or 
less completely ; and it is evident that the latter is mainly determined by 
some cond ition of a very different nature. 

Table IV.— B. Interior. 



Jan. Feb. 

553 65*8 
•416f 470 
60 . 65t 
1-50 , 1*76 



55 * 
2 74 

Apr 'May. 

3 36 

890 • 

June. July. 


A f Insol. 1 56 6 
J Vap.Ten. -257f 
| Rel.Hum.1 51 
Ucioud |2 36 

J Vap.Ten. 
e 1 Rel Hum. 


Rel. Hum. 






" Insol. 

























. Cloud | 




8 70 

2 98 



• •• 





Nov. Deo. 

4 66 2 10 






56 2f 










•325 523 








32+, 44 






211 2 58 

2 62 [ 325 

•■ • 






54-7f 561 















•727 • 







' ... 






2 61 






60-7* 49*2 


































1-48 | 

56 6 56 2f 
346 1-266 

53 1 52 
203 ,1 92f 










•375 '249 


38 39 




H r. Insol. 
S / |Vap.Ten. 
\ J iReLHum. 
g llClond 



'62 2 




62 6* 





53 6 154-9 






746*1 573 






59 53 






2 98 |l 67 






2 08 






59 6 






80 H. F. Blanford — Some further results of the sun-thermometer [No. 4, 

A feature common to all these stations, and, at first sight, sufficiently 
remarkable, is that, at all, the month in which the maximum insolation, 
(or the least atmospheric absorption) occurs, is one characterized by a high 
proportion of cloud, indicating comparatively high humidity in certain 
of the higher atmospheric strata. In the case of Hazaribagh and Pesha- 
war, the most cloudy months of the whole year, (or as far as is shewn 
in the tables,) are also those in which the insolation is greatest ; at 
Sironcha and Sirsa, the greatest insolation occurs in the month imme- 
diately following that of most cloud ; and, both at Sirsa and Jessore, the 
average cloud proportion, at the epoch of the former, differs by only 
an insignificant amount from the maximum. At Allahabad, the maximum 
insolation temperature coincides with a secondary cloud maximum, (that 
of the winter rains). It appears, therefore, that the rule, at stations in. 
the interior of the country, is, in a measure, the reverse of that which 
we have found to hold good for the coast region ; and that a humid state 
of the cloud-forming strata of the atmosphere, as indicated by the 
cloud proportion, is coincident with more than average diathermancy. 

The association of a high degree of insolation with a highly humid 
state of the atmosphere has been prominently noticed both by the late Baron 
Hermann von Schlagintweit* and Mr. J. Park Harrison,! and each has 
suggested an explanation. That put forward by Mr. Park Harrison is 
based upon experimental results, which, as far as they go, appear to be 
perfectly valid. He finds that, when clouds are clustered about the sun, 
without obscuring it, the (probably reflected) heat, from the illuminated 
clouds, raises the equilibrium temperature of the sun thermometer, some- 
times by several degrees ; and moreover, that " the action does not appear 
to be confined to days on which there is visible cloud, for even on cloudless 
days, (so called) very high readings of solar radiation appear to be due 
to the presence of opalescent vapour," and that " an apparent increase of 
solar radiation occurs, as the sun enters a white cloud, of sufficient tenuity 
to allow free passage to its rays." Now with respect to the effect of 
visible clouds about the sun, it is very probable that many cases, which, 
may be observed in the original registers, in which the maximum insolation 
temperature exceeds by several degrees that attained on other days in the 
same month, may be due to this cause. But observation with the actino- 
meter shows that diffused amorphous cloud, which simply lowers the tint of 
the sky, making it pale and sometimes almost colourless, far from increasing 
the insolation, greatly reduces it. % And it is the frequent presence of 

• Proc. Roy. Soc. vol. XIV, p. 111. 

t Proc. Roy. Soc. vol. XV, p. 856 ; also vol. XVTI, p. 615 and Phil. Mag. 4th 
Ser. vol. 89, pp. 70 and 299. 

X Abundant evidence of this is afforded by the actinometric observations made at 
Alipore and printed by the Solar Physics Committee of the Royal Society in Appendix 
of their report. 

1882 ] H. P. Blanford— -flow* further results of the tun-thermometer. 81 

this amorphous cloud, in the driest weather, to which I would attribute, 
in part, the low average temperatures of the (as recorded) cloudless months ; 
but there is another absorptive agent, which has not been noticed by either 
of the authorities above quoted, and which is certainly much more powerful 
in dry than in damp weather, and to observers on the plains of India, 
is not easily separable from what I have above termed amorphous cloud ; 
since, when seen from below, it has, like the latter, the effect of lowering 
the tint of the sky. This is the impalpable haze, which, as a general rule, 
and always in the dry season, rests on the plains of India, extending 
frequently to heights much exceeding 7,000 feet, and sometimes extends 
over the outer Himalaya, in such density, that, at Simla in the months of 
May and June, at a height of more than 7,000 feet, the hills, four or five 
miles distant only, are sometimes almost or quite invisible. The indepen- 
dence of these two absorbing agents is only observable at considerable 
elevations, and in certain states of the atmosphere ; and the following 
observation, communicated to me by Mr. J. B. N. Henessey, MA, F. R. S., 
whose experience in actinometric work invests his observations with unusual 
importance, is therefore especially interesting. " You remark" he writes on 
" the paleness" of the sky at Calcutta. Now, last April and May, having 
coached three of my assistants to use the actinometer exactly as I do, I left 
them to do the bulk of the observing. The sky, at first, was quite blue ; and 
standing on the Mussoorie ridge, the Dehra valley with the Sivaliks beyond, 
and the plains, still further away, were all well seen. As the dry weather 
progressed, fires, as usual, appeared in the Doon, giving rise to smoke ; and 
this, aided by dust, gradually filled the valley and dimmed objects in that 
direction by means of what may be called a smoke haze. The actinometer 
however stood at 6,940 feet above the sea, while Dehra station is only 
2,200 feet. The haze lay a long way below us ; at a guess, say 3,000 feet, 
and, to all appearances, hanging over the Doon only. At the time however 
a brisk south wind blows here daily, increasing in strength as the day 
advances, so that, at first, 1 paid little attention to my assistant's remarks 
as to the rising of the smoke, until, at last, the observations began to shew 
inconsistencies, which, however, were complicated by the fact, proved in 
previous years, that actinometric maximum radiation occurs before apparent 
noon. , On watching the phenomena, I saw this. Far above me, at a guess, 
not under a mile, very thin and very light yet defined clouds were being 
driven northwards as the wind blew. I say clouds, from want of any other 
name ; they were white, not brown or yellow, as if of steam, with soft 
graceful outlines along the advancing edges, which could be seen by watch- 
ing against the blue sky. Imagine something between a mist and a cu- 
mulus, very thin and quite white. Now this steam-cloud (a mere phrase) 
was, say, a mile above, and the Bmoke i a mile below, and there was nothing 

82 H. F. Blanford — Some further results of the sun-thermometer. [No. 4, 

to show, that the former was fed by the latter. No doubt my steam-cloud 
would induce paleness of sky, an evil which you speak of as prevailing at 
Calcutta ; and it is highly probable that such steam -clouds, not by any 
means prominent, were driven over Mussoorie for days and days in the dry 
weather at least. What were they composed of P not smoke and not dust 
as far as I could judge. 

" As to the haze, to all appearances, dust haze, being visible between 
showers, as you mention, we have noticed that here too. I have water 
barrels at the corners of our house ; they are fed exclusively by iron pipes 
from a clean iron roof. After a few showers had fallen, I had the barrels 
well cleaned in my presence ; the water was clear. Subsequently a heavy 
fall of rain occurred, I examined the barrels, expecting the water to be 
quite clear j instead, the water was charged with yellow clay ; and yet, 
after the first showers, I should have thought that the air was too saturated 
with moisture, not to arrest dust a long way below 7,000 feet. 

" Again last year, in the dry weather, I was watching day after day for 
actinometric weather ; the hills were obscured or dimmed by haze, obviously 
dust haze. I can see the Chor where I write ; between that mountain and 
this, the dust haze was quite plain ; suddenly there was a change in the haze 
about 2 p. m one day, it was a sheet ; it began to roll about in waves and 
I may say visibly changed into clouds of vapour, which rose like ordinary 
clouds, leaving me a clear view of the Chor, &c, looking quite blue. Note 
there was no rain" 

It results from what has been said above, that (excepting on the coast) 
up to a certain point, which cannot be strictly defined, a humid condition 
of the atmosphere tends to increase the readings of the sun -thermometer 
and the actinometer ; indirectly by reducing the (dust P) haze which in 
dry weather forms a absorbing stratum of many thousands of feet in thick- 
ness, and directly by causing the formation of cloud masses which when 
clustering round the sun, reflect the solar rays and add the effect of 
the reflected to the direct radiation. On the other hand the amorphous 
cloud which exists at great elevations in dry weather and especially in the 
winter and spring months, and is generally only appreciable by its lowering 
and blanching the sky tint, is also a potent absorber. The sheets of Pallio- 
cirrus and pallio-cumulus which are result of a highly humid condition, 
and are especially the. clouds of the rainy season, are of course the most 
impervious of all solar screens. 

Since then, the athermancy of the atmosphere is enhanced by such 
opposite conditions of dryness and humidity, and, at present, we have no such 
records of these conditions as might enable us to frame a law of numerical 
concomitance, and thus apply an empirical correction to our actinometric 
results, it might seem almost hopeless to seek for evidence of any variation 

1S82 J H. P. Blanford — Some further results of the sun-thermometer 88 


of the intensity of the solar radiation, in the registers of insolation tern* 
peratures, or even those of actinometrie observations on the plains of India ; 
but this I think would be a hasty conclusion. The effect of cloud reflection 
may be pretty well eliminated by careful selection, and even although 
the effect of the solar variation (supposing such to exist) may be small 
in comparison with those effects which depend immediately on atmos- 
pheric absorption, since in comparing the registers of different years, 
the former must affect all stations simultaneously and similarly, whereas 
the latter vary indefinitely at different stations, it may yet be possible by 
taking the mean result of a large number of stations in different parts of 
the country, to eliminate such atmospheric effects, as continue to manifest 
themselves prominently in the individual registers, after taking such 
obvious precautions as have been specified above; and I am the more encour- 
aged to entertain this view, by the very striking coincidence between inso- 
lation and sun-spot frequency which resulted from my former investigation. 
And the results of the present attempt, though less striking than the former 
investigation had led me to anticipate, are, still, not such as to discourage 
further enquiry in this field. They must however be regarded, at present, 
as provisional only ; and, indeed, the number of stations here considered ia 
too small to admit of any other estimate of their validity. 

Table V. — Progressive differences of insolation temperatures on dear 

days from the monthly means of Table II. 







viiiy«.. •■• •%•«•« •••••• 

August • 






JuLeans ••> ... «•• 








+ 0-3 

— 0-8 

— 0'2 

— 2 3 
+ 4-3 



+ 12-7 
+ 88 
+ 5-4 
+ 28 
+ 201 









2 41 

— 4-9 

— 47 

— 13 
+ 103 
+ 16 
+ O'l 







—220 8 
— l'4l ... 







— 8-3 

— 77 

— 6-6 

— 6-9 

— 8*5 

— 1'4 
+ 22 
+ 79 
-106*3 59 

— 1-5 





— 48 
+ 6-6 
+ 4-1 

— 21 






— 49 

— 48 

— 0-8 






— 9-6 

— 1-9 







— 78153 

— 0*1 


— 0-7 

— 93 
+ 11-6 
+ 61 

— 9-4 

— 0-8 

— 1*4 

— 63 

— 37 

— 58 

— 0-2 


84 H. F. Blanford — Some f wilier results of the sun-thermometer. 

The data, being those given in Table II, have been summarized in the 
above Table to shew the mean variation, from year to year, in the following 
manner. The differences of the corresponding months, in each pair of 
consecutive years, being first taken out and tabulated, the sums of these 
differences in the same pair of months and years is computed from as many 
stations as are represented. These monthly sums and the number of stations 
yielding them, in each case, are shewn in the table, and the annual sums 
and means of the whole given at foot. 

If the first pair of years be rejected as furnishing insufficient data, the 
table would seem to shew a continuous fall oE solar intensity ; rapid from 
1876 to 1879, and subsequently only just appreciable. As is well-known, 
the sun-spot minimum occurred in the 1st quarter of 1879, so that it can- 
not be said that the present table shews a decided concomitance of the 
solar intensity and sun-spot frequency such as resulted from the former 
discussion. At the same time, if not conclusively favourable, still less is 
it conclusively adverse to the former conclusion, and the enquiry appears 
to be well worth following up with such further evidence as the Indian 
registers may yield. This I propose to do. 


Names of new genera and species have an asterisk (*) prefixed. 

Abisara bifasciata, 16 

„ fyHa, 61 
Acrcea vesta, 57 
Acroinse, ib. 
Acrophaedusa, 6, 11 
Adolius, 60 
Agamidse, 60, 54 
Alcea, 49 

Amblypodia ganesa, 68 
» „ paraganesa, ib. 

Amorphoscelidffi, 21 
Amorphoscelis annulicornis, ib. 
Anadebis himachala, 55 
Apatura, 60 

, f bolina, tf. 
„ namouna, ib. 
Aphneus lohita, 63 
„ syama, ib. 
Appias hippo, 64 
Argynnifl (Acidalia) niphe, 57. 
Arhopala, 63 
Ariophanta, 68, 70 

„ lsevipes, 68 

Astictopterus diocles, 65 
Athyma bahnla, 59 
cama, ib. 
chevana, ib. 
inara, ib. 
leucothoe, ib. 
mahesa, ib. 
selenophora, ib. 
ceroca, ib. 
Atella alcippe, 16 
A"* 1 *" maculatns, 48 

„ porcinus, 44, 49 
Balea, 1 
Baoris oceia, 65 
•Bensonia mainwaringi, 69, 70 
Brachysaura, 50, 61, 63 
„ ornata, ib. 

Calotes , 60, 52, 63 

„ versicolor, 50 
Calotropifl, 53 




Camena ctesia, 63 
Canis, 53 
Gapreolus, 48 

„ caprea, ib, 

Gastalius decidia, 62 
„ manluena, 17 
„ rosimon, 62 
Catochrysops pandava, ib. 

„ strabo, ib. 

Gatophaga indra, 64 
Gatopsilia catilla, 63 
„ crocale, 18, 63 
„ pyranthe, 63 
CervidsB, 45 
Gervulus, 46 
' Cervus alfredi, 45 
axis, ib. 

canadensis, 44, 47 
dama, 45 
dicranios, 45, 47 
duvaucelli, 45 
eldi, ib. 
elephas, 47, 48 
platyceros, 49 
porcinus, 45 
schomburgki, ib. 
Cethosia biblis, 57 
„ cyane, ib. 
„ nikobarica, 16 
Choaspes amara, 65 
„ benjamini, ib. 
„ harisa, 64 
•Choeradodifl brunneri, 21 

rhombicollis, ib» 
servillei, ib. 
„ strumaria, 22 

Gheritra acte, 63 
Girrhochroa aoris, 57 
„ mithila, ib. 
„ nicobarica, 16, 20 
Clausilia, 1, 2, 3, 7 
aculus, 2 
eethiops, 7, 13 








andersoniana, 12, 13 



aracana, 11 



aptychia, 10, 13 


aurantiaca, 7, 8 



„ Tar. minor, 9 


bilabratra, tb. 



caryostoma, 6, 13 


cornea, 6, 11 


cylindrica, 5 


digonoptyx, 2, 8. 


„ vor. minor, 2 


ducalis, 5 


fusangensis, 8, 13 



graciUspira, 6, 13 



hickonis, 7 



hungerfordiana, 2, 13 


hyperolia, 7, 9, 10 


insignia, 12 


japonica, 3, 4 


javana, 11 


junghuhni, 6, 11 


kobensis, 3, 4 



„ yar. pallens, 4 



micropeas, 12 


monticola, 11 



nevilliana, 11, 13 


hilgendorfi, 8 


nipponensis, 3, 4 



oostoma, 4, 13 


platydera, 8 


„ yar. elongata, ib. 


„ „ lambda, ib. 


pluviatilis, 7 


proba, 2, 3 



rectaluna, 9, 10, 13 



sericina, 6, 7, 13 


shanghaiensis, 2 


subgibbera, 7 



subulina, 13 


tan, 2 



tetraptyx, 7, 13 


valida, 8 


Yaliduscula, 7 


vasta, 4 


wtillerstorffi, 11,18 


yokohamensis, 4 

Clausilise, 1, 6, 12 
Coassus, 46 

„ rufua, 46, 47 
Coleoptera, 54 
Corvus, 53 
Ouretis bulis, 61 

„ thetys, 17 
Cyaniris puspa, 61 
Cylindrophaedusa, 5, 18 
Cynthia erota, 67 
Cyrestis risa, 58 

„ thyodamas, ib. 
Dama, 49 
Danainee, 14 
Danais aglaioidet, 16 





Danaifl (Parantica) aglea, 55 
chryeippufl, 15 
(SalaturaamZLimnas} chrysippufl, 

genutia, 15 
(Salatura) genutia, 55 
hegesippus, 15 
limniace, 14, 55 
(Caduga) melaneus, 65 
plexippus, 20, 65 

iTirumala) septentrionis, 55 
Caduga) tytia, ib. 
Delias agostina, 64 
„ pasithoe, ib, 
„ thysbe, ib. 
Dercas verhuellii, ib. 
Deudoriz orseis, 18 

„ petosiris, 62 
Dichoiragia nesimachus, 60 
Didymocorypha, 24 

- „ ensifera, ib. 

Discophora celinde, 57 

„ tullia, ib. 

Diurnal Lepidoptera from Hicobar Is- 
lands, 14 
Dodona ouida, 61 
Doleschallia bisaltide, 58 
Dyctis patna, 56 

„ vasudeva, 57 
Dysanles longicoUis, 25 

„ „ yar. breyipennis, ib. 

Elaphinae, 46 

Elaphurus davidianus, 46, 48 
Elaphus, 48 
Elymnias, 20 

„ leucocyma, 56 
„ mimus, 16, 20 
„ nndularifl, 66 
ElymninaB, ib. 
Episcopus chalybeus, 24 
Eremophila arabica, 22 
EremophilidaB, 21 
Ergolis ariadne, 58 
Eronia avatar, 64 
Erycinidaa, 16 
Euchomena, 27 
Eulepis athamas, 61 
Euphaedusa, 2 
Euplecta, 68, 70, 71 

camura, 70, 71 
crossei, 71, 72 
ornatissima, 70, 72 
partita, 70 
pedina, 71 
subopaca, 70 
„ vidua, ib. 

Euploea, 20, 42 

camorta, 16 
castelnaui, ib. 
core, 65 
deione, 42 








Enploea esperi, 15 

grotei, 48 

hopei, 42 

(stictoploaa) hopei, 55 

limborgi, 43 

(Trepeichroie) midamus, 65 

norarsB, 15 

pheebus, 20 

(Salpinx) rogenhoferi, 65 
„ rhadamanthna, xb. 


simulatrix, 15, 20 
Euchomena thoracica, 27 
Euripua cinnamomeus, 68 

„ halitherses, ib. 
Euthalia apiades, 60 

garuda, 69 

lubentina, ib, 

sananda, 60 
„ kesava, ib. 
Everes parrhasius, 62 
Felis, 53 

Fischeria thoracica, 27 
•Gonypeta authffimon, 26 
Gordius, 32 
Halpe homolea, 65 

„ zema, ib* 
Haridra polyxena, 61 
Haaoia badra, 65 
Hebomoia glaucippe, 64 
Helicarion, 68 
HelicidsB, ib. 
Helix chambertinii, 70 
„ conferta, ib. 
„ haughtoni, ib, 
HemiphsBdusa, 6, 6, 7, 18 
Hemiplecta, 69 
Herpestes, 53 
Heaperia agna, 19, 20 

chaya, 65 

colaca, 19 

eltola, 66 

mathiafl, 20 
„ eeiramora, 66 
Hesperiidae, 18, 64 
Hesperilla luteiaquama, 65 
Hestina nama, 58 

„ persimilifl, ib. 
Hierodula, 32 

* „ (Sphodromantis) arabica, 29 

* „ (Rhombodera) atricoxis, var. 
grandia, 31 

(Rhombodera) basalia, 32 
(Sphodromantaa) bicarinata, 28 
bioculata, 29 
dentifrons, 28 
(Rhombodera) flava, 81 

„ macropda, 81 

* (Sphodromantifl) muta, 30 
(Sphodropoda) quinquedena,28 
aimulacruin, 80 









•Hierodula aternostiota, 81 
trimacula, 29, 80 
vitrea, 31 
gastrica, 28 
Hipparchia, 67 

briaeia, 88 
digna, 67 
„ ahandura, 38, 48 

Hog-deer, 44, 45 
Horaga ciniata, 62 
Hypolimnaa bolina, 16 

„ miaippua, 16, 20 

Hypolycrena erylua, 63 
etolus, id. 
othona, ib. 
thecloides, 17, 20 
Huphina nadina, 64 
„ neri&sa, ib. 
Idolomorpha capensia, 29 
Uerda androclea, 62 
„ brahma, ib, 
„ epiclea, ib. 
Indian region, Rhopalooeroua Lepidop* 

terafrom, 37 
lolaue anyaia, 63 
Iria oratoria, 32 





orientalia, ib. 

Ismene, 65 

„ exclamationifl, 19 

„ malayana, ib. 
Iaoteinon cephala, 65 
Ixias evippe, 64 
Jamides bochua, 62 
Japan, clansiliaa from, 1, 12, 13 
Jolua, 54 
Junonia, 67 

„ aaterie, ib, 

n >y var- nikobarienaia, 16 

„ laomedia, 16, 67 
„ lemoniaa, 57 
Lampidea, 62 

aelianus, 17, 62 

ardatea, 17 

elpia, 62 

cnejua, 17 

kandarpa, 62 

kankena, 17 

kinkurka, ib. 

kondulana, ib. 

macrophthalma, ib. 

malaya, 62 

pandaya, 17 

parrhaaiua, ib. 

plato, Tar. nicobaricua, ib, 

plumbeomicana, var. nioobari« 

cua, ib. 
pnapa, 61 
rosimon, 17 
„ strabo, ib. 
Lebadea iamene, 58 
Lemoniidffi, 61 



















Lepidoptera, 14 

Lepidoptera Rhopalocera, 56, 67 
Lethe chandica, 66 
europa, ib. 
kansa, ib. 
mekara, ib. 
rohria, ib. 
sidonis, ib. 
; , ^Tansima) verma, ib. 
Iimenitifl daraxa, 68 
,, procris, ib. 
Loxura atymnus, 63 
Lycssnesthes bengalensis, 62 * 

„ lycsenina, ib. 

Lycasnidffi, 17, 61, 63 
Macrochlamys, 68, 69, 70 

„ lubrica, 69, 70 

„ tugurium 69, 70, 71 

Mancipium oanidia, 64 
Mantidee, 26 
Mantis, 82 

basalia, ib. 
callifera, ib. 
flava, 31 
heteroptera, 27 
kersteni, 28 
macropsis, $1 
pia, 32 
6-dens, 28 
simulacrum, 30 
„ thoracica, 27 
Mantodea, 21 
Megaceros, 49 

„ hibernicus, 48 

Megalophsedusa, 4, 6 
Melanargia, 38 

clotho, ib. 
galathea, ib. 
lachesis, ib. 
„ psyche, ib. 

Melanitis ismene, 16, 66 
„ leda, 66 
„ ritenius, ib. 
Mesopteryx, 34 

„ alata, ib. 

„ platycephala, 84, 86 

► „ robusta, 86 

Milvus, 68 
Morphinae, 67 

Mycalesis (Yirapa) anaTiafl, 66 
drusia, 16 
(Qareris) gopa, 65 
(Samanta) malsara, 56 
medus, 16 
(Loesa) oroatis, 38 
(Calysisme) persons, 66 

„ „ Tar. visala, 

(OrsotriflBiia) runeka, ib, 
surkha, 87, 43 
visala, 66 










Hyrina atymnus, 18 
Nacaduba ardatee, 62 

„ macrophthalma, ib. 
Naja, 63 
Nanina, 68, 69 

(Bensonia), 69 
camura, 71 
crossei, ib. 
haughtoni, 70 
indica, 69, 71 
koondaensis, 69 
ligulata, 70, 71 
mainwaringiana, 69 
orobia, 70 
ovum, ib. 
serrula, 69 
shipleyi, ib. 
„ tugurium, 69, 71 
NemeobiinsB, 61 
Neope bhadra, 66 
Nepheronia avatar, 64 
Neptis amba, 58, 69 
aceris, 68 
cartica, 59 
columella, ib. 
emodes, 68 
hordonia, ib } 
mananda, 16 
matuta, ib. 
miab, 68 
nandina, 59 
nicobarica, 16 
radha, 68 
soma, 59 
susruta, ib. 
varmona, 68 
yikasi, 69 
viraja, 68 
Nicobars, clansilia from, 11 
Nilasera centaurus, 63 

„ eumolphus, ib. 
Niphanda tessellata, 61 
Nieionades salsala, 66 
Nychitona xiphia, 63 
Nymphalidee, 14, 65 
NymphalinsB, 16, 67 
Nymphalis, 61 
Oxyophthalma chalybea, 24 
Oxytes blanfordi, 69, 71 
„ koondaensis, ib. ib. 
„ koondaensis, 69 
Padraona dara, 65 
„ gola, ib. 
Famphila augias, ib, 
„ gola, ib. 
„ msssa, ib. 
Panolia eldi, 47, 49 
Papilio, 42 

agamemnon, 18 
(Zetides) agamemnon, 64 
amajena, ib. 

















Papilio (Iliades) androgens, 64 

(Menelaides) aristolochiss, ib. 

aristolochiaB, var. camorta, 18 

astorion, 64 

clara, 42, 43 

(Byasa) dasarada, 64 

(Orpheides) erithoniuu, ib. 

(Charus) helenus, ib, 
„ hewitsonii, 42 
„ hippo, 18 

papone, 43 

(Achillides) pans, 64 
Byasa) philoxenus, ib. 
(Laertdas) polytes, ib, 
polytes, var. nikobarus, 18, 20 
(Ornithoptera) pompous, 64 
(Dalchina) sarpedon, ib, 
„ elateri, 42 
Papilionidaa, 18, 63 
Papilionina?, 18, 64 
Pareba vesta, 67 
♦Parnara assamensis, 65 

„ colaca, ib. 
Phaedusa, 1, 2, 6, 6, 11, 12 
Phasmomantis thoracica, 27 
PierinsB, 18, 63 

„ coronis, var. lichenosa, 18 
„ nadina, 64 
Pithecops dharma, 61 
„ hylax, ib. 
„ zalmora, ib. 
Pleeioneura alysos, 65 

„ sumitra, ib. 

Poliornifl, 53 

Folyommatus bastions, 62 
ellisi, 41, 48 
karsandra, 17 
„ sangra, 17, 62 

*Pdyspilota insignia, 83 
Pontda xiphia, 63 
Precis iphita, 57 
„ veda, 58 
Prioneris thestylis, 64 
Procervulus, 47 
Psammophis condanurus, 51 
Pseudaxis, 45 
Pseudergolis wedah, 67 
Pseudodipsas, 62 
Pseudonenia, 11, 12 
Pterygospidea, 66 
Ptyas, 53 
Polmonifera, 68 
Pyrameis cardui, 16 
„ indica, 57 
Pyrogocotis gracilipes, 24 
Fjrrgomantis, ib. 

Badena similis, var. nicobarica, 14, 20 
Bahinda hordonia, 53 
Bhopalooera, 14 
Bhyssota, 70 


Bhyssota conferta, 70, 71 
,, haughtoni 70 
„ ovum, ib. 
Bohana, 60 

„ parysatis, ib. 
Botula, 69, 70 

„ mainwaringi, 71 
Bucervus, 47 

„ duvaucelli, 47, 49 
„ schomburgki, 49 
Busa, 45 

„ aristotelis, 49 
Busins, 45 

Sarangesa dasahara, 65 
Satarupa bhagava, 66 
Satyrince, 16 1 55 
Sauropsida, 50 
Schizocephala bicornis, 24 
„ chalybea, ib, 

Sephisa chandra, 60 

„ dichroa, ib 
Sikkim, Butterflies from, 54 
Sitana, 61, 53 

„ minor, 60, 51, 53 
Sithon kamorta, 17, 20 

„ sugriva, var. areoa, ib. ib. 
Bpalgis epius, 61 
Sphodromantis, 32 
Bpbodropoda, ib. 
Stereophaedusa, 3, 6 
Stibochiona nicea, 58 
Suastus eltola, 65 
„ toona, ib. 
Surendra quercetorum, 63 
Symbrenthia cotanda, 57 
„ hippoclus, ib. 

„ hypselis, ib. 

„ niphanda, ib. 

Tachyria hippo, var. hippoides, 18 
,, panda, 18, 20 
„ paulina, var. galathea, 18 
Tagiades gana, 65 
„ dasahara, ib. 
„ helferi, 18 
. „ menaka, 66 

„ ravi, 19 
Tanaecia cibaritis, 16 
•Tarachodes dissimulator, 23 
* „ insidiator, 22 

Telegonus thrax, 65 
Telicota bambussB, ib. 
Tenasserim, clausilia from, 12 
Tenodera platycephala, 34 
Terias drona, 18 
harina, 63 
hecabe, 18, 63 
„ nikobariensis, 18 
Thanaos stigmata, 66 
Thaumantis diores, 67 
„ louisa, 40 

Udaspes folus, 65 




TTromafltix, 68 

Valletta caschmirenms, 67 

,, charonia, ib. 
VaranuB, 63 
Virachola perse, 62 
Wapiti, 47, 48 
Tpthima nareda, 56 

philomela, ib, 
sakra, ib. 


Zemerofl flegyu, 61 
Zeuxidia, 89 

„ amethyvtng, 89, 40 
,, masoni, 39 
Zipaetia scylax, 56 
Zizera maha, 61 

„ aangra, 62 
Zizyphus, 53 
•Zophoesea dura, 38, 48 

0. F. Ton HOELLUDGOT, Jvm. i*. 8oc feagil, YoL II, Pt II, 1B82. K. I. 



J. WOOD-MASOH KICEYILLE, Journ. Aa. Soc. Bengal, Tol, LI, Ft. IT, 1682. 

GKI-MARSHAU.JoL.m.AB.Soe.B«na«lV.:,l U PtL' ISbS. 


' *! rf-fifS SUn K H.^. -. a.HIHHARCHJA SHANDU 

'aL ,t- P .' S i;A r, URA . c - '.■-POIYONIMATUS KUL1